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NCI Drug Dictionary

NCI Drug Dictionary

  

N-methylformamide  
A water-soluble organic solvent. As an adjuvant antineoplastic agent, N-methylformamide depletes cellular glutathione, a key molecule involved in the antioxidation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other free radicals, thereby enhancing ionizing radiation-induced DNA cross-linking in and terminal differentiation of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

NA-17/MAGE-3.A2/NY-ESO-1 peptide vaccine  
A peptide cancer vaccine consisting of peptides derived from the melanoma antigen NA-17, the human leukocyte antigen HLA-A2-restricted human melanoma antigen 3 (MAGE-3.A2) and the cancer-testis antigen (NY-ESO-1), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the NA-17/MAGE-3.A2/NY-ESO-1 peptide vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing NA-17, MAGE-3.A2 and NY-ESO-1, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) NA-17, MAGE-3.A2 and NY-ESO-1 are overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

NA17-A antigen  
A specific melanoma antigen protein derived from a patient (NA17) with cutaneous melanoma metastases. When administered in a vaccine formulation, NA17-A antigen may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumors that express this antigen, which may result in a reduction in tumor size. The NA17-A antigen is part of the enzyme N-acetyl glucosaminyl-transferase V (GnT-V). Approximately half of melanomas have been found to express significant levels of this atypical protein, which is not expressed by normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

NA17.A2 peptide vaccine  
A peptide cancer vaccine comprised of human leukocyte antigen HLA-A2-restricted peptide derived from a metastatic melanoma cell line of patient NA17, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activity. NA17.A2 peptide vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumors that express this antigen, which may result in a reduction in tumor size. This NA17 specific antigen, encoded by an intron sequence of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GnT-V) gene, is expressed in about 50% of melanomas. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nabilone  
A synthetic cannabinoid and dibenzopyrane derivative with anti-emetic activity. Although the mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated yet, it has been suggested that nabilone is a highly selective and strong agonist for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, both of which are coupled to Gi/o proteins. The CB1 receptors are expressed predominantly in central and peripheral neurons and receptor stimulation has been implicated in the reduction of chemotherapy-induced nausea. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nabiximols  
An herbal preparation containing a defined quantity of specific cannabinoids formulated for oromucosal spray administration with potential analgesic activity. Nabiximols contains a standardized extract of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), other minor cannabinoids, flavonoids, and terpenes from two cannabis plant varieties. Cannabinoids interact with G protein-coupled cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors in the central nervous system, resulting in analgesic, euphoric, and anticonvulsive effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nadolol  
A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic activities. Nadolol competitively blocks beta-1 adrenergic receptors located in the heart and vascular smooth muscle, inhibiting the activities of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine and producing negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. This agent exhibits antiarrhythmic activity via the impairment of atrioventricular (AV) node conduction and a corresponding reduction in sinus rate. In the kidney, inhibition of the beta-2 receptor within the juxtaglomerular apparatus results in the inhibition of renin production and a subsequent reduction in angiotensin II and aldosterone levels, thus inhibiting angiotensin II-dependent vasoconstriction and aldosterone-dependent water retention. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nadroparin calcium  
A low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sulfated polysaccharide glycosaminoglycan chains obtained by depolymerisation of porcine mucosal sodium heparin, extraction/purification and conversion to the calcium salt. Nadroparin binds to antithrombin III (ATIII) and inhibits the activity of activated factor X (factor Xa), thereby inhibiting the final common pathway of the coagulation cascade and preventing the formation of a cross-linked fibrin clot. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

NAE inhibitor MLN4924  
A small molecule inhibitor of Nedd8 activating enzyme (NAE) with potential antineoplastic activity. NAE inhibitor MLN4924 binds to and inhibits NAE, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and survival. NAE activates Nedd8 (Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8), an ubiquitin-like (UBL) protein that modifies cellular targets in a pathway that is parallel to but distinct from the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP). Functioning in diverse regulatory activities, proteins conjugated to UBLs like Nedd8 typically are not targeted for proteasomal degradation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nafoxidine hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of the partial estrogen antagonist nafoxidine. Nafoxidine competes with endogenous estrogen for binding to specific estrogen receptors. This agent also inhibits angiogenesis in some tissues by blocking the effects of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); paradoxically, it may enhance angiogenesis in uterine tissue. Nafoxidine also induces oxidative stress, protein kinase C and calcium signaling. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

naloxone hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of naloxone, a thebaine derivate with opioid antagonist activity. Naloxone binds to opioid receptors in the CNS in a competitive manner, reversing or inhibiting characteristic opioid effects, including analgesia, euphoria, sedation, respiratory depression, miosis, bradycardia, and physical dependence. This agent binds to mu-opioid receptors with a high affinity, and a lesser degree to kappa- and gamma-opioid receptors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

naltrexone hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of naltrexone, a noroxymorphone derivative with competitive opioid antagonistic activity. Naltrexone and its metabolite 6-beta-naltrexol reverse the effects of opioids by binding to various opioid receptors in the central nervous system CNS), including the mu-, kappa- and gamma-opioid receptors; opioid effects of analgesia, euphoria, sedation, respiratory depression, miosis, bradycardia, and physical dependence are inhibited. Naltrexone is longer-acting and more potent compared to naloxone. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Namenda  
(Other name for: memantine hydrochloride)

