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NCI Drug Dictionary

NCI Drug Dictionary

  

O6-benzylguanine  
A guanine analogue with antineoplastic activity. O(6)-benzylguanine binds the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT), transferring the benzyl moiety to the active-site cysteine and resulting in inhibition of AGT-mediated DNA repair. Co-administration of this agent potentiates the effects of other chemotherapeutic agents that damage DNA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

obatoclax mesylate  
The mesylate salt of obatoclax, a synthetic small-molecule inhibitor of the bcl-2 family of proteins with potential pro-apoptotic and antineoplastic activities. Obatoclax binds to members of the Bcl-2 protein family, preventing the binding of these anti-apoptotic proteins to the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak and so promoting the activation of the apoptotic pathway in Bcl-2-overexpressing cells. The Bcl-2 family of proteins (bcl-2, bcl-xl, bcl-w, and Mcl-1) are overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers, including those of the lymphatic system, breast, lung, prostate, and colon. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

obinutuzumab  
A glycoengineered, fully humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Obinutuzumab, a third generation type II anti-CD20 antibody, selectivity binds to the extracellular domain of the human CD20 antigen on malignant human B cells. The Fc region carbohydrates of the antibody, enriched in bisected non-fucosylated glycosylation variants, contribute to its higher binding affinity for human FcgammaRIII receptors compared to non-glycoengineered antibodies, resulting in enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and caspase-independent apoptosis. In addition, modification of elbow hinge sequences within the antibody variable framework regions may account for the strong apoptosis-inducing activity of R7159 upon binding to CD20 on target cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oblimersen sodium  
The sodium salt of a phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide targeted to the initiation codon region of mRNA for the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. Oblimersen inhibits Bcl-2 mRNA translation, which may result in decreased expression of the Bcl-2 protein and tumor cell apoptosis. This agent may enhance the efficacy of standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. The anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein is an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein (OMMP) that is overexpressed in some cancer cell types and is linked to tumor drug resistance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ocaratuzumab  
An Fc-engineered monoclonal antibody directed against human CD20 with potential antineoplastic activity. Ocaratuzumab specifically binds to CD20 antigen (B1), preventing mitogen-induced B-cell proliferation; inhibiting B-cell differentiation; and promoting antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and apoptosis of B cells expressing CD20. The Fc portion of this monoclonal antibody has been engineered to possess a higher binding affinity for variant Fc receptors on T helper cells, resulting in an augmentation of the anti-tumor immune response. Because of Fc engineering, this agent may be significantly more potent than rituximab in inducing B cell-directed ADCC. CD20 is a non-glycosylated cell surface phosphoprotein that is exclusively expressed on B cells during most stages of B cell development. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Octreoscan  
(Other name for: indium In 111 pentetreotide)

octreotide acetate  
The acetate salt of a synthetic long-acting cyclic octapeptide with pharmacologic properties mimicking those of the natural hormone somatostatin. Octreotide is a more potent inhibitor of growth hormone, glucagon, and insulin than somatostatin. Similar to somatostatin, this agent also suppresses the luteinizing hormone response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone, decreases splanchnic blood flow, and inhibits the release of serotonin, gastrin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), secretin, motilin, pancreatic polypeptide, and thyroid stimulating hormone. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

octreotide pamoate  
A synthetic long-acting octapeptide analogue of endogenous somatostatin. Octreotide pamoate binds to somatostatin receptors expressed by some neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine tumor cells, thereby initiating somatostatin receptor-mediated apoptosis. Other possible antineoplastic activities of this agent include suppression of tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth-promoting insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

odanacatib  
An inhibitor of cathepsin K with potential anti-osteoporotic activity. Odanacatib selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of cathepsin K, which may result in a reduction in bone resorption, improvement of bone mineral density, and a reversal in osteoporotic changes. Cathepsin K, a tissue-specific cysteine protease that catalyzes degradation of bone matrix proteins such as collagen I/II, elastin, and osteonectin plays an important role in osteoclast function and bone resorption. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

OEPA regimen  
A regimen consisting of vincristine, etoposide, prednisone and doxorubicin for the treatment of male patients with childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

Oestrogenine  
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

Oestromenin  
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

Oestromon  
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

ofatumumab  
A fully human, high-affinity IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the B cell CD20 cell surface antigen with potential antineoplastic activity. Ofatumumab binds specifically to CD20 on the surfaces of B cells, triggering complement-dependent cell lysis (CDCL) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of B cells overexpressing CD20. The CD20 antigen, found on over 90% of B cells, B cell lymphomas, and other B cells of lymphoid tumors of B cell origin, is a non-glycosylated cell surface phosphoprotein that acts as a calcium ion channel; it is exclusively expressed on B cells during most stages of B cell development. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

