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NCI Drug Dictionary

NCI Drug Dictionary

  

p-cadherin antagonist PF-03732010  
An agent that inhibits p-cadherin (cdh3), with potential antineoplastic activity. PF-03732010 binds to and inhibits the activity of p-cadherin. Inhibition of the activity of p-cadherin may inhibit tumor cell invasion and proliferation in p-cadherin expressing tumor cells. P-cadherin, a cell-surface protein and member of the cadherin family, is overexpressed in a variety of solid tumors, and plays a role in cell adhesion, motility, invasion and proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

P-glycoprotein inhibitor HM30181AK  
An inhibitor of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), with adjuvant activity. Upon oral administration, P-gp inhibitor HM30181AK selectively binds to and inhibits the multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pump P-gp, which prevents the efflux of various chemotherapeutic agents from intestinal epithelial cells to the gastrointestinal tract. This leads to an increase in both oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. P-gp prevents the intestinal uptake and intracellular accumulation of various cytotoxic agents. HM30181AK is not systemically absorbed. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

P-p68 inhibitor RX-5902  
An orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of phosphorylated-p68 RNA helicase (P-p68), with potential anti-proliferative and antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, P-p68 inhibitor RX-5902 may both inhibit the activity of the anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein and facilitate the induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21). This may prevent G2/M cell cycle progression and lead to growth inhibition in tumor cells. P-p68 is overexpressed in various types of solid tumors but absent in normal tissues, and plays a role in tumor progression and metastasis. p21 is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor which regulates cell cycle progression and mediates both growth arrest and cellular senescence. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p.DOM-WT1-126 DNA vaccine  
A fusion DNA vaccine containing the first domain of fragment C (FrC) of tetanus toxin (TT865-1120) (p.DOM) fused to the human Wilms' Tumor gene-1 (WT1)-derived MHC class I-binding epitope WT1.126, with potential antitumor activity. Upon vaccination with p.DOM-WT1-126 DNA and subsequent electroporation, this vaccine may induce a WT1 epitope-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT1 expressing cells, resulting in cell lysis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in WT1-overexpressing cancer cells. WT1, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in a variety of solid cancers. The FrC of tetanus toxin contains the MHC II-binding sequence, p30, which induces T-helper cell activation for long-lasting immunity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

p.DOM-WT1-37 DNA vaccine  
A fusion DNA vaccine containing the first domain of fragment C (FrC) of tetanus toxin (TT865-1120) (p.DOM) fused to the human Wilms' Tumor gene-1 (WT1)-derived MHC class I-binding epitope WT1.37, with potential antitumor activity. Upon vaccination with p.DOM-WT1-37 DNA and subsequent electroporation, this vaccine may induce a WT1 epitope-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT1 expressing cells, resulting in cell lysis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in WT1-overexpressing cancer cells. WT1, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in a variety of solid cancers. The FrC of tetanus toxin contains the MHC II-binding sequence, p30, which induces T-helper cell activation for long-lasting immunity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

p110beta/delta PI3K Inhibitor GS-9820  
An inhibitor of the beta and delta isoforms of the 110 kDa catalytic subunit of class IA phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3K) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. p110beta/delta PI3K inhibitor GS-9820 inhibits the activity of PI3K, thereby preventing the production of the second messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), which decreases tumor cell proliferation and induces cell death. PI3K-mediated signaling is often dysregulated in cancer cells; the targeted inhibition of PI3K is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p38 MAPK inhibitor LY2228820 dimesylate  
The dimesylate salt form of LY2228820, a tri-substituted imidazole derivative and orally available, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor with potential anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, LY2228820 inhibits the activity of p38, particularly the alpha and beta isoforms, thereby inhibiting MAPKAPK2 phosphorylation and preventing p38 MAPK-mediated signaling. This may inhibit the production of a variety of cytokines involved in inflammation, cellular proliferation and angiogenesis such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa), interleukin (IL)-1, -6 and -8, vascular endothelial growth factor, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha. Ultimately this induces apoptosis and reduces tumor cell proliferation. In addition, inhibition of the p38 MAPK pathway by LY2228820 increases the antineoplastic activity of certain chemotherapeutic agents. p38 MAPK, a serine/threonine protein kinase that is often upregulated in cancer cells, plays a crucial role in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p38 MAPK inhibitor LY3007113  
An orally active p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor with potential immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, LY3007113 inhibits the activity of p38, thereby preventing p38 MAPK-mediated signaling. This may result in the inhibition of the production of proinflammatory cytokines and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. p38 MAPK, a serine/threonine protein kinase often upregulated in cancer cells, plays a crucial part in the production of a variety of cytokines involved in inflammation and cellular proliferation such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-1 and -6. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p38/Tie2 kinase inhibitor Arry-614  
An orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of p38 and Tie2 kinases with potential antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic activities. p38/Tie2 kinase inhibitor Arry-614 binds to and inhibits the activities of p38 and Tie2 kinases, which may inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines and may decrease tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell growth and survival. p38 is a MAP kinase that is often upregulated in cancer cells, playing a crucial part in the production of a variety of cytokines involved in inflammation and cellular proliferation such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-1 and -6. Tie2 is an endothelial cell specific receptor that is activated by angiopoietins, growth factors required for angiogenesis. This agent has also been reported to inhibit other kinases including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR2) and Src tyrosine kinases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p53 peptide vaccine  
A peptide-based cancer vaccine composed of amino acids 264 to 272 of the wild-type protein encoded by the P53 gene. p53 peptide vaccine may elicit an HLA-A2.1-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte immune response against tumor cells that overexpress p53 protein. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p53 synthetic long peptide (70-251) vaccine  
A peptide vaccine consisting of 10 synthetic long peptides (SLPs), 25-30 amino acids in size and derived from the middle portion of p53 (amino acids 70-251), mixed with the adjuvant Montanide ISA-51 with potential immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. Upon administration, p53 synthetic long peptide (70-251) vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL) response against p53-expressing tumor cells. p53, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), may be overexpressed in variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p53-HDM2 protein-protein interaction inhibitor MI-773  
An orally available spiro-oxindole HDM2 (human double minute 2) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, the p53-HDM2 protein-protein interaction inhibitor MI-773 binds to HDM2, preventing the binding of the HDM2 protein to the transcriptional activation domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. By preventing this HDM2-p53 interaction, the proteosome-mediated enzymatic degradation of p53 is inhibited and the transcriptional activity of p53 is restored, which may result in the restoration of p53 signaling and lead to the p53-mediated induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HDM2, a zinc finger protein and a negative regulator of the p53 pathway, is often overexpressed in cancer cells. It has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p53/HDM2 interaction inhibitor CGM097  
An orally bioavailable HDM2 (human homolog of double minute 2) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, p53/HDM2 interaction inhibitor CGM097 inhibits the binding of the HDM2 protein to the transcriptional activation domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. By preventing this HDM2-p53 interaction, the proteosome-mediated enzymatic degradation of p53 is inhibited, which may result in the restoration of p53 signaling and, thus, the p53-mediated induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HDM2, a zinc finger nuclear phosphoprotein, is a negative regulator of the p53 pathway, often overexpressed in cancer cells and has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p70S6K inhibitor LY2584702  
An orally available inhibitor of p70S6K signaling, with potential antineoplastic activity. p70S6K inhibitor LY2584702 inhibits ribosomal protein S6 Kinase (p70S6K), and prevents phosphorylation of the S6 subunit of ribosomes, thereby inhibiting normal ribosomal function within tumor cells leading to a decrease in protein synthesis and in cellular proliferation. P70S6K, a serine/threonine kinase, acts downstream of PIP3 and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 in the PI3 kinase pathway, is often upregulated in a variety of cancer cells, and is involved in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, motility, and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