nandrolone decanoate  
The decanoate salt form of nandrolone, an anabolic steroid analog of testosterone with androgenic, anabolic, and erythropoietin stimulating effects. Nandrolone enters the cell and binds to and activates specific nuclear androgen receptors in responsive tissue, including the prostate, seminal vesicles, scrotum, penis, larynx, hair follicles, muscle, and bone. The resulting activated hormone receptor complex translocates into the nucleus and binds to androgen response elements (ARE) in the promoter region of targeted genes, where the complex promotes gene expression necessary for maintaining male sex characteristics. Mimicking the negative feedback mechanism of testosterone, nandrolone decanoate also suppresses the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH). Furthermore, this agent also stimulates erythropoietin production by enhancing the production of erythropoietic stimulating factors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nanoparticle albumin-bound docetaxel ABI-008  
A nanoparticle albumin-bound formulation of the taxane docetaxel with antineoplastic activity. Docetaxel is a semi-synthetic, second-generation taxane derived from a compound found in the European yew tree Taxus baccata. Docetaxel binds to and stabilizes tubulin, thereby inhibiting microtubule disassembly which results in cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and cell death. This agent also inhibits pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and displays immunomodulatory and pro-inflammatory properties by inducing various mediators of the inflammatory response. In nanoparticle albumin-bound docetaxel ABI-008 docetaxel is solubilized without the use of the nonionic solubilizer Cremophor ELP, permitting the administration of larger doses of docetaxel while avoiding Cremophor ELP-associated toxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nanoparticle albumin-bound rapamycin  
The macrolide antibiotic rapamycin bound to nanoparticle albumin with immunosuppressant (see sirolimus) and potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Rapamycin binds to the immunophilin FK Binding Protein-12 (FKBP-12) to generate a complex that binds to and inhibits the activation of the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR), a key regulatory kinase. In turn, inhibition of mTOR may result in the inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI-3) kinase/Akt pathway and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) secretion, which may result in decreased tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. The binding of water-insoluble rapamycin to nanoparticle albumin permits the albumin-mediated endocytosis of rapamycin by tumor cells and endothelial cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nanoparticle-encapsulated doxorubicin hydrochloride  
A formulation of nanoparticles encapsulating the hydrochloride salt form of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin, with potential antitumor activity. Upon intravenous administration, doxorubicin intercalates DNA, interferes with the activity of topoisomerase II, and causes DNA adducts and other DNA damage, resulting in tumor cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. This agent also interacts with cell membrane lipids causing lipid peroxidation. Delivery of doxorubicin in nanoparticles may improve drug penetration into tumors and may circumvent the tumor cells' multidrug resistance mechanisms and may therefore be effective in chemoresistant tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nanosomal docetaxel lipid suspension  
A lipid-based nanosomal formulation of the poorly soluble, semi-synthetic, second-generation taxane docetaxel, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous injection, docetaxel binds to and stabilizes tubulin, which inhibits microtubule disassembly and results in both cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and cell death. This liposomal formulation solubilizes docetaxel without the use of toxic solvents, such as polysorbate 80. This permits the administration of larger doses of docetaxel and improves the drug’s safety profile by avoiding solvent-associated toxicities, such as hypersensitivity reactions and neurotoxicity. In addition, the nanosomal lipid-based delivery of docetaxel improves drug penetration into tumors and decreases drug clearance, all of which prolong the duration of docetaxel’s therapeutic effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

naphthalimide analogue UNBS5162  
An amonafide (naphthalimide) derivative and pan-antagonist of chemokine ligand (CXCL) expression, with potential anti-angiogenic activity. Although UNBS5162 is a derivative of amonafide, this agent appears to have a different profile than that of amonafide and its exact mechanism of action remains to be fully elucidated. This agent seems to decrease the expression of various proangiogenic CXCL chemokines in vitro and may have synergistic effects with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. CXCLs are small cytokines in the CXC chemokine family that are overexpressed in certain cancers; CXCL-mediated signaling plays a key role in angiogenesis and tumor progression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Naprosyn  
(Other name for: naproxen)

naproxen  
A propionic acid derivative and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activities. Naproxen inhibits the activity of the enzymes cyclo-oxygenase I and II, resulting in a decreased formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The resulting decrease in prostaglandin synthesis is responsible for the therapeutic effects of naproxen. Naproxen also causes a decrease in the formation of thromboxane A2 synthesis, by thromboxane synthase, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Narcan  
(Other name for: naloxone hydrochloride)

Nardil  
(Other name for: phenelzine sulfate)

narnatumab  
A monoclonal antibody against RON (recepteur d'origine nantais; macrophage stimulating 1 receptor), with potential antineoplastic activity. Narnatumab binds to RON, thereby preventing binding of its ligand hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (HGFL or macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP)). This may prevent RON receptor-mediated signaling and may prevent cellular proliferation in tumor cells overexpressing RON. RON, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed in a variety of epithelial cancer cell types and plays an important role in cellular proliferation, migration and invasion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Naropin  
(Other name for: ropivacaine hydrochloride)

Nasacort  
(Other name for: triamcinolone acetonide)