OFF regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen that includes leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin, which may be used in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)

ofloxacin  
A fluoroquinolone antibacterial antibiotic. Ofloxacin binds to and inhibits bacterial topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, enzymes involved in DNA replication and repair, resulting in cell death in sensitive bacterial species. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oglufanide disodium  
The disodium salt of a synthetic form of a naturally-occurring dipeptide consisting of L-glutamic acid and L-tryptophan with potential antiangiogenic and potential immunomodulating activities. Oglufanide inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which may inhibit angiogenesis. This agent has also been reported to stimulate the immune response to hepatitic C virus and intracellular bacterial infections. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

olanzapine  
A synthetic derivative of thienobenzodiazepine with antipsychotic, antinausea, and antiemetic activities. As a selective monoaminergic antagonist, olanzapine binds with high affinity binding to the following receptors: serotoninergic, dopaminergic, muscarinic M1-5, histamine H1, and alpha-1-adrenergic receptors; it binds weakly to gamma-aminobutyric acid type A, benzodiazepine, and beta-adrenergic receptors. The antinausea and antiemetic effects of this agent appear to be due to the blockade of 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors for serotonin. Although its exact mechanism of action in schizophrenia is unknown, it has been proposed that olanzapine's antipsychotic activity is mediated through antagonism to dopamine D2 receptors with rapid ligand-receptor dissociation kinetics that help to minimize extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Olanzapine may also stimulate appetite. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

olaparib  
A small molecule inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with potential chemosensitizing, radiosensitizing, and antineoplastic activities. Olaparib selectively binds to and inhibits PARP, inhibiting PARP-mediated repair of single strand DNA breaks; PARP inhibition may enhance the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and may reverse tumor cell chemoresistance and radioresistance. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins and can be activated by single-stranded DNA breaks. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

olaratumab  
A fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR alpha) with potential antineoplastic activity. Olaratumab selectively binds to PDGFR alpha, .blocking the binding of its ligand, PDGF; signal transduction downstream of PDGFR through the MAPK and PI3K pathways is inhibited, which may result in inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. Overexpressed by various cancer cell types, PDGFR is a transmembrane protein tyrosine kinase receptor, consisting of isoforms A and B, that is important in regulating cellular growth and differentiation and angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oleandrin  
A lipid soluble cardiac glycoside with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, oleandrin specifically binds to and inhibits the alpha3 subunit of the Na/K-ATPase pump in human cancer cells. This may inhibit the phosphorylation of Akt, upregulate MAPK, inhibit NF-kb activation and inhibit FGF-2 export and may downregulate mTOR thereby inhibiting p70S6K and S6 protein expression. All of this may lead to an induction of apoptosis. As cancer cells with relatively higher expression of the alpha3 subunit and with limited expression of the alpha1 subunit are more sensitive to oleandrin, one may predict the tumor response to treatment with lipid-soluble cardiac glycosides such as oleandrin based on the tumors Na/K-ATPase pump protein subunit expression. Overexpression of the alpha3 subunit in tumor cells correlates with tumor proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oligofructose-enriched inulin  
A mixture of non-digestible carbohydrates, containing the fermentable plant fructans oligosaccharide and inulin, with potential prebiotic activity. Resisting hydrolysis by intestinal digestive enzymes, inulin and oligofructose serve as growth media and energy substrates for bifidobacteria in the colon; beneficial colonic commensal bacteria such as bifidobacteria may inhibit the colonization of the intestine by pathogenic bacteria and have been inplicated to inhibit colon carcinogenesis. Oligofructose-enriched inulin may be administered in combination with probiotic bifidobacteria. In addition, this agent may promote the absorption of calcium and magnesium from the gastrointestinal tract. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oligonucleotide SPC2996  
A synthetic antisense oligonucleotide against Bcl-2 messenger RNA with potential antitumor activity. Oligonucleotide SPC2996 binds to and inactivates Bcl-2 mRNA, thereby inhibiting the expression of Bcl-2 protein, promoting tumor cell apoptosis, and potentially enhancing the efficacy of standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. Linked to tumor drug resistance, the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 is upregulated in several types of cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

olive oil extract/curcumin-based capsule  
A capsule containing an extract of olive oil, rich in polyphenols and curcumin, the polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa, also known as turmeric, with potential anti-neoplastic, -angiogenic, -inflammatory, -oxidant and chemopreventive activities. The olive oil extract/curcumin-based capsule is rich in phytonutrients, especially polyphenols. Upon oral administration, the polyphenols, and other active ingredients in this supplement may exert anti-inflammatory activity by decreasing the production of inflammation mediators, such as TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL) 1-beta, IL-6, IL-10, interferon gamma, thromboxane B2, and leukotriene B4. They also inhibit a variety of pro-inflammatory enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and COX-2, block the formation of reactive-oxygen species and neutralize free radicals. In addition, curcumin and some other polyphenols disrupt cell signal transduction pathways involved in carcinogenesis. Specifically, curcumin inhibits cell invasion by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression by suppressing NF-kB and AP-1 activation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

olive oil/soya oil/egg lecithin-based emulsion  
An injectable, isotonic, nutritional lipid emulsion composed of approximately 80% refined olive oil and 20% refined soybean oil, used for parenteral nutrition. The olive oil/soya oil/egg lecithin emulsion provides about 15% of saturated fatty acids (SFA), 65% of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 20% of essential poly-unsaturated fatty acids (EPUFA). Upon parenteral administration, the emulsion supplies calories, for energy, and essential fatty acids that can be incorporated into cell membranes. The fatty acids may decrease the production of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In addition to olive oil and soya oil, this lipid emulsion contains egg lecithin and provides phosphorus and choline, which are needed to maintain cell membrane integrity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