p70S6K/Akt inhibitor MSC2363318A  
An orally available inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinases ribosomal protein S6 Kinase (p70S6K) and Akt (protein kinase B), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, p70S6K/Akt inhibitor MSC2363318A binds to and inhibits the activity of p70S6K and Akt. This prevents the activation of the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K signaling pathway and inhibits tumor cell proliferation in cancer cells that have an overactivated PI3K/Akt/p70S6K signaling pathway. Constitutive activation and dysregulated signaling of the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K pathway are frequently associated with tumorigenesis of many tumor types; targeting multiple kinases in this pathway is more efficacious than targeting a single kinase. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

paclitaxel  
A compound extracted from the Pacific yew tree Taxus brevifolia with antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly of microtubules, thereby resulting in the inhibition of cell division. This agent also induces apoptosis by binding to and blocking the function of the apoptosis inhibitor protein Bcl-2 (B-cell Leukemia 2). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation  
A Cremophor EL-free, albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation of the natural taxane paclitaxel with antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel binds to and stabilizes microtubules, preventing their depolymerization and so inhibiting cellular motility, mitosis, and replication. This formulation solubilizes paclitaxel without the use of the solvent Cremophor, thereby permitting the administration of larger doses of paclitaxel while avoiding the toxic effects associated with Cremophor. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

paclitaxel injection concentrate for nanodispersion  
A nanoparticle-based injectable concentrate containing the water-insoluble taxane paclitaxel, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon reconstitution and administration, paclitaxel binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly of microtubules, thereby resulting in the inhibition of cell division. Compared to paclitaxel alone, the nanodispersion-based formulation uses less toxic solvents and allows for administration of higher doses resulting in higher concentrations of paclitaxel at the tumor site, and an increased safety profile. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

paclitaxel poliglumex  
The agent paclitaxel linked to a biodegradable, water-soluble polyglutamate polymer with antineoplastic properties. The polyglutamate residue increases the water solubility of paclitaxel and allows delivery of higher doses than those achievable with paclitaxel alone. Paclitaxel promotes microtubule assembly and prevents microtubule depolymerization, thus interfering with normal mitosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

paclitaxel vitamin E-based emulsion formulation  
A cremophor-free, P-glycoprotein-inhibiting, vitamin E-based emulsion particle formulation of paclitaxel with antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly of microtubules, thereby resulting in the inhibition of cell division. This agent also induces apoptosis by binding to and blocking the function of the apoptosis inhibitor protein Bcl-2 (B-cell Leukemia 2). The vitamin-E based emulsion allows bolus infusion without steroid premedication and may diminish hypersensitivity reactions; tumor tissue may be passively targeted due to preferential deposition of emulsion particles while an emulsion formulation component inhibits the P-glycoprotein drug efflux pump. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

paclitaxel-loaded polymeric micelle  
A biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactide) copolymer miceller nanoparticle-entrapped formulation of paclitaxel with antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel promotes microtubule assembly and prevents depolymerization, thus interfering with normal mitosis. The copolymer residue increases the water-solubility of paclitaxel and allows delivery of higher doses than those achievable with paclitaxel alone. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pacritinib  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and the JAK2 mutant JAK2V617F with potential antineoplastic activity. Pacritinib competes with JAK2 for ATP binding, which may result in inhibition of JAK2 activation, inhibition of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, and so caspase-dependent apoptosis. JAK2 is the most common mutated gene in bcr-abl-negative myeloproliferative disorders; the JAK2V617F gain-of-function mutation involves a valine-to-phenylalanine modification at position 617. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway is a major mediator of cytokine activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PAD regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen containing bortezomib, doxorubicin and dexamethasone regimen used in the treatment of multiple myeloma. (NCI Thesaurus)

padeliporfin  
A vascular-acting photosensitizer consisting of a water-soluble, palladium-substituted bacteriochlorophyll derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, paldeliporfin is activated locally when the tumor bed is exposed to low-power laser light; reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed upon activation and ROS-mediated necrosis may occur at the site of interaction between the photosensitizer, light and oxygen. Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) with padeliporfin may allow tumor-site specific cytotoxicity while sparing adjacent normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PADRE 965.10  
Pan-DR epitope (PADRE) 965.10 is a helper peptide. PADRE peptides have been shown the capacity to deliver help for antibody responses in vivo. They were also found to be able to provide significant helper T-cell activity in vivo. Acts as an adjuvant. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PADRE-CMV fusion peptide vaccine  
A peptide-based vaccine containing a pan HLA DR-binding epitope (PADRE) fused to a cytomegalovirus (CMV) peptide epitope, with potential anti-viral and immunomodulating activities. Upon administration, PADRE-CMV fusion peptide may stimulate a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CMV in the CMV-infected host. The synthetic peptide PADRE is a universal helper T cell epitope. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PAK4 inhibitor PF-03758309  
An orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) with potential antineoplastic activity. PAK4 inhibitor PF-03758309 binds to PAK4, inhibiting PAK4 activity and cancer cell growth. PAK4, a serine/threonine kinase belonging to the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family, is often upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types and plays an important role in cancer cell motility, proliferation, and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

palbociclib isethionate  
An orally available cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Palbociclib selectively inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and 6 (CDK6), thereby inhibiting retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation early in the G1 phase leading to cell cycle arrest. This suppresses DNA replication and decreases tumor cell proliferation. CDK4 and 6 are serine/threonine kinases that are upregulated in many tumor cell types and play a key role in the regulation of cell cycle progression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Palestrol  
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

palifermin  
A recombinant form of the endogenous human keratinocyte growth factor. Palifermin binds to epithelial cell surface receptors in the lining of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, resulting in stimulation of epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation and upregulation of cytoprotective mechanisms. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

palifosfamide  
A synthetic mustard compound with potential antineoplastic activity. An active metabolite of ifosfamide covalently linked to the amino acid lysine for stability, palifosfamide irreversibly alkylates and cross-links DNA through GC base pairs, resulting in irreparable 7-atom inter-strand cross-links; inhibition of DNA replication and cell death follow. Unlike ifosfamide, this agent is not metabolized to acrolein or chloroacetaldehyde, metabolites associated with bladder and CNS toxicities. In addition, because palifosfamide does not require activation by aldehyde dehydrogenase, it may overcome the tumor resistance seen with ifosfamide. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

palifosfamide tromethamine  
A synthetic mustard compound of the tromethamine (tris) salt of palifosfamide (Isophosphamide mustard), with potential antineoplastic activity. As the stabilized active metabolite of ifosfamide, palifosfamide irreversibly alkylates and crosslinks DNA through GC base pairs, resulting in irreparable 7-atom interstrand crosslinks. This leads to an inhibition of DNA replication and ultimately cell death. Unlike ifosfamide, this agent is not metabolized to acrolein or chloroacetaldehyde, metabolites associated with bladder and CNS toxicities. In addition, because palifosfamide does not require activation by aldehyde dehydrogenase, it may overcome the tumor resistance seen with ifosfamide. Stabilization with tris instead of lysine further increases stability and may further decrease nephrotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

palladium Pd 103  
A radioisotope of the metal palladium used in brachytherapy implants or 'seed'. With a half-life of 17 days, palladium 103 administered with brachytherapy allows continuous, tumor-site specific low-energy irradiation to the tumor cell population while sparing normal adjacent tissues from radiotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

palladium-bacteriopheophorbide  
A novel palladium-substituted bacteriochlorophyll derivative and photosensitizer with potential antitumor activity. Upon administration, inactive palladium-bacteriophephorbide is activated locally when the tumor bed is exposed to photoirradiation; the activated form induces local cytotoxic processes, resulting in local tissue damage, disruption of tumor vasculature, and tumor hypoxia and necrosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