Nasalfent  
(Other name for: fentanyl citrate pectin-based nasal spray)

natalizumab  
A humanized recombinant IgG4 monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha4 subunit of the integrins alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 with immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, and potential antineoplastic activities. Natalizumab binds to the apha4-subunit of alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 integrins expressed on the surface of all leukocytes except neutrophils, inhibiting the alpha4-mediated adhesion of leukocytes to counter-receptor(s) such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1); natalizumab –mediated disruption of VCAM-1 binding by these integrins may prevent the transmigration of leukocytes across the endothelium into inflamed parenchymal tissue. Integrins are cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) that are upregulated in various types of cancer and some autoimmune diseases; alpha4beta1 integrin (VLA4) has been implicated in the survival of myeloma cells, possibly by mediating their adhesion to stromal cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Natrecor  
(Other name for: nesiritide)

natural human interferon alpha OPC-18  
A proprietary preparation of natural human interferon alpha (IFN alpha) with potential immunomodulatory and antineoplastic activities. Natural human interferon alpha OPC-18 binds to cell-surface IFN alpha receptors (IFNARs), resulting in the transcription and translation of genes whose products mediate antiviral, antiproliferative, and immune-modulating effects. IFN alpha is a type I interferon produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells when exposed to live or inactivated virus, double-stranded RNA, or bacterial products and is the primary interferon produced by virus-induced leukocyte cultures. In addition to its pronounced antiviral activity, it activates NK cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

natural killer cells ZRx101  
A population of activated, immortalized, interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent, cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells with potential antitumor activity. Natural killer cells ZRx101 are derived from NK-92 cells, having been modified to target tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) upregulated in certain types of cancer. The NK-92 cell line was originally isolated from a patient with large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia/lymphoma. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Navelbine  
(Other name for: vinorelbine tartrate)

navitoclax  
An orally bioavailable, synthetic small-molecule antagonist of a subset of the B-cell leukemia 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins with potential antineoplastic activity. BcI-2 family protein inhibitor ABT-263 selectively binds to apoptosis suppressor proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w and prevents their binding to the apoptotic effectors Bax and Bak proteins, which may trigger apoptosis in tumor cells overexpressing Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w. Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w are frequently overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers, including those of the lymphatic system, breast, lung, prostate, and colon, and have been linked to tumor drug resistance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

navy bean powder  
The powder form of the cooked navy bean with potential antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. Navy beans are rich in fiber, minerals, vitamins, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids and phytosterols. They appear to prevent carcinogenesis by inducing tumor cell apoptosis. Intake of navy bean powder may have a beneficial effect on intestinal microflora. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Nebcin  
(Other name for: tobramycin sulfate)

necitumumab  
A fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. Necitumumab binds to and blocks the ligand binding site of EGFR, thereby preventing the activation and subsequent dimerization of the receptor. This may lead to an inhibition of EGFR-dependent downstream pathways and so inhibition of EGFR-dependent tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. EGFR, a member of the epidermal growth factor family of extracellular protein ligands, may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nedaplatin  
A second-generation cisplatin analogue with antineoplastic activity. Containing a novel ring structure in which glycolate is bound to the platinum by a bidentate ligand, nedaplatin forms reactive platinum complexes that bind to nucelophillic groups in DNA, resulting in intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-links, apoptosis and cell death. This agent appears to be less nephrotoxic and neurotoxic compared to both cisplatin and carboplatin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nefopam hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt form of nefopam, a centrally-acting, non-opioid benzoxazocine with analgesic activity. The mechanism of action through which nefopam exerts its analgesic effects is, as of yet, largely unknown but may involve inhibition of serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nelarabine  
An arabinonucleoside antimetabolite with antineoplastic activity. Nelarabine is demethoxylated by adenosine deaminase to become biologically active 9-beta-D-arabinosylguanine (ara-G); ara-G incorporates into DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis and inducing an S phase-dependent apoptosis of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nelfinavir mesylate  
The mesylate salt form of the antiviral agent nelfinavir. Nelfinavir selectively inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease, thereby preventing cleavage of the gag-pol viral polyprotein and resulting in the release of immature, noninfectious virions. In vivo, this agent exhibits broad tissue distribution compared to related agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Neo-Oestronol I  
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

neoantigen-based melanoma-poly-ICLC vaccine  
A peptide-based melanoma cancer vaccine consisting of neoantigens and peptides derived from patient-specific melanoma immunogenic epitopes, combined with the immunostimulant poly-ICLC with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Vaccination with the neoantigen-based melanoma vaccine stimulates the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the neoantigens, which results in tumor cell lysis. The adjuvant poly-ICLC, composed of double-stranded RNA molecules of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized with poly L-lysine in carboxymethylcellulose, is a ligand for toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3) and induces the release of cytokines which may help to boost the immune response against the selected neoantigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Neogest  
(Other name for: norgestrel)

Neoquin  
(Other name for: apaziquone)

Neoral  
(Other name for: cyclosporine)

Neosar  
(Other name for: cyclophosphamide)

Neoscan  
(Other name for: gallium citrate Ga 67)

Neovastat  
(Other name for: shark cartilage extract AE-941)