omacetaxine mepesuccinate  
A semisynthetic formulation of the cytotoxic plant alkaloid homoharringtonine isolated from the evergreen tree Cephalotaxus with potential antineoplastic activity. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate binds to the 80S ribosome in eukaryotic cells and inhibits protein synthesis by interfering with chain elongation. This agent also induces differentiation and apoptosis in some cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

omalizumab  
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the C-epsilon 3 domain of immunoglobulin E. Olizumab binds to this IgE domain, thereby preventing IgE from binding to its high-affinity mast-cell receptor. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

ombrabulin  
A synthetic water-soluble analogue of combretastatin A4, derived from the South African willow bush (Combretum caffrum), with potential vascular-disrupting and antineoplastic activities. Ombrabulin binds to the colchicine binding site of endothelial cell tubulin, inhibiting tubulin polymerization and inducing mitotic arrest and apoptosis in endothelial cells. As apoptotic endothelial cells detach from their substrata, tumor blood vessels collapse; the acute disruption of tumor blood flow may result in tumor necrosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

omega-3 fatty acid  
Any fatty acid that contains an unsaturated bond originating from the 3rd carbon from the methyl end. Omega-3 fatty acids do not occur naturally with chain lengths shorter than 16 carbon units. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

omeprazole  
A benzimidazole with selective and irreversible proton pump inhibition activity. Omeprazole forms a stable disulfide bond with the sulfhydryl group of the hydrogen-potassium (H+ - K+) ATPase found on the secretory surface of parietal cells, thereby inhibiting the final transport of hydrogen ions (via exchange with potassium ions) into the gastric lumen and suppressing gastric acid secretion. This agent exhibits no anticholinergic activities and does not antagonize histamine H2 receptors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Omnipaque  
(Other name for: iohexol)

onartuzumab  
A humanized monovalent monoclonal antibody directed against the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) with potential antineoplastic activity. Onartuzumab binds to the extracellular domain of c-Met, preventing the binding of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF); the activation of the c-Met signaling pathway is thus inhibited, which may result in cell death in c-Met-expressing tumor cells. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed on the cell surfaces of a variety of cancer cell types and may play a key role in their proliferation, invasion and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Oncaspar  
(Other name for: pegaspargase)

Oncaspar-IV  
(Other name for: calaspargase pegol)

OncoGel  
(Other name for: PGLA/PEG copolymer-based paclitaxel)

OncoLAR  
(Other name for: octreotide pamoate)

oncolytic adenovirus Ad5-DNX-2401  
An adenovirus serotype 5 strain, selectively replication competent in cells defective in the Rb/p16 tumor suppressor pathway, with potential oncolytic activity. Oncolytic adenovirus Ad5-Delta 24RGD contains an integrin binding RGD-4C motif, allowing Coxsackie adenovirus receptor-independent infection of tumor cells, which are often deficient for Coxsackie and adenovirus receptors (CARs). Selectively replication competent in cells that are defective in retinoblastoma gene (Rb) or cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-2A (p16), active replication of oncolytic adenovirus Ad5-Delta 24RGD in tumor cells may induce oncolysis or cell lysis. As integral components of the late G1 restriction point, the Rb gene product and p16 are negative regulators of the cell cycle; ovarian cancer cells and non-small cell lung cancer cells may be defective in the Rb/p16 pathway. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oncolytic adenovirus encoding GM-CSF  
A recombinant oncolytic adenovirus encoding the immunohematopoietic cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the oncolytic adenovirus selectively infects and replicates in tumor cells, which may result in tumor cells lysis. Synergistically, GM-CSF (sargramostim) expressed by the oncolytic adenovirus may promote a cytotoxic T cell response against tumor cells harboring the oncolytic adenovirus, resulting in an immune-mediated tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oncolytic adenovirus ICOVIR5-infected autologous mesenchymal stem cells  
Bone marrow-derived autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) infected with the oncolytic, replication-competent adenovirus ICOVIR5, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon infusion of the oncolytic adenovirus ICOVIR5-infected autologous MSCs, these cells target the adenovirus to tumors. The oncolytic virus then selectively transfects and replicates in the tumor cells causing a direct cytotoxic effect and lysis of the tumor cells. In addition, the viral infection may stimulate an immune response against the virally-infected tumor cells. This may lead to an inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. ICOVIR-5, a virus derived from wild-type human adenovirus serotype 5 (Had5), has been modified to selectively replicate in tumor cells that have a deregulated retinoblastoma/E2F pathway. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oncolytic herpes simplex virus encoding GM-CSF  
An ICP34.5-, ICP47-deleted, oncolytic herpes simplex type-1 virus (HSV-1) isolated from the mouth of an HSV-1-infected patient of Chinese Han ethnicity, and encoding the immunostimulating factor cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the recombinant human GM-CSF HSV-1 selectively infects and replicates in tumor cells, thereby inducing tumor cell lysis. In addition, GM-CSF attracts dendritic cells (DCs) and may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell response against tumor cells, which results in immune-mediated tumor cell death. Deletion of the gene encoding for ICP34.5 provides tumor selectivity and prevents replication in healthy cells. As ICP47 blocks antigen presentation in HSV-infected cells, deletion of this gene may induce a more potent antitumor immune response in the tumor cells. Additionally, deletion of ICP47 causes increased expression of the HSV US11 gene and allows US11 to be expressed as an immediate early and not a late gene. This further enhances the degree of viral replication and oncolysis of tumor cells. Interruption of the ICP6 gene, which encodes the large subunit of the viral ribonucleotide reductase, in the viral vector also enhances selective replication in tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