palonosetron hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of palonosetron, a carbazole derivative and a selective serotonin receptor antagonist with antiemetic activity. Palonosetron competitively blocks the action of serotonin at 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptors located on vagal afferents in the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ), resulting in suppression of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The CTZ is located in the area postrema on the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata at the caudal end of the fourth ventricle and outside the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pamidronate disodium  
The disodium salt of the synthetic bisphosphonate pamidronate. Although its mechanism of action is not completely understood, pamidronate appears to adsorb to calcium phosphate crystals in bone, blocking their dissolution by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. This agent does not inhibit bone mineralization and formation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Pamolyn 300  
(Other name for: conjugated linoleic acid)

pan FGFR inhibitor ARQ 087  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. FGFR inhibitor ARQ 087 binds to and potently inhibits the activity of FGFR subtypes 1, 2 and 3. This may result in the inhibition of FGFR-mediated signal transduction pathways, tumor cell proliferation, tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell death in FGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. FGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is upregulated in many tumor cell types and plays a key role in tumor cellular proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pan FGFR kinase inhibitor BGJ398  
An orally bioavailable pan inhibitor of human fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. pan FGFR kinase inhibitor BGJ398 selectively binds to and inhibits the activities of FGFRs, which may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation, and the induction of tumor cell death. FGFRs are a family of receptor tyrosine kinases which may be upregulated in various tumor cell types and may be involved in tumor cell differentiation and proliferation, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor cell survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pan-AKT kinase inhibitor GSK690693  
An aminofurazan-derived inhibitor of Akt kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Pan-AKT kinase inhibitor GSK-690693 binds to and inhibits Akt kinases 1, 2, and 3, which may result in the inhibition of protein phosphorylation events downstream from Akt kinases in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and, subsequently, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. In addition, this agent may inhibit other protein kinases including protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA). As serine/threonine protein kinases which are involved in a number of biological processes, AKT kinases promote cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis and are required for glucose transport. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pan-CDK inhibitor BAY1000394  
An orally bioavailable cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. pan-CDK inhibitor BAY1000394 selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of CDK1/Cyclin B, CDK2/Cyclin E, CDK4/Cyclin D1, and CDK9/Cyclin T1, serine/threonine kinases that play key roles in the regulation of the cell cycle progression and cellular proliferation. Inhibition of these kinases leads to cell cycle arrest during the G1/S transition, thereby leading to an induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. CDKs are often dysregulated in cancerous cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pan-FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor BAY1163877  
A pan inhibitor of human fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Pan-FGFR kinase inhibitor BAY1163877 inhibits the activities of FGFRs, which may result in the inhibition of both tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation, and the induction of tumor cell death. FGFRs are a family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which may be upregulated in various tumor cell types and may be involved in tumor cell differentiation and proliferation, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor cell survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pan-FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor JNJ-42756493  
An orally bioavailable, pan fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, JNJ-42756493 binds to and inhibits FGFR, which may result in the inhibition of FGFR-related signal transduction pathways and thus the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death in FGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. FGFR, upregulated in many tumor cell types, is a receptor tyrosine kinase essential to tumor cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

pan-HER kinase inhibitor AC480  
An orally bioavailable, small-molecule pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic and radiosensitizing activities. Pan-HER kinase inhibitor AC480 binds to and inhibits the human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER) HER1 (EGFR), HER2 (ErbB-2) and HER4, which may prevent downstream signaling and inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells that overexpress these receptors. In addition, this agent may enhance the radiosensitivity of certain tumor cell types that express HER1 and HER2 through cell cycle redistribution in G1 phase and inhibition of DNA repair. EGFRs, frequently overexpressed on tumor cells, play a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pan-HER/VEGFR2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor BMS-690514  
A pyrrolotriazine-based compound and a pan inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Pan HER/VEGFR2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor BMS-690514 binds to human epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) 1, 2 and 4 (HER1, HER2 and HER4) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, 2 and 3 (VEGFR-1, -2 and -3), all of which are frequently overexpressed by a variety of tumor types. Binding of this agent to these receptors may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation; the inhibition of endothelial cell migration and proliferation and angiogenesis; and tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pan-PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PQR309  
An orally bioavailable pan inhibitor of phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K) and inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K/mTOR kinase inhibitor PQR309 inhibits the PI3K kinase isoforms alpha, beta, gamma and delta and, to a lesser extent, mTOR kinase, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in cells overexpressing PI3K/mTOR. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, may also be activated independent of PI3K, this agent may potentially be more potent than an agent that inhibits either PI3K kinase or mTOR kinase. By inhibiting mTOR to a lesser extent than PI3K, PQR309 does not interfere with the mTOR-mediated negative feedback loop on PI3K signaling. Blocking the negative feedback loop would potentially increase PI3K signaling and decrease therapeutic efficacy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pan-PI3K/mTOR inhibitor SF1126  
A water soluble, small-molecule prodrug containing the pan-PI3K/mTOR inhibitor LY294002/SF1101 conjugated to the RGD-containing tetra-peptide SF1174 with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. The targeting peptide SF1174 moiety of pan-PI3K/mTOR inhibitor SF1126 selectively binds to cell surface integrins and, upon cell entry, the agent is hydrolyzed to the active drug SF1101; SF1101 selectively inhibits all isoforms of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and other members of the PI3K superfamily, such as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and DNA-PK. By inhibiting the PI3K signaling pathway, this agent may inhibit tumor cell and tumor endothelial cell proliferation and survival. Integrins are transmembrane cell adhesion proteins expressed on the surfaces of endothelial and tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pan-PIM kinase inhibitor AZD1208  
An orally available, small molecule inhibitor of PIM kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Pan-PIM kinase inhibitor AZD1208 inhibits the activities of PIM1, PIM2 and PIM3 serine/threonine kinases, which may result in the interruption of the G1/S phase cell cycle transition, thereby causing cell cycle arrest and inducing apoptosis in cells that overexpress PIMs. The growth inhibition of several leukemia cell lines by this agent is correlated with the expression levels of PIM1, which is the substrate of STAT transcription factors. PIM kinases are downstream effectors of many cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways and are upregulated in various malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pan-RAF kinase inhibitor MLN2480  
An orally available inhibitor of A-Raf, B-Raf and C-Raf protein kinases, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, pan-RAF kinase inhibitor MLN2480 inhibits Raf-mediated signal transduction pathways, which may inhibit tumor cell growth. Raf protein kinases play a key role in the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway, which is often deregulated in human cancers and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pan-selectin antagonist GMI-1070  
A synthetic, glycomimetic molecule and pan-selectin antagonist, with potential use in a vaso-occlusive crisis. Upon administration, GMI-1070 prevents the interaction between leukocytes and the endothelium and may prevent cell activation and adhesion. By preventing selectin-mediated cell adhesion in sickle cell anemia, this agent may inhibit red blood cell-white blood cell interactions, normalize blood flow and reduce inflammation and vascular occlusive pain. GMI-1070 has the strongest antagonistic activity towards E-selectin but the incorporation of a sulfate-binding domain allows for interactions with P- and L-selectins. Selectins, containing lectin- and EGF-like domains, are a family of cell adhesion molecules implicated in inflammatory processes and cancer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pan-VEGFR/Tie2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor CEP-11981  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinases with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Pan-VEGFR/Tie2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor CEP-11981 selectively binds to VEGFR and Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinases, which may result the inhibition of endothelial cell migration, proliferation and survival and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. VEGFR and Tie2 are frequently overexpressed by a variety of tumor cell types and play crucial roles in the regulation of angiogenesis and the maintenance of tumor blood vessels. Tie2 (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains) is activated by angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Pancrease  
(Other name for: pancrelipase)

pancrelipase  
A standardized enzyme concentrate containing the pancreatic enzymes, lipase, protease and amylase used in enzyme substitution therapy. Lipase, protease and amylase break down fat, protein, and starches, respectively in the small intestine, thereby promoting digestion. Pancrelipase is used to reduce malabsorption when the pancreas is unable to secrete sufficient amounts of these enzymes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Panglobulin  
(Other name for: therapeutic immune globulin)