Neptazane  
(Other name for: methazolamide)

neratinib  
An orally available, 6,7-disubstituted-4-anilinoquinoline-3-carbonitrile irreversible inhibitor of the HER-2 receptor tyrosine kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. Neratinib binds to the HER-2 receptor irreversibly, thereby reducing autophosphorylation in cells, apparently by targeting a cysteine residue in the ATP-binding pocket of the receptor. Treatment of cells with this agent results in inhibition of downstream signal transduction events and cell cycle regulatory pathways; arrest at the G1-S (Gap 1/DNA synthesis)-phase transition of the cell division cycle; and ultimately decreased cellular proliferation. Neratinib also inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase and the proliferation of EGFR-dependent cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nesiritide  
A recombinant version of the cardiac neurohormone, human B-type natriuretic peptide (hBNP) produced by the ventricular myocardium. Nesiritide binds to natriuretic peptide receptors on vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, through which it triggers guanylate cyclase dependent signal transduction resulting in increase of intracellular concentrations of cGMP. This leads to smooth muscle cell relaxation causing arterial and venous dilatation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nesvacumab  
A fully human monoclonal antibody directed against angiopoietin 2 (ANG2) with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Nesvacumab binds to ANG2 and interferes with the interaction between Ang2 and its receptor TEK tyrosine kinas e (Tie2), which may inhibit tumor cell angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. ANG2 is upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types and plays a crucial role in angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

netupitant  
A selective neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist with potential antiemetic activity. Netupitant competitively binds to and blocks the activity of the human substance P/NK1 receptors in the central nervous system (CNS), thereby inhibiting NK1-receptor binding of the endogenous tachykinin neuropeptide substance P (SP), which may result in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). SP is found in neurons of vagal afferent fibers innervating the brain-stem nucleus tractus solitarii and the area postrema, which contains the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ), and may be elevated in response to chemotherapy. The NK-receptor is a G-protein receptor coupled to the inositol phosphate signal-transduction pathway and is found in both the nucleus tractus solitarii and the area postrema. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Neugranin  
(Other name for: recombinant human albumin-human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor)

Neulasta  
(Other name for: pegfilgrastim)

Neumega  
(Other name for: oprelvekin)

Neupogen  
(Other name for: filgrastim)

Neuradiab  
(Other name for: iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody 81C6)

Neurontin  
(Other name for: gabapentin)

Neutrexin  
(Other name for: trimetrexate glucuronate)

NeuVax  
(Other name for: E75 peptide plus GM-CSF vaccine)

Neuvenge  
(Other name for: lapuleucel-T)

nevirapine  
A non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with activity against human immunodeficiency virus 1. Nevirapine binds directly to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase, an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, blocking its function in viral DNA replication. In combination with other antiretroviral drugs, nevirapine reduces HIV viral loads and increases CD4 counts, thereby retarding or preventing the damage to the immune system and reducing the risk of developing AIDS. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Nexavar  
(Other name for: sorafenib tosylate)

Nexium  
(Other name for: esomeprazole magnesium)

Nexrutine  
(Other name for: Phellodendron amurense bark extract)

NG-monomethyl-L-arginine  
An amino acid derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine inhibits the enzyme nitric oxide synthase, resulting in a diminution of nitrous oxide production. This agent may inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

NG-nitro-L-arginine  
An amino acid derivative and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. Upon administration, NG-nitro-L-arginine inhibits the enzyme nitric oxide synthase, thereby preventing the formation of nitric oxide (NO). By preventing NO generation, the vasodilatory effects of NO are abrogated leading to vasoconstriction, reduction in vascular permeability and an inhibition of angiogenesis. As blood flow to tumors is restricted, this may result in an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. NO plays an important role in tumor blood flow and stimulation of angiogenesis, tumor progression, survival, migration and invasiveness. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

niacin  
A water-soluble vitamin belonging to the vitamin B family, which occurs in many animal and plant tissues, with antihyperlipidemic activity. Niacin is converted to its active form niacinamide, which is a component of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphate form, NADP. These coenzymes play an important role in tissue respiration and in glycogen, lipid, amino acid, protein, and purine metabolism. Although the exact mechanism of action by which niacin lowers cholesterol is not fully understood, it may act by inhibiting the synthesis of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), inhibiting the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue, increasing lipoprotein lipase activity, and reducing the hepatic synthesis of VLDL-C and LDL-C. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

niacinamide  
The active form of vitamin B3 and a component of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Niacinamide acts as a chemo- and radio-sensitizing agent by enhancing tumor blood flow, thereby reducing tumor hypoxia. This agent also inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, enzymes involved in the rejoining of DNA strand breaks induced by radiation or chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nicardipine  
A synthetic derivative of nitrophenyl-pyridine and potent calcium channel blocker, nicardipine (Nifedipine Family) blocks calcium ions from certain cell walls and inhibits contraction of coronary and peripheral arteries, resulting in lowered oxygen requirements for heart muscle and decreased arterial contraction and spasm. It is used clinically as a cerebral and coronary vasodilator. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

NicoDerm CQ  
(Other name for: nicotine patch)