oncolytic HSV-1 rRp450  
A gene therapy agent containing an attenuated, replication-competent, genetically engineered mutant form of the Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain KOS with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon infusion into the hepatic artery, oncolytic HSV-1 rRp450 replicates in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and exerts direct cytotoxic effects eventually disrupting cancer cell membranes and liberating progeny virions thereby infecting adjacent tumor cells. In addition, rRp450 expresses the cytochrome P450 transgene that activates oxazaphosphorines, such as cyclophosphamide (CPA). Therefore, CPA can become activated in the presence of rRp450 and exert its antineoplastic effect. rRp450 is deleted for the HSV-1 gene UL39, encoding the viral ribonucleotide reductase large subunit infected cell protein 6 (ICP6), thereby disrupting the activity of viral ribonucleotide reductase and resulting in the inhibition of nucleotide metabolism and viral DNA synthesis in nondividing cells but not in dividing cells. UL39 is replaced by the rat CYP2B1 gene, encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme that activates oxazaphosphorines. rRp450 also expresses viral thymidine kinase, which activates the cancer prodrug ganciclovir. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oncolytic HSV-1716  
A neuroattenuated, replication-restricted, ICP34.5 deleted (RL1 gene)-mutant herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I, constructed from wild-type strain 17, with potential oncolytic activity. Upon intratumoral injection, oncolytic HSV1716 transfects, replicates in, and lyses rapidly dividing cells such as tumor cells. Because the RL1 gene is deleted , HSV1716 is unable to replicate in non-dividing cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oncolytic measles virus encoding thyroidal sodium iodide symporter  
An attenuated oncolytic Edmonston (Ed) strain of measles virus encoding the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (MV-NIS) with potential gene expression and antineoplastic activities. After attachment to and fusion with host tumor cell membranes, MV-NIS may induce tumor cell syncytia and tumor cell lysis. When combined with iodine 123 (I-123), expressed NIS facilitates uptake of I-123 by MV-NIS-infected tumor cells, allowing noninvasive imaging of these cells. MV-NIS may also enhance the oncolytic activity of MV against radiosensitive tumor cells by facilitating the uptake of iodine 131 (I-131) by MV-NIS-infected cells. The cellular receptor for MV is the human CD46 antigen, a type 1 integral membrane glycoprotein found on nearly all human tissues and overexpressed on many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oncolytic Newcastle disease virus  
An oncolytic viral agent containing the oncolytic, live-attenuated strain of the paramyxovirus Newcastle disease virus (NDV), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, NDV specifically infects and replicates in cancer cells. This may result in a direct cytotoxic effect involving the lysis of tumor cells via apoptotic mechanisms and may eventually lead to an inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Onconase  
(Other name for: ranpirnase)

Oncophage  
(Other name for: vitespen)

Oncoquest-L vaccine  
(Other name for: autologous tumor cell proteoliposome chronic lymphocytic leukemia vaccine)

OncoVax-PR  
(Other name for: PSA prostate cancer vaccine)

OncoVEX GM-CSF  
(Other name for: talimogene laherparepvec)

Oncoxin  
(Other name for: green tea extract-based antioxidant supplement)

ondansetron  
A carbazole derivative with antiemetic activity. As a selective serotonin receptor antagonist, ondansetron competitively blocks the action of serotonin at 5HT3 receptors, resulting in suppression of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ondansetron hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of the racemic form of ondansetron, a carbazole derivative and a selective, competitive serotonin 5-hydroxytrptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist with antiemetic activity. Although its mechanism of action has not been fully characterized, ondansetron appears to competitively block the action of serotonin at 5HT3 receptors peripherally in the gastrointestinal tract as well as centrally in the area postrema of the CNS, where the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) for vomiting is located, resulting in the suppression of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Onrigin  
(Other name for: laromustine)

Onsolis  
(Other name for: fentanyl buccal soluble film)

ONTAK  
(Other name for: denileukin diftitox)

ONYX-015  
An E1B-55kDa-deleted adenovirus that is able to selectively replicate in and lyse TP53-deficient human tumor cells. After tumor cell lysis, released viruses infect neighboring tumor cells, tripping a chain of ONYX-015-mediated tumor cell cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Opana  
(Other name for: oxymorphone hydrochloride)