Panhematin  
(Other name for: therapeutic hemin)

panitumumab  
A human monoclonal antibody produced in transgenic mice that attaches to the transmembrane epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Panitumumab may inhibit autocrine EGF stimulation of tumor cells that express the EGF receptor, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PankoMab-GEX  
(Other name for: anti-TA-MUC1 monoclonal antibody PankoMab)

panobinostat  
A cinnamic hydroxamic acid analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Panobinostat selectively inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC), inducing hyperacetylation of core histone proteins, which may result in modulation of cell cycle protein expression, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and apoptosis. In addition, this agent appears to modulate the expression of angiogenesis-related genes, such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1a) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thus impairing endothelial cell chemotaxis and invasion. HDAC is an enzyme that deacetylates chromatin histone proteins. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Panretin  
(Other name for: alitretinoin)

pantoprazole sodium  
The sodium salt form of a substituted benzimidazole with proton pump inhibitor activity. Pantoprazole is a lipophilic, weak base that crosses the parietal cell membrane and enters the acidic parietal cell canaliculus where it becomes protonated, producing the active metabolite sulfenamide, which forms an irreversible covalent bond with two sites of the H+/K+-ATPase enzyme located on the gastric parietal cell, thereby inhibiting both basal and stimulated gastric acid production. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PANVAC-F  
(Other name for: falimarev)

PANVAC-V  
(Other name for: inalimarev)

Panwarfin  
(Other name for: warfarin)

Panzem  
(Other name for: 2-methoxyestradiol)

papaverine  
An opiate alkaloid isolated from the plant Papaver somniferum and produced synthetically. As a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant, papaverine is not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in structure or pharmacological actions; its mechanism of action may involve the non-selective inhibition of phosphodiesterases and direct inhibition of calcium channels. This agent also exhibits antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus, cytomegalovirus, and HIV. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Paraflex  
(Other name for: chlorzoxazone)

Paraplat  
(Other name for: carboplatin)

Paraplatin  
(Other name for: carboplatin)

parathyroid hormone-related protein (1-36)  
A recombinant form of a mature, N-terminal secretory peptide derived from a parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) preprohormone through posttranslational endoproteolytic processing with vasodilating, myorelaxant, and parathyroid hormone (PTH)-like calciotropic activities. Expressed throughout the cardiovascular system, parathyroid hormone-related protein (1-36) [PTHrP (1-36)] was first identified as the PTH-like hypercalcemic factor of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy; however, its sequence differs significantly from that of PTH (1-34) although both proteins share the same N-terminal end which accounts for the calciotropic activity. Both PTHrP (1-36) and PTH (1-34) bind to the type 1 parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R), a specific seven-transmembrane-helix-containing G protein-coupled receptor mainly located in bone and kidney cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

parecoxib sodium  
A water-soluble, injectable sodium salt form of parecoxib, an amide prodrug of the cyclooxygenase II (COX-2) selective, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) valdecoxib, with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. Upon intravenous or intramuscular administration, parecoxib is hydrolyzed by hepatic carboxyesterases to its active form, valdecoxib. Valdecoxib selectively binds to and inhibits COX-2. This prevents the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins, which are involved in the regulation of pain, inflammation, and fever. This NSAID does not inhibit COX-1 at therapeutic concentrations and, therefore, does not interfere with blood coagulation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

paricalcitol  
A synthetic noncalcemic, nonphosphatemic vitamin D analogue. Paricalcitol binds to the vitamin D receptor and has been shown to reduce parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. This agent also increases the expression of PTEN ('Phosphatase and Tensin homolog deleted on chromosome Ten'), a tumor-suppressor gene, in leukemic cells and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, resulting in tumor cell apoptosis and tumor cell differentiation into normal phenotypes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Parlodel  
(Other name for: bromocriptine mesylate)

paroxetine hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt form of paroxetine, a phenylpiperidine derivative and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Paroxetine binds to the pre-synaptic serotonin transporter complex resulting in negative allosteric modulation of the complex thereby blocking reuptake of serotonin by the pre-synaptic transporter. Inhibition of serotonin recycling enhances serotonergic function through serotonin accumulation in the synaptic cleft, resulting in long-term desensitization and downregulation of 5HT1 (serotonin) receptors and leading to symptomatic relief of depressive illness. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PARP 1/2 inhibitor E7449  
An orally available small molecule inhibitor of the nuclear enzymes poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 and 2, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, E7449 selectively binds to PARP 1 and 2, thereby preventing the repair of damaged DNA via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. This agent enhances the accumulation of single and double strand DNA breaks and promotes genomic instability eventually leading to apoptosis. PARP 1/2 inhibitor E7449 may enhance the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and of radiotherapy. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins that signal and recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PARP inhibitor BMN-673  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with potential antineoplastic activity. PARP inhibitor BMN-673 selectively binds to PARP and prevents PARP-mediated DNA repair of single strand DNA breaks via the base-excision repair pathway. This enhances the accumulation of DNA strand breaks, promotes genomic instability and eventually leads to apoptosis. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins that signal and recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA and is activated by single-strand DNA breaks. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PARP inhibitor CEP-9722  
A small-molecule prodrug of CEP-8983, a novel 4-methoxy-carbazole inhibitor of the nuclear enzymes poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 and 2, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration and conversion from CEP-9722, CEP-8983 selectively binds to PARP 1 and 2, preventing repair of damaged DNA via base excision repair (BER). This agent enhances the accumulation of DNA strand breaks and promotes genomic instability and apoptosis. CEP-8983 may potentiate the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and reverse tumor cell chemo- and radioresistance. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins that signal and recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA and can be activated by single strand breaks in DNA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PARP inhibitor E7016  
An inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with potential chemo- and/or radiosensitizing activity. PARP inhibitor E7016 selectively binds to PARP and prevents PARP-mediated DNA repair of single strand DNA breaks via the base-excision repair pathway. This enhances the accumulation of DNA strand breaks and promotes genomic instability and eventually leads to apoptosis. In addition, this agent may enhance the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and reverse tumor cell resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins that signal and recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA and is activated by single-strand DNA breaks. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PARP-1/2 inhibitor ABT-767  
An orally available inhibitor of the nuclear enzymes poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 and 2, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, ABT-767 selectively binds to PARP 1 and 2, thereby preventing repair of damaged DNA via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. This agent enhances the accumulation of DNA strand breaks and promotes genomic instability eventually leading to apoptosis. ABT-767 may enhance the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and reverse tumor cell chemo- and radioresistance. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins that signal and recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA and can be activated by single strand DNA (ssDNA) breaks. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