Nicorette  
(Other name for: nicotine gum)

nicotine  
A plant alkaloid, found in the tobacco plant, and addictive central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that causes either ganglionic stimulation in low doses or ganglionic blockage in high doses. Nicotine acts as an agonist at the nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the autonomic ganglia, at neuromuscular junctions, and in the adrenal medulla and the brain. Nicotine's CNS-stimulating activities may be mediated through the release of several neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine, beta-endorphin, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and ACTH. As a result, peripheral vasoconstriction, tachycardia, and elevated blood pressure may be observed with nicotine intake. This agent may also stimulate the chemoreceptor trigger zone, thereby inducing nausea and vomiting. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nicotine gum  
A chewing gum containing nicotine used as a substitute for the active ingredient in tobacco. Nicotine chewing gum reduces the withdrawal symptoms associated with smoking cessation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nicotine lozenge  
A lozenge preparation containing the alkaloid nicotine with nicotine replacement activity. Upon administration of the lozenge, nicotine is released and, although nicotine binds to nicotinic cholinergic receptors at the autonomic ganglia, adrenal medulla and at neuromuscular junctions as well, the binding of nicotine to the receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) appears to be responsible for the addictive nature of nicotine. Binding to CNS nicotinic acetylcholine receptors causes the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine which appears to be responsible for the addiction of nicotine. Administration of nicotine may prevent nicotine craving and may help with the withdrawal symptoms associated with smoking cessation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nicotine nasal spray  
A method for nicotine replacement. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nicotine patch  
A transepidermal patch designed to deliver nicotine, the addictive substance contained in cigarettes, directly through the skin and into the blood stream. Used for cessation of smoking. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Nicotrol NS  
(Other name for: nicotine nasal spray)

NicVax  
(Other name for: 3'-aminomethyl nicotine-P. aeruginosa r-exoprotein A conjugate vaccine)

Niferex  
(Other name for: iron)

nifurtimox  
A nitrofuran derivative with antiprotozoal and potential antineoplastic activities. Nifurtimox is reduced by cytosol enzymes or flavin-containing microsomal enzymes to a highly reactive nitro anion free radical; autooxidation of the nitro anion free radical generates cytotoxic superoxide anion (02-). In addition, nifurtimox-derived nitro anion free radicals may alkylate macromolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins, resulting in the disruption of their structure and function. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Nilandron  
(Other name for: nilutamide)

nilotinib  
An orally bioavailable aminopyrimidine-derivative Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antineoplastic activity. Designed to overcome imatinib resistance, nilotinib binds to and stabilizes the inactive conformation of the kinase domain of the Abl protein of the Bcr-Abl fusion protein, resulting in the inhibition of the Bcr-Abl-mediated proliferation of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells. This agent also inhibits the receptor tyrosine kinases platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGF-R) and c-kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase mutated and constitutively activated in most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). With a binding mode that is energetically more favorable than that of imatinib, nilotinib has been shown to have an approximately 20-fold increased potency in kinase and proliferation assays compared to imatinib. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nilutamide  
A synthetic, nonsteroidal agent with antiandrogenic properties. Nilutamide preferentially binds to androgen receptors and blocks androgen receptor activation by testosterone and other androgens; this agent may inhibit androgen-dependent growth of normal and neoplastic prostate cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Nimbex  
(Other name for: cisatracurium besylate)

nimodipine  
A dihydropyridine derivative and an analogue of the calcium channel blocker nifedipine, with antihypertensive activity. Nimodipine inhibits the transmembrane influx of calcium ions in response to depolarization in smooth muscle cells, thereby inhibiting vascular smooth muscle contraction and inducing vasodilatation. Nimodipine has a greater effect on cerebral arteries than on peripheral smooth muscle cells and myocardial cells, probably because this agent can cross the blood brain barrier due to its lipophilic nature. Furthermore, this agent also inhibits the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein, which is overexpressed in some multi-drug resistant tumors, and may improve the efficacy of some antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Nimotop  
(Other name for: nimodipine)

nimotuzumab  
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. Nimotuzumab binds to and inhibits EGFR, resulting in growth inhibition of tumor cells that overexpress EGFR. This agent may act synergistically with radiation therapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nimustine  
A nitrosourea with antineoplastic activity. Nimustine alkylates and crosslinks DNA, thereby causing DNA fragmentation, inhibition of protein synthesis, and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nintedanib  
An orally bioavailable, indolinone-derived, receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBF 1120 selectively binds to and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) tyrosine kinases, which may result in the induction of endothelial cell apoptosis; a reduction in tumor vasculature; and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and migration. In addition, this agent also inhibits members of the Src family of tyrosine kinases, including Src, Lck, Lyn, and FLT-3 (fms-like tyrosine kinase 3). VEGFR, FGFR and PDGFR RTKs play key roles in tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Nipent  
(Other name for: pentostatin)