OPCs/green tea,/spirullina/curcumin/antrodia camphorate/fermented soymilk extract capsule  
A capsule containing a fermented soymilk extract and oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), green tea, spirullina, curcumin and antrodia camphorate powder, with potential antioxidant, immunomodulating, anti-infective and anti-cancer activities. OPCs/green tea/spirullina/curcumin/antrodia camphorate/fermented soymilk extract capsule may boost the immune system and may alleviate fatigue and poor appetite in cancer chemotherapy patients. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

opebacan  
An injectable formulation composed of opebacan, a 21 kDa recombinant fragment of human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), with potential anti-infective activity. Upon intravenous administration, opebacan is able to mimic BPI and binds to and neutralizes lipopolysaccharides (LPS or endotoxins), which are components of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria that induce a potent innate immune response. This may prevent an endotoxin-mediated inflammatory response and may prevent graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD) after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT). BPI, a host-defense protein against microbial infection, is naturally produced by neutrophils. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy induce neutropenia and depletion of endogenous BPI. These therapies also cause intestinal damage and release of bacterial endotoxins into the bloodstream, which initiate a systemic inflammatory response, activate donor T-lymphocytes and possibly cause GvHD following aHSCT. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

opioid agonist GIC-1001  
A sulfonate-based salt form of a trimebutine derivative, an orally available, peripherally-acting opioid agonist and muscarinic antagonist, with potential visceral analgesic activity. Upon oral administration of GIC-1001, this agent may exert its therapeutic effects through the potential mechanisms of action for the trimebutine and sulfonate moieties: The trimebutine moiety can act as a motility enhancer in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, as an antispasmodic agent to reduce colonic spasms, as an agonist of colonic mu and kappa opioid receptors, which could provide an analgesic effect, and blocks sodium channels and the release of a variety of GI peptides, which modulates the activity of visceral afferents. The sulfonate moiety releases hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is involved, through an as of yet not fully elucidated mechanism of action, in the modulation of visceral perception and pain, possibly through the activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) ion channels and mu opioid receptors. Altogether, administration of this agent may both facilitate the insertion of the colonoscope during a colonoscopy and reduce colonic spasms and pain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

opioid growth factor  
An endogenous pentapeptide with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. Opioid growth factor (OGF) binds to and activates the opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr), present on some tumor cells and vascular cells, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

opium tincture  
Also known as laudanum and formulated for oral administration, opium tincture is made of air-dried poppy (Papaver somniferum) latex and contains alkaloids such as morphine and codeine. As an antidiarrheal agent, it slows transit of intestinal contents by increasing intestinal smooth muscle tone and inhibiting motility; water is absorbed from fecal contents, decreasing diarrhea. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

OPPA regimen  
A regimen consisting of vincristine, prednisone, procarbazine and doxorubicin (OPPA) used in combination with radiation therapy for the treatment of female patients with childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma with low-risk features. (NCI Thesaurus)

oprelvekin  
A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine interleukin 11 (IL-11). Secreted by bone marrow stromal cells and a number of mesenchymal cells, IL-11 binds to and activates its cell-surface receptor, promoting primary and secondary immune responses, modulating antigen-specific antibody reactions, and preventing apoptotic cell death. This agent also stimulates the T-cell-dependent development of IgG-secreting B-cells in spleen cell cultures and may be an important regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oprozomib  
An orally bioavailable proteasome inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Oprozomib inhibits the activity of the proteasome, thereby blocking the targeted proteolysis normally performed by the proteasome; this may result in an accumulation of unwanted or misfolded proteins. Disruption of various cell signaling pathways may follow, eventually leading to the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor growth. Proteasomes are large protease complexes that degrade unneeded or damaged proteins that have been ubiquitinated. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Optison  
(Other name for: perflutren protein-type A microspheres)

Ora-Testryl  
(Other name for: fluoxymesterone)

Oracit  
(Other name for: sodium citrate)

oral aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride  
A powder for an oral solution comprised of the hydrochloride salt of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) with a potential application for photodynamic therapy. After oral administration, ALA is converted intracellularly into the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Upon exposure to light of appropriate wavelength (violet to blue range), excited PpIX emits a characteristic red fluorescence which could facilitate guided resection, and generates excited singlet oxygen molecules that could kill cells when appropriate laser dosage is applied. ALA is preferentially taken up by and accumulates in many types of cancer cells compared to normal, healthy cells. Consequently, cancer cells can be visualized and can be distinguished from normal, healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

oral azacitidine  
An orally bioavailable formulation of azacitidine, a pyrimidine nucleoside analogue of cytidine, with antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, azacitidine is taken up by cells and metabolized to 5-azadeoxycitidine triphosphate. The incorporation of 5-azadeoxycitidine triphosphate into DNA reversibly inhibits DNA methyltransferase, and blocks DNA methylation. Hypomethylation of DNA by azacitidine may re-activate tumor suppressor genes previously silenced by hypermethylation, resulting in an antitumor effect. In addition, the incorporation of 5-azacitidine triphosphate into RNA disrupts normal RNA function and impairs tRNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase activity, resulting in an inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