ParvOryx  
(Other name for: parvovirus H-1)

parvovirus H-1  
A replication-competent oncolytic parvovirus with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon infection of host cells, parvovirus H-1 preferentially replicates in tumor cells compared to healthy normal cells, thereby potentially resulting in tumor cell lysis and leading to an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. In addition, H1-infected tumor cells strongly induce the release of the inducible heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72i), which chaperone tumor associated antigens in the H1-mediated tumor lysates and may activate antigen presenting cells (APCs), thereby leading to antitumor immune responses. Parvovirus H-1 does not cause any pathogenic effect in normal, healthy cells and is able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pasireotide  
A synthetic long-acting cyclic peptide with somatostatin-like activity. Pasireotide activates a broad spectrum of somatostatin receptors, exhibiting a much higher binding affinity for somatostatin receptors 1, 3, and 5 than octreotide in vitro, as well as a comparable binding affinity for somatostatin receptor 2. This agent is more potent than somatostatin in inhibiting the release of human growth hormone (HGH), glucagon, and insulin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

patient-specific follicular lymphoma-derived anti-idiotype vaccine  
A patient-specific cancer vaccine directed against the soluble protein idiotype of an individual follicular lymphoma with potential antineoplastic activity. A patient-specific follicular lymphoma-derived anti-idiotype vaccine may be composed of a patient-specific, synthetic idiotype-related peptide (such as one corresponding to a hypervariable region of an IgG heavy chain) conjugated to the immunostimulant carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Upon administration, this vaccine may induce an idiotype-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against follicular lymphoma cells expressing the idiotype, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Patisiran  
(Other name for: anti-transthyretin siRNA ALN-TTR02)

patritumab  
A fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the membrane-bound receptor HER3 (ERBB3) with potential antineoplastic activity. Patritumab binds to and inhibits HER3 activation, which may result in inhibition of HER3-dependent PI3K/Akt signaling and so inhibition of cellular proliferation and differentiation. HER3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors, including breast, lung, and colorectal tumors of epithelial origin; it has no active kinase domain itself but is activated through heterodimerization with other members of the EGFR receptor family that do. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

patupilone  
A compound isolated from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. Similar to paclitaxel, patupilone induces microtubule polymerization and stabilizes microtubules against depolymerization conditions. In addition to promoting tubulin polymerization and stabilization of microtubules, this agent is cytotoxic for cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein, a characteristic that distinguishes it from the taxanes. Epothilone B may cause complete cell-cycle arrest. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Pavabid  
(Other name for: papaverine)

Pavatym  
(Other name for: papaverine)

Paxil  
(Other name for: paroxetine hydrochloride)

pazopanib hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of a small molecule inhibitor of multiple protein tyrosine kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Pazopanib selectively inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR)-1, -2 and -3, c-kit and platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGF-R), which may result in inhibition of angiogenesis in tumors in which these receptors are upregulated. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pBCAR3 phosphopeptide-tetanus peptide vaccine  
A vaccine composed of a phosphorylated peptide from the tumor-associated antigen breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance-3 (BCAR3) and a tetanus-derived peptide, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of pBCAR3 phosphopeptide-tetanus peptide vaccine, the pBCAR3 phosphopeptide may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against phosphopeptide-containing tumor cells. The tetanus peptide serves as an immunoadjuvant and induces a helper T-cell response, which may help stimulate an immune response against the pBCAR3-expressing melanoma tumor cells. BCAR3 is upregulated in a variety of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pBCAR3/pIRS2-phosphopeptide-tetanus peptide vaccine  
A vaccine composed of phosphorylated peptides from the tumor associated antigens breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance-3 (BCAR3) and insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2) and a tetanus-derived peptide, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of pBCAR3/pIRS2 phosphopeptide-tetanus peptide vaccine, the pBCAR3/pIRS2 phosphopeptide may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing either phosphopeptide. The tetanus peptide serves as an immunoadjuvant and induces a helper T-cell response which may help stimulate an immune response against pBCAR3 and pIRS2-expressing melanoma tumor cells. BCAR3 and IRS2 are upregulated in a variety of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pbi-shRNA STMN1 lipoplex  
A proprietary RNA interference construct consisting of bifunctional short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) against human stathmin 1 (STMN1) encapsulated in the cationic bilamellar invaginated vesicle lipoplex (LP) with potential antineoplastic activity. pbi-shRNA STMN1 LP contains 2 stem-loop structures encoded by a plasmid vector. Upon intratumoral administration, one shRNA unit with a perfectly matched sequence renders the suppression of STMN1 mRNA translation (mRNA sequestration and cleavage-independent degradation) while the other unit with an imperfectly matched sequence renders STMN1 mRNA degradation via RNase H-like cleavage (cleavage-dependent mRNA silencing). The suppression of STMN1 expression in tumor cells results in a reduction of tumor cell proliferation. STMN1, a ubiquitous cytosolic phosphoprotein and tubulin modulator that plays a key role in mitosis, is overexpressed in a variety of tumors and correlates with poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PBN derivative OKN-007  
A disulfonyl derivative of phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), with potential anti-glioma activity. Although the exact mechanism(s) of action of OKN007 are still largely unknown, this agent appears to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and migration. This agent appears to inhibit the activity of sulfatase 2 (SULF2), a highly specific endoglucosamine-6-sulfatase that is overexpressed in the extracellular matrix of cancer cells and catalyzes the removal of sulfate from the 6-O-sulfate esters of heparin. In addition, OKN007 may induce changes in tumor metabolism and scavenge free radicals. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PD0325901  
An orally bioavailable, synthetic organic molecule targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPK/ERK kinase or MEK) with potential antineoplastic activity. MEK inhibitor PD325901, a derivative of MEK inhibitor CI-1040, selectively binds to and inhibits MEK, which may result in the inhibition of the phosphorylation and activation of MAPK/ERK and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. The dual specific threonine/tyrosine kinase MEK is a key component of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway that is frequently activated in human tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PDK1 inhibitor AR-12  
An orally bioavailable, small-molecule, celecoxib-derived inhibitor of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) with potential antineoplastic activity. Devoid of any COX inhibiting activity, PDK1 inhibitor AR-12 binds to and inhibits the phosphorylation of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1).; subsequently, the phosphorylation and activation of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B or PKB) is inhibited, which may result in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. In addition, this agent appears to induce the activity of protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), which plays a key role in the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Activation and dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PectaSol-C  
(Other name for: modified citrus pectin supplement)

Pedi-Vit-A  
(Other name for: retinol)

PEDIARIX  
(Other name for: diphtheria toxoid/tetanus toxoid/acellular pertussis adsorbed, recombinant hepatitis B/inactivated poliovirus vaccine combined)

PediaSure  
(Other name for: nutritional supplement drink (pediatric))

PedvaxHIB  
(Other name for: Haemophilus influenzae b vaccine)

PEG-3350/sodium sulfate/sodium chloride/potassium chloride/sodium ascorbate/ascorbic acid-based laxative  
A preparation containing the nonabsorbable polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG or macrogol) 3350 and sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium ascorbate and ascorbic acid with laxative activity. Upon oral administration, the PEG-3350, sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium ascorbate and ascorbic acid-based laxative promotes the retention of water in the bowel. This increases the water content of stool, which results in increased gastrointestinal motility and evacuation of colonic contents. This results in a complete cleansing of the colon. Compared to the 4 liter PEG-3350-based preparations, this PEG-based laxative is a low volume (2 liter) preparation, which improves patients’ tolerance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PEG-interferon alfa-2a  
A covalent conjugate of recombinant interferon alfa, subtype 2a, and polyethylene glycol (PEG), used as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. The biological activity of this agent is derived from its interferon alpha-2a protein moiety. Interferons alfa bind to specific cell-surface receptors, leading to the transcription and translation of genes whose protein products mediate antiviral, antiproliferative, anticancer and immune-modulating effects. The PEG moiety lowers the clearance of interferon alpha-2a, thereby extending the duration of its therapeutic effects, but may also reduce interferon-mediated stimulation of an immune response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PEG-interleukin-2  
A complex of polyethylene glycol conjugated with human recombinant cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) with antineoplastic activity. PEG-interleukin-2 induces natural killer (NK) cell activity and the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and enhances T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Pegylation of IL-2 protects the cytokine from degradation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PEG-Intron  
(Other name for: peginterferon alfa-2b)