niraparib  
An inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with potential antineoplastic activity. PARP Inhibitor MK4827 inhibits PARP activity, enhancing the accumulation of DNA strand breaks and promoting genomic instability and apoptosis. The PARP family of proteins detect and repair single strand DNA breaks by the base-excision repair (BER) pathway. The specific PARP family member target for PARP inhibitor MK4827 is unknown. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nitric oxide-releasing acetylsalicylic acid derivative  
A nitric oxide (NO) donating derivative of acetylsalicyclic acid with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antithrombotic, gastroprotective and potential antitumor activities. The acetylsalicylic acid derivative moiety of this agent inhibits the activities of cyclooxygenase (COX) I and II, preventing the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. A reduction in prostaglandin synthesis accounts for this agent's anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic activities; a reduction in thromboxane A2 synthesis results in an irreversible inhibition of platelet aggregation. NO donation by this agent, after cleavage from the acetylsalicylic acid derivative in vivo, may protect the gastric mucosa against the damaging effects of the aspirin derivative by modulating prostaglandins. In tumor cells, the NO donating moiety may block the cell cycle in the G1 and G2 phases and may induce apoptosis through caspase-mediated mechanisms. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nitroglycerin  
An organic nitrate with vasodilator activity. Nitroglycerin is converted into nitric oxide (NO) in smooth muscle and activates guanylyl cyclase, thereby increasing cGMP concentration, and resulting in smooth muscle relaxation. Dilatation of the veins results in decreased venous return to the heart, thereby decreasing left ventricular volume (reduced preload) and decreasing myocardial oxygen requirements. Arteriolar relaxation reduces arteriolar resistance (reduced afterload), thereby decreasing myocardial oxygen demands. In addition, nitroglycerin causes coronary artery dilatation, thereby improving myocardial blood distribution. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nitroglycerin transdermal patch  
A sustained-release transdermal patch containing the organic nitrate nitroglycerin, with vasodilator and potential immunomodulating activities. Upon application to the skin, nitroglycerin is continuously released from the patch and absorbed. In turn, nitroglycerin is converted into nitric oxide (NO), which activates guanylyl cyclase, increasing cyclic guanosine monophosphate concentration thus resulting in smooth muscle relaxation. In addition, activation of NO-mediated signaling pathways may inhibit hypoxia-induced tumor cell invasiveness, chemoresistance, evasion of immune cell recognition and cancer cell progression. Particularly, reactivation of NO-mediated signaling appears to inhibit the increased tumor cell shedding of the major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related (MIC) molecules MICA and MICB as is seen in hypoxic tumor environments; MIC molecules play key roles in tumor cell immune surveillance through their interaction with the C-type lectin-like NKG2D receptor on natural killer, lymphokine-activated killer and effector T cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nivolumab  
A fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor PD-1 (programmed death-1 or programmed cell death-1/PCD-1) with immunopotentiation activity. Nivolumab binds to and blocks the activation of PD-1, an Ig superfamily transmembrane protein, by its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2, resulting in the activation of T-cells and cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells or pathogens. Activated PD-1 negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function through the suppression of P13k/Akt pathway activation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Nizoral  
(Other name for: ketoconazole)

NM-3  
An orally bioavailable antiangiogenic isocoumarin with potential antineoplastic activity. NM-3 inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a pro-angiogenic growth factor, thereby inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation. This agent also induces apoptosis by a mechanism involving reactive oxygen species. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nolatrexed dihydrochloride  
The dihydrochloride salt of nolatrexed, a water-soluble lipophilic quinazoline folate analog with antineoplastic activity. Nolatrexed occupies the folate binding site of thymidylate synthase, resulting in inhibition of thymidylate synthase activity and thymine nucleotide synthesis with subsequent inhibition of DNA replication, DNA damage, S-phase cell cycle arrest, and caspase-dependent apoptosis. This agent also exhibits radiosensitizing activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Nolvadex  
(Other name for: tamoxifen citrate)

non-adjuvanted A(H1N1) influenza vaccine  
A monovalent vaccine containing hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A (H1N1)-like virus with potential immunomodulating activity. Upon administration, non-adjuvanted A(H1N1) influenza vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount an antibody response against H1N1. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

non-small cell lung cancer mRNA-derived vaccine CV9201  
A non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) vaccine containing modified mRNAs encoding cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1, melanoma-associated antigens C1 (MAGE-C1/CT7) and C2 (MAGE-C2/CT10), survivin, and the oncofetal antigen 5T4 with potential antitumor and immunomodulatory activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, non-small cell lung cancer mRNA-derived vaccine CV9201 may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic, antigen-specific T lymphocyte response (CTL) against NSCLC cells. The modified mRNAs in this vaccine are taken up by cells after injection and exhibit enhanced translational potency. The five tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) encoded by these mRNAs are frequently expressed by NSCLC cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Norcept-E  
(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone)

Norcuron  
(Other name for: vecuronium bromide)

Norethin  
(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone)

norethindrone acetate  
The orally bioavailable acetate salt of norethindrone, a synthetic progestin with some anabolic, estrogenic, and androgenic activities. As do all progestins, norethindrone binds to and activates nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) in target tissues such as the pituitary and reproductive system; ligand-receptor complexes are translocated to the nucleus where they bind to progesterone response elements (PREs) located on target genes, followed by various transcriptional events and histone acetylation. Physiological effects include the inhibition of luteinizing hormone (LH) release, an increase in the endometrial luteal-phase, and alterations in endocervical mucus secretion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

norgestrel  
A synthetic progestin commonly used alone or in combination with an estrogen for contraception. Norgestrel suppresses the secretion of luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones (LH and FSH), thickens cervical mucus, and slows the transit of ova through the fallopian tubes. This agent also exhibits antiproliferative activity in endometrial tissue and may exhibit chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities in endometrial carcinoma. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Norinyl  
(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone)