oral fludarabine phosphate  
An oral formulation of the phosphate salt of fludarabine, a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue antimetabolite with antineoplastic activity. Fudarabine is preferentially transported into malignant cells and metabolized by deoxycytidine kinase to its active form, 2-fluoro-ara-ATP; 2-fluoro-ara-ATP competes directly with deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) and inhibits alpha DNA polymerase, RNA reductase, and DNA primase, which may result in inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oral Hsp90 inhibitor IPI-493  
An orally bioavailable formulation of the ansamycin derivative 17-amino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AG) with potential antineoplastic activity. Oral Hsp90 inhibitor IPI-493 binds to and inhibits Hsp90, which may result the in growth inhibition in sensitive tumor cell populations. Hsp90, a 90 kDa molecular chaperone, may be highly expressed in tumor cells, playing a key role in the conformational maturation, stability and function of other substrate or "client" proteins within the cell; many of these client proteins are involved in signal transduction, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, and may include kinases, transcription factors and hormone receptors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oral microencapsulated diindolylmethane  
An orally bioavailable microencapsulated formulation of diindolylmethane, an indole phytonutrient found in cruciferous vegetables, with estrogen-modulating, antiandrogenic, and potential antineoplastic activities. As a dimer of indole-3-carbinol, diindolylmethane (DIM) modulates estrogen balance by reducing the levels of 16-hydroxy estrogen metabolites and increasing the formation of beneficial 2-hydroxy estrogen metabolites. DIM also antagonizes androgen receptor activity, which may result in diminished cell proliferation and apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations. Pure DIM, which is relatively hydrophobic, is poorly absorbed after oral administration. This oral formulation, which consists of DIM, d-alpha-tocopheryl acid succinate, phosphatidylcholine, and silica microencapsulated in starch, significantly improves the gastrointestinal absorption of DIM. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oral milataxel  
An orally bioavailable taxane with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, milataxel and its major active metabolite M-10 bind to and stabilize tubulin, resulting in the inhibition of microtubule depolymerization and cell division, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Unlike other taxane compounds, milataxel appears to be a poor substrate for the multidrug resistance (MDR) membrane-associated P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump and may be useful for treating multidrug-resistant tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oral picoplatin  
An oral preparation of picoplatin, a third generation platinum compound with antineoplastic activity. Designed to overcome platinum drug resistance, picoplatin alkylates DNA, forming both inter- and intra-strand cross-linkages, resulting in inhibition of DNA replication and RNA transcription and the induction of apoptosis. Because of the increase in steric bulk around the platinum center, there is a relative reduction in the inactivation of picoplatin by thiol-containing species such as glutathione and metallothionein in comparison to cisplatin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oral rehydration solution  
An aqueous solution composed of glucose and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, and phosphorus, with dehydration preventative and rehydration activities. Upon oral administration of the oral rehydration solution (ORS), water, electrolytes and glucose are absorbed from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract into the systemic circulation. This replenishes the body's supply of water, carbohydrates and electrolytes, and prevents both dehydration and renal dysfunction. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oral sodium phenylbutyrate  
An orally active derivative of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate with potential antineoplastic activity. 4-Phenylbutyrate inhibits histone deacetylase, resulting in cell cycle gene expression modulation, reduced cell proliferation, increased cell differentiation, and apoptosis. This agent also initiates fragmentation of genomic DNA, resulting in decreased DNA synthesis and the inhibition of tumor cell migration and invasion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oral topotecan hydrochloride  
An oral formulation of the hydrochloride salt of topotecan, a semisynthetic derivative of the quinoline alkaloid camptothecin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Topotecan selectively inhibits topoisomerase I activity by stabilizing topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes during the S phase of the cell cycle, thereby inhibiting religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-strand DNA breaks and producing potentially lethal double-strand DNA breaks when encountered by the DNA replication machinery. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Oralet  
(Other name for: fentanyl citrate)

Oramorph  
(Other name for: morphine sulfate)

Oramorph SR  
(Other name for: morphine sulfate)

orantinib  
An orally bioavailable receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Orantinib binds to and inhibits the autophosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), thereby inhibiting angiogenesis and cell proliferation. Orantinib also inhibits the phosphorylation of the stem cell factor receptor tyrosine kinase c-kit, often expressed in acute myelogenous leukemia cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Orathecin  
(Other name for: rubitecan)

oraxol  
A combination formulation composed of a capsule containing the taxane compound paclitaxel and a tablet containing the multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor HM30181A, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration of oraxol, the HM30181A moiety binds to and inhibits P-gp, which prevents P-gp-mediated efflux of paclitaxel, therefore enhancing its oral bioavailability. In turn, paclitaxel binds to and stabilizes microtubules, preventing their depolymerization, which results in the inhibition of cellular motility, mitosis, and replication. Altogether, this may result in greater intracellular concentration of paclitaxel, and enhanced cytotoxicity against tumor cells, when compared to the administration of paclitaxel alone. P-gp, encoded by the MDR-1 gene, is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transmembrane transporters; it prevents the intestinal uptake and intracellular accumulation of various cytotoxic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Orazol  
(Other name for: enteric-coated zoledronic acid tablet MER-101)

oregovomab  
A murine monoclonal antibody that attaches to the tumor-associated antigen CA125. Vaccination with monoclonal antibody B43.13 may stimulate a host cytotoxic immune response against tumor cells that express CA125. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Orencia  
(Other name for: abatacept)