PEG-linked L-RNA oligonucleotide hepcidin-targeting agent NOX-H94  
A proprietary 44-nucleotide L-stereoisomer RNA oligonucleotide conjugated to a 40 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) that targets hepcidin with potential anti-anemic activity. Upon intravenous or subcutaneous administration, PEG-linked L-RNA oligonucleotide hepcidin targeting agent NOX-H94 binds to hepcidin and prevents it from binding to the iron channel ferroportin, located on the basolateral surface of gastrointestinal enterocytes and the plasma membrane of macrophages. This prevents hepcidin-induced internalization and degradation of ferroportin, thus decreasing macrophage iron retention. In turn, binding of NOX-H94 to hepcidin normalizes plasma iron levels and increases erythropoiesis. This may inhibit anemia caused by inflammation. Hepcidin, a peptide hormone that plays a key role in the homeostasis of systemic iron, is upregulated during acute and chronic inflammation in response to cytokines. The unique mirror-image configuration of this agent renders it resistant to hydrolysis and shows a low antigenicity profile. Pegylation increases the half-life of this agent. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PEG-proline-interferon alpha-2b  
A long-acting formulation of recombinant interferon alpha subtype 2b (IFN-a2b) protein, in which IFN-a2b is coupled, via proline, to polyethylene glycol (PEG), with antiviral, immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, IFN-a2b binds to specific interferon cell-surface receptors. This activates interferon-mediated signal transduction pathways and induces the transcription and translation of genes with interferon-specific response elements (ISREs); the protein products mediate antiviral, antiproliferative, anticancer, and immune-modulating effects. The PEG moiety inhibits proteolytic breakdown and clearance of IFN-a2b, which prolongs its half-life, extends the duration of its therapeutic effects and allows less frequent dosing. The proline linker facilitates the synthesis of a predominant (90%) positional isomer which allows for further increases in stability and a longer half-life than previous PEG conjugates. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pegaspargase  
A complex of polyethylene glycol conjugated with L-asparaginase. Asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, thereby depleting these cells of asparagine and blocking protein synthesis and tumor cell proliferation, especially in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The agent also induces apoptosis in tumor cells. Pegylation decreases the enzyme's antigenicity. Asparagine is critical to protein synthesis in leukemic cells, which cannot synthesize this amino acid due to the absence of the enzyme asparagine synthase. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PEGASYS  
(Other name for: PEG-interferon alfa-2a)

pegdinetanib  
A highly specific, synthetic peptide vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) antagonist with potential antiangiogenic activity. Derived from human fibronectin with a proprietary protein engineering process, pegdinetanib may block the activation of VEGFR-2 by all known activating ligands, thereby inhibiting the growth of new tumor blood vessels. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pegfilgrastim  
A long-acting pegylated form of a recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to an endogenous human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Produced endogenously by monocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, G-CSF binds to and activates specific cell surface receptors, stimulating neutrophil progenitor proliferation and differentiation and selected neutrophil functions. Conjugation of the cytokine with a branched polyethylene glycol molecule (pegylation) significantly increases its therapeutic half-life. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pegfilgrastim biosimilar LA-EP2006  
A biosimilar of pegfilgrastim, a long-acting pegylated form of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) filgrastim, with hematopoietic activity. In a similar manner to G-CSF, pegfilgrastim biosimilar LA-EP2006 binds to and activates specific cell surface receptors, stimulating neutrophil progenitor proliferation and differentiation and selected neutrophil functions. Therefore, this agent may prevent the incidence and shorten the duration of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Conjugation of the cytokine with a branched polyethylene glycol molecule significantly increases this agent's therapeutic half-life compared to filgrastim. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

peginterferon alfa-2b  
A covalent conjugate of recombinant interferon alpha, subtype 2b, and polyethylene glycol (PEG), used as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. The biological activity of this agent is derived from its interferon alpha-2b protein moiety. Interferons alfa bind to specific cell-surface receptors, leading to the transcription and translation of genes whose protein products mediate antiviral, antiproliferative, anticancer, and immune-modulating effects. The PEG moiety lowers the clearance of interferon alpha-2b, thereby extending the duration of its therapeutic effects, but may also reduce the interferon-mediated stimulation of an immune response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pegvisomant  
A pegylated, recombinant, human growth hormone (GH) structural analog with GH receptor antagonist activity. As a GH analog, the structure of pegvisomant is similar to that of native GH with the exception of 9 amino acid substitutions. Pegvisomant selectively binds to GH receptors on cell surfaces, interfering with endogenous GH receptor binding and so GH signal transduction. Inhibition of GH signal transduction results in decreased serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and other GH-responsive serum proteins, including IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and the acid-labile subunit (ALS), and may inhibit the growth of cancers in which IGF-1 is upregulated. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pegylated anti-GFR antibody fragment  
A pegylated, cross-linked, humanized divalent-Fab' antibody fragment directed against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) with potential antiangiogenic and antitumor activities. Pegylated anti-GFR antibody fragment binds to and inhibits VEGFR-2, which may inhibit angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. Multivalent Fab' antibody fragments may exhibit improved retention and internalization properties compared to their parent IgGs. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pegylated arginine deiminase  
An agent consisting of the arginine-degrading enzyme arginine deiminase combined with polyethylene glycol (20,000 MW) (ADI-PEG 20) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, arginine deiminase breaks down the amino acid arginine into citrulline. Although arginine is a nonessential amino acid for normal human cells, certain cancer cells are autotrophic for arginine and need arginine in order to survive. Depletion of arginine may lead to an inhibition of cellular proliferation in those cancer cells. ADI is coupled to PEG in order to enhance this agent's half-life. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pegylated granulocyte colony stimulating factor MAXY-G34  
A long-acting, pegylated recombinant variant of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) with immunomodulating activity. Pegylated granulocyte colony stimulating factor MAXY-G34 contains multiple non-naturally occurring lysines that have been introduced into alpha helixes of wild type human G-CSF as pegylation sites; other naturally occurring lysine residues have been removed to prevent pegylation and the variant G-CSF is pegylated with methoxypolyethylene glycol succinimidyl propionate (mPEG SPA) at three amino acid residues. Similar to endogenous G-CSF, this agent binds to and activates specific cell surface receptors, stimulating neutrophil progenitor proliferation and differentiation and selected neutrophil functions. A difference in the degree of pegylation may account for the extended half-life of this agent compared to pegfilgrastim which is pegylated at only one amino acid residue. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pegylated interferon alfa  
A covalent conjugate of recombinant interferon alpha and polyethylene glycol (PEG), used as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. The biological activity of this agent is derived from its interferon alpha protein moiety. Interferons alfa bind to specific cell-surface receptors, leading to the transcription and translation of genes whose protein products mediate antiviral, antiproliferative, anticancer, and immune-modulating effects. The PEG moiety lowers the clearance of interferon alpha, thereby extending the duration of its therapeutic effects, but may also reduce interferon-mediated stimulation of an immune response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pegylated irinotecan NKTR 102  
A formulation of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-encapsulated irinotecan with antineoplastic activity. The prodrug irinotecan, a semisynthetic derivative of camptothecin, is converted to the biologically active metabolite 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin by a carboxylesterase-converting enzyme. One thousand-fold more potent than its parent compound irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin inhibits topoisomerase I activity by stabilizing the cleavable complex of topoisomerase I and DNA, resulting in DNA breaks that inhibit DNA replication and trigger apoptosis. Pegylation provides improved drug penetration into tumors and decreases drug clearance, thereby increasing the duration of therapeutic effects while lowering the toxicity profile. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride  
A liposome-encapsulated form of the hydrochloride salt of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. Doxorubicin intercalates between base pairs in the DNA helix, thereby preventing DNA replication and ultimately inhibiting protein synthesis. Additionally, doxorubicin inhibits topoisomerase II which results in an increased and stabilized cleavable enzyme-DNA linked complex during DNA replication and subsequently prevents the ligation of the nucleotide strand after double-strand breakage. Doxorubicin also forms oxygen free radicals resulting in cytotoxicity secondary to lipid peroxidation of cell membrane lipids. Liposomal delivery of doxorubicin HCL improves drug penetration into tumors and decreases drug clearance, thereby increasing the duration of therapeutic drug effects; a liposomal formulation of doxorubicin also modulates toxicity, specifically the cardiac effects commonly seen with anthracycline antitumor drugs. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pegylated liposomal irinotecan  
A formulation of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified liposomes encapsulating the semisynthetic derivative of camptothecin irinotecan, with antineoplastic activity. As a prodrug, irinotecan is converted to the biologically active metabolite 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38) by a carboxylesterase-converting enzyme. In turn, SN-38 inhibits topoisomerase I activity by stabilizing the cleavable complex of topoisomerase I and DNA, resulting in DNA breaks. This results in an inhibition of DNA replication and an induction of apoptosis. Pegylated liposomal delivery of irinotecan improves drug penetration into tumors and decreases drug clearance, thereby increasing the duration of exposure while lowering systemic toxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pegylated liposomal mitomycin C lipid-based prodrug  
A pegylated liposomal formulation comprised of a lipophilic prodrug of the antineoplastic antibiotic mitomycin C containing a cleavable disulfide bond (PL-MLP), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of the pegylated liposomal mitomycin C lipid-based prodrug, the MLP moiety becomes activated upon thiolysis at the tumor site, thereby releasing mitomycin C. Bioreduced mitomycin C generates oxygen radicals, alkylates DNA, and produces interstrand DNA cross-links, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis. The thiolytic environment and upregulated expression of thioredoxins at the tumor site allow for the activation and release of mitomycin C. This prodrug formulation allows for greater circulation time, less systemic toxicity and increased accumulation of mitomycin C at the tumor site. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pegylated recombinant human arginase I BCT-100  
A recombinant human arginase I (liver arginase) covalently attached, via a succinamide propionic acid (SPA) linker, to a polyethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight 5,000 [rhArg-peg(5,000mw)] with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of pegylated recombinant human arginase I BCT-100, arginase metabolizes the amino acid arginine to ornithine and urea, depleting intracellular arginine, which may inhibit proliferation of cells that are auxotrophic for arginine such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. This agent may also work synergistically with various cytotoxic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pegylated recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20  
A pegylated formulation of a recombinant form of human hyaluronidase with potential antitumor activity. Upon intravenous administration, pegylated recombinant human PH20 degrades hyaluronic acid (HA) coating tumor cells, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell growth. In addition, the degradation of HA may result in a lowering of the interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), allowing better penetration of chemotherapeutic agents into the tumor bed. HA is a glycosaminoglycan found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) that is frequently overproduced by various tumor cell types. The presence of HA in tumors correlates with increased tumor cell growth, metastatic potential, tumor progression, increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, and an elevation in tumor IFP. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pegylated recombinant human interleukin-10 AM0010  
A covalent conjugate of recombinant human interleukin-10 (IL-10) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), with potential anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, pegylated recombinant human interleukin-10 AM0010 may activate cell-mediated immunity against cancer cells by stimulating the differentiation and expansion of tumor specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. This agent may also lower serum cholesterol levels and reduce atherosclerotic plaques by inhibiting the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as Interferon-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF. The PEG moiety inhibits proteolytic breakdown and clearance of AM0010, which prolongs its half-life, extends the duration of its therapeutic effects and allows less frequent dosing. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pegylated recombinant L-asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi  
A pegylated, recombinant form of L-asparaginase derived from the bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi (mPEG-R-crisantaspase), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of pegylated recombinant L-asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi, asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, thereby depleting cancer cells of asparagine thus blocking protein synthesis and tumor cell proliferation. Asparagine is critical to protein synthesis in cancer cells, which cannot synthesize this amino acid due to the absence of the enzyme asparagine synthase. Compared to other available Erwinia chrysanthemi derived L-asparaginase agents, the pegylated form is longer acting and less immunogenic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