Norlutate  
(Other name for: norethindrone acetate)

Norlutin  
(Other name for: norethindrone acetate)

Norplant  
(Other name for: levonorgestrel)

Norpramin  
(Other name for: desipramine hydrochloride)

North American ginseng extract AFX-2  
An orally available proprietary aqueous extract from the North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) dried root, primarily containing poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides, with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon administration, North American ginseng extract AFX-2 may stimulate the proliferation and activation of B-lymphocytes and stimulates IgG production by B cells. Also, this agent induces maturation of dendritic cells, induces T cell proliferation and activates peritoneal exudate macrophages leading to an increase in the production of the cytokines interleukin -1 and -6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma and nitric oxide. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Nortrel  
(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone)

Norvir  
(Other name for: ritonavir)

noscapine hydrochloride  
The orally bioavailable hydrochloride salt of the opioid agonist noscapine, a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid derived from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum, with mild analgesic, antitussive, and potential antineoplastic activities. Noscapine binds to tubulin and alters its conformation, resulting in a disruption of the dynamics of microtubule assembly (by increasing the time that microtubules spend idle in a paused state) and, subsequently, the inhibition of mitosis and tumor cell death. Unlike other tubulin inhibitors such as the taxanes and vinca alkaloids, noscapine does not affect microtubule polymerization. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Notch signaling pathway inhibitor MK0752  
A synthetic small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. MK0752 inhibits the Notch signaling pathway, which may result in induction of growth arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells in which the Notch signaling pathway is overactivated. The Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in cell-fate determination, cell survival, and cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Novaldex  
(Other name for: tamoxifen citrate)

Novantrone  
(Other name for: mitoxantrone hydrochloride)

Novarel  
(Other name for: recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin)

NovaSoy  
(Other name for: soy isoflavones)

Novolauden  
(Other name for: hydromorphone hydrochloride)

Novolin N  
(Other name for: insulin, NPH)

Noxafil  
(Other name for: posaconazole)

Nplate  
(Other name for: romiplostim)

Nrf2 activator RTA 408  
A member of the synthetic oleanane triterpenoid class of compounds and an activator of nuclear factor erythroid 2 [NF-E2]-related factor 2 (Nrf2, Nfe2l2), with potential chemopreventive activity. Upon administration, RTA 408 activates the cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2. In turn, Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus, dimerizes with a small Maf protein (sMaf), and binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE). This induces the expression of a number of cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), sulfiredoxin 1 (Srxn1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO1, HMOX1), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), thioredoxin reductase-1 (TXNRD1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (Gclc) and glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit (Gclm), and increases the synthesis of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Nrf2, a leucine zipper transcription factor, plays a key role in the maintenance of redox balance and cytoprotection against oxidative stress. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

NS5B polymerase inhibitor BMS-791325  
A non-nucleoside, polymerase inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B), a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, with potential activity against HCV. Upon administration and after intracellular uptake, BMS-791325 allosterically binds to the non-catalytic Thumb 1 site of viral HCV NS5B polymerase and causes a decrease in viral RNA synthesis and replication. The HCV NS5B protein is essential for the replication of the viral HCV RNA genome. HCV is a small, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

NSCLC Antigen-Loaded Dendritic Cell-derived Exosomesnon-small cell lung cancer tumor antigen-loaded dendritic cell-derived exosomes  
Exosomes loaded with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-specific antigens, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Exosomes derived from autologous maturing dendritic cells (DCs) are pulsed with HLA-DP04-restricted MAGE-3, and HLA-A02-restricted peptides NY-ESO-1, MAGE-1, MAGE-3, and MART-1. Upon vaccination, these exosomes may stimulate natural killer (NK) cell activation and proliferation, restoration of NKG2D expression on NK cells, and antigen-specific T-cell responses. This may eventually lead to inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in NSCLC expressing these specific tumor antigens. These exosomes, nanovesicles secreted from DCs, are embedded with molecules necessary for potent immune responses on the exosomal surface, such as MHC class II molecules, CD40, ICAM-1, IL-15Ralpha, and NKG2D ligands. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nucleotide analogue GS 9219  
A prodrug of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogue 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)guanine (PMEG) with potential antineoplastic activity. Formulated to selectively accumulate in lymphocytes, nucleotide analogue GS 9219 is converted to its active metabolite, PMEG diphosphate (PMEGpp), via enzymatic hydrolysis, deamination, and phosphorylation; subsequently, PMEGpp is incorporated into nascent DNA chains by DNA polymerases, which may result in the termination of DNA synthesis, S-phase cell cycle arrest, and the induction of apoptosis in susceptible lymphoma cell populations. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Numorphan  
(Other name for: oxymorphone hydrochloride)

nutraceutical TBL-12  
An orally available nutritional supplement and proprietary formulation containing extracts from the sea cucumber, sea sponge, shark fin, sea urchin and the marine grass Sargassum, with potential antioxidant, antitumor, anti-angiogenic and immunomodulating activities. TBL-12 contains various amino acids, minerals, vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Nutracort  
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)