Orestralyn  
(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol)

ormaplatin  
A platinum(IV) analogue with antineoplastic activity. Ormaplatin alkylates DNA, forming both inter- and intra-strand platinum-DNA crosslinks, which result in inhibition of DNA replication and transcription and cell-cycle nonspecific cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Orplatna  
(Other name for: satraplatin)

orteronel  
An orally bioavailable non-steroidal androgen synthesis inhibitor of steroid 17alpha-monooxygenase (17,20 lyase) with potential antiandrogen activity. Orteronel binds to and inhibits the steroid 17alpha-monooxygenase in both the testes and adrenal glands, thereby inhibiting androgen production. This may decrease androgen-dependent growth signaling and may inhibit cell proliferation of androgen-dependent tumor cells. The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP17A1 (P450C17), localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), exhibits both 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities, and plays a key role in the steroidogenic pathway that produces steroidal hormones, such as progestins, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ortho-Novum  
(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone)

Orthoclone OKT3  
(Other name for: muromonab-CD3)

Orudis  
(Other name for: ketoprofen)

Oruvail  
(Other name for: ketoprofen)

oseltamivir phosphate  
The phosphate salt of oseltamivir, a synthetic derivative prodrug of ethyl ester with antiviral activity. By blocking neuraminidases on the surfaces of influenza viruses, oseltamivir interferes with host cell release of complete viral particles. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

OSI-7904L  
A liposome-encapsulated formulation of the benzoquinazoline folate analog OSI-7904 with antineoplastic activity. As a thymidylate synthase inhibitor, OSI-7904 noncompetitively binds to thymidylate synthase, resulting in inhibition of thymine nucleotide synthesis and DNA replication. Liposome encapsulation improves the efficacy and increases the half-life of OSI-7904. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Osmitrol  
(Other name for: mannitol)

Ossirene  
(Other name for: ammonium trichlorotellurate)

Ostarine  
(Other name for: enobosarm)

otlertuzumab  
A recombinant single-chain polypeptide engineered to exhibit the full binding and activity of an anti-CD37 monoclonal antibody with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Otlertuzumab binds to CD37 on B-cells, which may result in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and apoptosis. CD37 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed at high-levels on B cells and to a lesser extent on T cells and myeloid cells. This agent may have a longer half-life in vivo than conventional monoclonal antibodies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ovapuldencel-T  
A cancer vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with autologous, lethally irradiated cancer cells and mixed with the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon vaccination, ovapuldencel-T may stimulate the immune system to exert a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune response against the repertoire of tumor associated antigens (TAAs) found in the irradiated cancer cells. GM-CSF enhances the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and promotes antigen presentation to both B- and T-lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

OvaRex  
(Other name for: oregovomab)

ovarian cancer peptide vaccine  
A cancer vaccine comprised of synthetic peptides corresponding to naturally-occurring peptides derived from ovarian cancer cell antigens. Ovarian cancer peptide vaccine may elicit a cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells expressing the related ovarian cancer cell antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ovarian cancer stem cell/hTERT/survivin mRNAs-loaded autologous dendritic cell vaccine  
A cancer vaccine containing autologous dendritic cells (DCs) that are transfected with mRNAs extracted from amplified ovarian cancer stem cells, and mRNAs of the universal tumor antigens human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and survivin with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, ovarian cancer stem cell/hTERT/survivin mRNAs-loaded autologous DC-006 vaccine may elicit a highly specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against ovarian cancer cells expressing hTERT, survivin, and specific ovarian cancer stem cell antigens. hTERT, the catalytic subunit of human telomerase, and survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family of proteins, may be upregulated in certain tumor cell types, playing key roles in tumor cell growth and survival. Ovarian cancer stem cells contain a specific range of antigens that are essential for the neoplastic growth and survival of ovarian cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

ovarian tumor antigen-activated autologous dendritic cell vaccine  
A dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) activated with an ovarian tumor cell lysate containing tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the ovarian tumor antigen-activated autologous DC vaccine may stimulate an anti-tumoral cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against ovarian cancer cells expressing ovarian tumor cell-specific antigens, which may result in ovarian tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

OVax  
(Other name for: autologous dinitrophenyl-modified ovarian cancer vaccine)

Ovcon  
(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone)

Ovrette  
(Other name for: norgestrel)

oxaliplatin  
An organoplatinum complex in which the platinum atom is complexed with 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (DACH) and with an oxalate ligand as a 'leaving group.' A 'leaving group' is an atom or a group of atoms that is displaced as a stable species taking with it the bonding electrons. After displacement of the labile oxalate ligand leaving group, active oxaliplatin derivatives, such as monoaquo and diaquo DACH platinum, alkylate macromolecules, forming both inter- and intra-strand platinum-DNA crosslinks, which result in inhibition of DNA replication and transcription and cell-cycle nonspecific cytotoxicity. The DACH side chain appears to inhibit alkylating-agent resistance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oxaliplatin-encapsulated transferrin-conjugated N-glutaryl phosphatidylethanolamine liposome  
A nanoparticle formulation containing N-glutaryl phosphatidylethanolamine (NGPE)-liposomes encapsulating oxaliplatin and conjugated to the human transferrin (Tf) ligand, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon infusion of oxaliplatin-encapsulated transferrin-conjugated NGPE liposomes, the transferrin moiety targets and binds to the Tf receptor, which is overexpressed on a variety of human cancer cells. Upon binding and internalization, oxaliplatin is released and its active derivatives alkylate macromolecules, forming both inter- and intra-strand platinum-DNA crosslinks, resulting in an inhibition of DNA replication and transcription. By extending the circulation time and specifically targeting transferrin receptors, this formulation may improve the efficacy and safety of oxaliplatin therapy, compared to administration of oxaliplatin alone. NGPE, a reactive phospholipid, is used as a linker to attach the Tf ligand, to the liposome. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Oxandrin  
(Other name for: oxandrolone)