pelitinib  
A 3-cyanoquinoline pan-ErbB tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Pelitinib irreversibly binds covalently to epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) ErbB-1, -2 and -4, thereby inhibiting receptor phosphorylation and signal transduction and resulting in apoptosis and suppression of proliferation in tumor cells that overexpress these receptors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pelitrexol  
A water soluble antifolate with anti-proliferative activity. Pelitrexol inhibits activity of glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT), the first folate-dependent enzyme of the de novo purine synthesis pathway essential for cell proliferation. Enzyme inhibition reduces the purine nucleotides pool required for DNA replication and RNA transcription. As a result, this agent causes cell cycle arrest in S-phase, and ultimately inhibits tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pembrolizumab  
A humanized monoclonal IgG4 antibody directed against human cell surface receptor PD-1 (programmed death-1 or programmed cell death-1) with potential immunopotentiating activity. Upon administration, pembrolizumab binds to PD-1, an inhibitory signaling receptor expressed on the surface of activated T cells, and blocks the binding to and activation of PD-1 by its ligands, which results in the activation of T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. The ligands for PD-1 include PD-L1, which is expressed on antigen presenting cells (APCs) and overexpressed on certain cancer cells, and PD-L2, which is primarily expressed on APCs. Activated PD-1 negatively regulates T-cell activation through the suppression of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pemetrexed disodium  
The disodium salt of a synthetic pyrimidine-based antifolate. Pemetrexed binds to and inhibits the enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS) which catalyses the methylation of 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (dUMP) to 2'-deoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate (dTMP), an essential precursor in DNA synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Pen-Vee  
(Other name for: penicillin V potassium)

penclomedine  
A synthetic derivative of pyrimidine with antineoplastic activity. Penclomedine alkylates and crosslinks DNA, resulting in DNA strand breaks and inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis. This agent is more active against tumor cells that are defective in p53 function. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

penicillamine  
A beta dimethyl analog of the amino acid cysteine. As a degradation product of penicillin antibiotics, penicillamine chelates with heavy metals and increases their urinary excretion. Possessing antineoplastic properties, penicillamine induces apoptosis by a p53-mediated mechanism and inhibits angiogenesis by chelating with copper, a cofactor for angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

penicillin V potassium  
The potassium salt of penicillin V, a member of the penicillin antibiotic family with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. Penicillin V binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), enzymes located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall, resulting in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and cell lysis. PBPs participate in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall, and in reshaping the cell wall during cell division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pentamethylmelamine  
A principal metabolite of hexamethylmelamine with antineoplastic activity. Pentamethylmelamine alkylates DNA and other macromolecules and forms DNA intrastrand and DNA-protein crosslinks, thereby preventing DNA replication. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pentamidine  
A synthetic derivative of amidine with antiprotozoal and antifungal activities. Although the precise mode of action of pentamidine is unclear, it appears to interact directly with the pathogen genome by binding to AT-rich regions of duplex DNA and the minor groove of DNA, thereby interfering with DNA replication. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Pentasa  
(Other name for: mesalamine)