NutreStore  
(Other name for: glutamine)

nutritional supplement drink  
A calorie-dense nutritional supplement drink containing a variety of vitamins and minerals. Nutritional supplement drink contains vitamin A, vitamin C, D, E and K, calcium, iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, phosphorus, iodine, magnesium, zinc, selenium, copper, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, chloride and choline. In addition, this drink contains protein, fiber and fa, including omega-3 fatty acids. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

nutritional supplement drink (pediatric)  
A liquid, milk protein-based, pediatric nutritional supplement containing a variety of vitamins and minerals. Nutritional supplement drink (pediatric) contains vitamins and minerals such as vitamin A, vitamin C, D, E and K, calcium, iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, phosphorus, iodine, magnesium, zinc, selenium, copper, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, chloride and choline. In addition, this supplement contains soy protein isolate and medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), sucrose and short-chain oligofructosaccharides. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Nuvigil  
(Other name for: armodafinil)

Nuvion  
(Other name for: visilizumab)

NY-ESO-1 peptide vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of an immunogenic peptide derived from the cancer-testis antigen (NY-ESO-1), an antigen found in normal testis and various tumors. Vaccination with NY-ESO-1 peptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a humoral and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to cells expressing NY-ESO-1 antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

NY-ESO-1 plasmid DNA cancer vaccine  
A plasmid DNA encoding an immunogenic peptide derived from the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 with potential immunostimulating and antitumor activities. Upon adninstration, NY-ESO-1 plasmid DNA cancer vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the NY-ESO-1 antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. NY-ESO-1 is a tumor associated antigen (TAA) found in normal testes and expressed on the surfaces of various tumor cells, including melanoma, breast, bladder, prostate, lung, ovarian, and hepatocellular tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

NY-ESO-1 protein vaccine plus Montanide ISA-51 VG  
A cancer vaccine consisting of an immunogenic peptide derived from the cancer-testis antigen (NY-ESO-1) and emulsified in the immunoadjuvant Montanide ISA-51 VG, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous vaccination, the NY-ESO-1 protein vaccine emulsified in Montanide ISA-51 VG may stimulate the host immune system to mount a humoral and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the NY-ESO-1 antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. NY-ESO-1, an antigen found in normal testes and various tumors, including bladder, breast, hepatocellular, melanoma, and prostate cancers. The surfactant mannide monooleate in Montanide ISA 51 VG is derived from vegetable-grade (VG) oleic acid that was purified from olive oil. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

NY-ESO-1 reactive TCR retroviral vector transduced autologous PBL  
Human autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a T cell receptor (TCR) specific for the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon isolation, transduction, expansion ex vivo, and reintroduction into the patient, the NY-ESO-1 reactive TCR-transduced autologous PBLs bind to NY-ESO-1-overexpressing tumor cells. This may result in a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) killing of NY-ESO-1-positive cancer cells. NY-ESO-1, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), is found in normal testis and on the surface of various tumor cell types; the TCR is specific for NY-ESO-1:157-165. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

NY-ESO-1(157-165) peptide-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine  
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with a peptide derived from the tumor associated antigen human cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 (NY-ESO-1(157-165)), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the NY-ESO-1(157-165) peptide-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount both an anti-tumoral cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and an antibody-mediated immune response against NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell lysis. NY-ESO-1 is expressed both in normal testes and on the surfaces of various tumor cells, and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

NY-ESO-1/GLA-SE vaccine ID-G305  
A cancer vaccine composed of a recombinant form of the tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 and glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA)-stable emulsion (GLA-SE), with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. Upon intramuscular injection, the adjuvant portion of the NY-ESO-1/GLA-SE vaccine ID-G30 binds to toll-like receptor subtype 4 (TLR-4) expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, macrophages and B cells. The activated DCs present the NY-ESO-1 antigen to Th1 CD4 T-lymphocytes. This leads to the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and the killing of NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cells. This vaccine also induces specific antibody responses and increases the production of inflammatory cytokines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 HLA class I/II peptide vaccine  
A cancer vaccine containing HLA class I- and II-binding peptides derived from the NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 cancer/testis antigen with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 HLA class I/II peptide vaccine may induce a cytotoxic immune response against tumor cells that over-express NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1. Rarely expressed by normal cells, the NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 cancer/testis antigen has been shown to be preferentially expressed on the surface of some cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

NY-ESO-1b peptide vaccine  
A recombinant nonapeptide used as an antineoplastic vaccine. NY-ESO-1b peptide vaccine contains the amino acid sequence SLLMWITQC, derived from the cancer-testis tumor antigen (NY-ESO-1), which is expressed on tumor cells of many different types, including melanomas. Vaccination with this peptide vaccine may elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses to NY-ESO-1-expressing cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

NY-ESO-B  
A tumor-associated antigen belonging to the family of immunogenic testicular proteins that are aberrantly expressed in human cancers in a lineage-nonspecific fashion. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed NY-ESO-1 mRNA expression in a variable proportion of a wide array of human cancers, including melanoma, breast cancer, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma; and restricted expression in normal tissues, with high-level mRNA expression found only in testis and ovary tissues. The gene for NY-ESO-1 maps to Xq28 and codes for an 18-kDa protein having no homology with any known protein. NY-ESO-1 elicits a strong, integrated humoral and cellular immune response in a high proportion of patients with NY-ESO-1-expressing tumors and is under investigation as a cancer immunotherapy agent. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

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