oxandrolone  
A synthetic, anabolic steroid hormone analog of testosterone. Similar to testosterone, oxandrolone binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors. This agent may be used for testosterone replacement therapy in hypogonadal men, in HIV-wasting syndrome, and in other conditions in order to increase nitrogen retention and fat-free muscle mass. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oxcarbazepine  
A dibenzazepine carboxamide derivative with an anticonvulsant property. As a prodrug, oxcarbazepine is converted to its active metabolite, 10-monohydroxy. Although the mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated, electrophysiological studies indicate this agent blocks voltage-gated sodium channels, thereby stabilizing hyper-excited neural membranes, inhibiting repetitive neuronal firing, and decreasing the propagation of synaptic impulses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oxidized avidin  
An oxidized form of the glycoprotein avidin, that can be used as a linking agent for tissue-pretargeted radionuclide therapy. Upon intralesional administration, the aldehyde groups of oxidized avidin strongly bind to the amino groups on tissue proteins, via the formation of Schiff bases. As avidin is able to strongly bind to biotin, intravenous administration of radiolabeled biotin may lead to the selective eradication of the pre-targeted tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oxitriptan  
An aromatic amino acid with antidepressant activity. In vivo, oxitriptan is converted into 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin) as well as other neurotransmitters. Oxitriptan may exert its antidepressant activity via conversion to serotonin or directly by binding to serotonin (5-HT) receptors within the central nervous system (CNS). Endogenous 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is produced from the essential amino acid L-tryptophan. Exogenous therapeutic 5-HTP is isolated from the seeds of the African plant Griffonia simplicifolia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

OxPhos Inhibitor VLX600  
A lipophilic cation-based triazinoindolyl-hydrazone compound and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon infusion, in normal cells and proliferating tumor cells where glucose is readily available, inhibition of OxPhos by VLX600 induces a hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1alpha)-dependent shift to, and an increase in glycolysis. Glycolysis alone does not produce enough energy to support the growth of tumor cells in this environment, and the induction of autophagy occurs. In the metabolically compromised tumor microenvironment, the availability of oxygen and glucose is limited due to poor vascularization and perfusion of tumor micro-areas. Tumor cells growing in this environment are thus unable to compensate for decreased mitochondrial function by increasing glycolysis. This leads to nutrient depletion, decreased energy production, induction of autophagy, tumor cell death and an inhibition of cell proliferation in quiescent tumor cells. Mitochondrial OxPhos, which is hyperactivated in cancer cells, plays a key role in the promotion of cancer cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Oxsoralen  
(Other name for: methoxsalen)

Oxsoralen-Ultra  
(Other name for: methoxsalen)

oxycodone hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of oxycodone, a methylether of oxymorphone and semisynthetic opioid agonist with analgesic and antitussive properties. Oxycodone binds to mu-receptors in the central nervous system (CNS), thereby mimicking the effects of endogenous opiates. In addition to analgesia and a depressive effect on the cough center in the medulla, this agent may cause euphoria, anxiolysis, miosis, sedation, physical dependence, constipation, and respiratory depression, depending on dosage and variations in individual metabolism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

oxycodone hydrochloride/naloxone hydrochloride prolonged-release tablet  
A prolonged-release tablet formulation composed of the hydrochloride salt form of the opioid receptor agonist oxycodone and the hydrochloride salt form of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone which may produce analgesia while relieving opioid-mediated gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. Upon oral administration, oxycodone binds to opioid receptors, thereby mimicking the effects of endogenous opiates to provide analgesia. As naloxone is very poorly absorbed, this agent binds locally to opiate receptors in the GI tract, thereby preventing oxycodone from binding to these receptors. This relieves the opioid-related side effects on the GI tract, including opioid-induced constipation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

OxyContin  
(Other name for: oxycodone hydrochloride)

oxymorphone hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt form of oxymorphone, a semisynthetic opioid with a potent analgesic property. Oxymorphone hydrochloride binds to and activates opiate receptors, specifically mu-receptors, in the central nervous system (CNS). This results in sedation, analgesia, decreased gastrointestinal motility, and respiratory depression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ozarelix  
A highly modified, fourth generation linear decapeptide with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or LHRH) antagonizing properties. Ozarelix competitively binds to and blocks the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor in the anterior pituitary gland, thereby inhibiting the secretion and release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). In males, the inhibition of LH secretion prevents the release of testosterone. As a result, this may relieve symptoms associated with hormonally dependent disease states such as hormone-dependent prostate cancer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ozurdex  
(Other name for: dexamethasone intravitreal implant)

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