pentavalent KLH conjugate vaccine  
A pentavalent vaccine comprised of the epitope antigens of the ganglioside lactones GD2L and GD3L, Globo H hexasaccharide 1 (Globo H), fucosyl GM1 and N-propionylated polysialic acid conjugated with the immunostimulant keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with the pentavalent KLH conjugate vaccine may induce production of IgG and IgM antibodies as well as an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumors expressing any of these antigens. The antigens included in the pentavalent KLH conjugate vaccine are upregulated in a variety of cancer cells. KLH, a natural protein isolated from the marine mollusk keyhole limpet, is an immunostimulant carrier protein. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pentetic acid calcium  
The calcium salt of pentetic acid, a synthetic chelating agent related to the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Pentetic acid chelates with the metallic radioisotopic moieties of unbound, extracellular radioimmunotherapeutic agents, resulting in higher specific tumor cell binding of radioimmunotherpeutic agents; this results in improved tumor cell radiocytotoxicity and the sparing of normal cells and tissues from the radiocytotoxic effects of these agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pentosan polysulfate sodium  
The sodium salt of a semisynthetic heparin-like glucosaminoglycan. Although its mechanism of action is unknown, pentosan polysulfate may act as a buffer to control cell permeability by preventing irritating solutes from reaching cells coated with it. Administered orally, excreted pentosan polysulfate adheres to the urinary bladder wall, preventing irritants from entering bladder cells and the development or progression of interstitial cystitis (IC), a complication of some chemotherapies. This agent also exhibits anticoagulant and fibrinolytic properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pentostatin  
A purine nucleotide analogue antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces antibioticus. Also known as 2'-deoxycoformycin, pentostatin binds to and inhibits adenine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme essential to purine metabolism; ADA activity is greatest in cells of the lymphoid system with T-cells having higher activity than B-cells and T-cell malignancies higher ADA activity than B-cell malignancies. Pentostatin inhibition of ADA appears to result in elevated intracellular levels of dATP which may block DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase. This agent may also inhibit RNA synthesis and may selectively deplete CD26+ lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pentoxifylline  
A methylxanthine derivative with hemorrheologic and immunomodulating properties. Pentoxifylline inhibits phosphodiesterase, resulting in increased levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in erythrocytes, endothelium, and the surrounding tissues. This leads to vasodilation, improves erythrocyte flexibility, and enhances blood flow. In addition, the increased level of cAMP in platelets inhibits platelet aggregation, which may contribute to a reduction in blood viscosity. This agent also inhibits production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, while it induces Th2-like (T-helper 2) cytokine production, thereby inhibiting Th1-mediated (T-helper 1) inflammatory and autoimmune responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PEP-3-KLH conjugate vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of PEP-3, a synthetic peptide encompassing a tumor-specific mutated segment of the epidermal growth factor receptor type vIII (EGFRvIII), conjugated to the naturally-occuring immunoadjuvant keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, PEP-3-KLH conjugate vaccine may induce a cytotoxic immune response against tumor cells that overexpress EGFRvIII; this antitumoral immune response may involve antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PEP-CMV vaccine  
A peptide vaccine derived from cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigens with potential immunostimulating activity. Intradermal administration of the PEP-CMV vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a specific helper and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CMV-infected tumor cells. Infection with the herpesvirus CMV may play a significant role in tumor cell initiation and progression as well as chemoresistance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Pepcid  
(Other name for: famotidine)

Pepcid AC  
(Other name for: famotidine)

peplomycin  
A semisynthetic analog of Bleomycin, a mixture of several basic glycopeptide antineoplastic antibiotics isolated from the fungus Streptomyces verticillus. Peplomycin forms complexes with iron that reduce molecular oxygen to superoxide and hydroxyl radicals that cause single- and double-stranded breaks in DNA. This agent appears to show greater antitumor activity than bleomycin; its use is limited due to pulmonary toxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Pepto-Bismol  
(Other name for: bismuth subsalicylate)

Perdolat  
(Other name for: penicillamine)

peretinoin  
An orally available, acyclic retinoid with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. Peretinoin binds to and activates nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR), which in turn recruit coactivator proteins and promote, with other transcriptional complexes, the transcription of target genes. As a result, this agent may modulate the expression of genes involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis of both normal and tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

perflenapent emulsion  
An oil-in-water nano-emulsion composed of the perfluorocarbon perflenapent, that has oxygen-carrying capacity, can be used as a contrast agent and has potential antihypoxic and radiosensitizing activities. Upon intravenous administration of the perflenapent emulsion, this agent increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, enhances the transport of oxygen to hypoxic and ischemic tissues and increases the oxygen concentration in these tissues. Hypoxic tumors are correlated with increased resistance to radiation treatment; therefore, since perflenapent may increase tumor oxygenation, it may improve the tumor’s sensitivity to radiation therapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

perflubron  
A synthetic radiopaque liquid form of perfluorooctyl bromide. Used as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), perflubron is also used as a liquid ventilation agent to improve pulmonary gas exchange and lung compliance and may be used in surgery to reduce or eliminate the need for a donor blood. Ventilation with perfluorocarbon fluid improves lung function in conditions involving surfactant deficiency and dysfunction, including respiratory distress syndrome and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

perflutren lipid microspheres  
An injectable suspension of liposome-encapsuled microspheres containing the fluorocarbon gas perflutren for contrast enhancement in ultrasound procedures. Because the acoustic impedance of perflutren lipid microspheres is much lower than that of blood, impinging ultrasound waves are scattered and reflected at the microsphere-blood interface and may be visualized with ultrasound imaging. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

perflutren protein-type A microspheres  
A sterile non-pyrogenic suspension of microspheres of human serum albumin with the stable, high-molecular-weight fluorocarbon gas perflutren, used as a contrast enhancement agent for ultrasound procedures. Because the acoustic impedance of perflutren protein-type A microspheres is much lower than that of blood, impinging ultrasound waves are scattered and reflected at the microsphere-blood interface and may be visualized with ultrasound imaging. At the frequencies used in adult echocardiography (2-5 MHZ), the microspheres resonate which further increases the extent of ultrasound scattering and reflection. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

perfosfamide  
The active metabolite of the nitrogen mustard cyclophosphamide with potent antineoplastic and immunosuppressive properties. Perfosfamide alkylates DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Pergamid  
(Other name for: perfosfamide)

Periactin  
(Other name for: cyproheptadine hydrochloride)

perifosine  
An orally active alkyl-phosphocholine compound with potential antineoplastic activity. Targeting cellular membranes, perifosine modulates membrane permeability, membrane lipid composition, phospholipid metabolism, and mitogenic signal transduction, resulting in cell differentiation and inhibition of cell growth. This agent also inhibits the anti-apoptotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and modulates the balance between the MAPK and pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) pathways, thereby inducing apoptosis. Perifosine has a lower gastrointestinal toxicity profile than the related agent miltefosine. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

perillyl alcohol  
A naturally occurring monoterpene related to limonene with antineoplastic activity. Perillyl alcohol inhibits farnesyl transferase and geranylgeranyl transferase, thereby preventing post-translational protein farnesylation and isoprenylation and activation of oncoproteins such as p21-ras, and arresting tumor cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

perindopril erbumine  
The tert-butylamine salt of perindopril, the ethyl ester of a non-sulfhydryl angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with antihypertensive activity. Upon hydrolysis, perindopril erbumine is converted to its active form perindoprilat, inhibiting ACE and the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II; consequently, angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction and angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex are inhibited and diuresis and natriuresis ensue. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Perjeta  
(Other name for: pertuzumab)

Permitil  
(Other name for: fluphenazine hydrochloride)

Persantine  
(Other name for: dipyridamole)

Pertofrane  
(Other name for: desipramine hydrochloride)

pertuzumab  
A humanized recombinant monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular dimerization domain of the HER-2 tyrosine kinase receptor. Binding of the antibody to the dimerization domain of the HER-2 tyrosine kinase receptor protein directly inhibits the ability of the HER-2 tyrosine kinase receptor protein (the most common pairing partner) to dimerize with other HER tyrosine kinase receptor proteins; inhibiting receptor protein dimerization prevents the activation of HER signaling pathways, resulting in tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

petrolatum-mineral oil-lanolin-ceresin ointment  
A petrolatum-based ointment absorbed by dry and moist skin, petrolatum-mineral oil-lanolin-ceresin ointment is non-comedogenic, non-irritating, and non-sensitizing. It can reduce healing time of cracked, dry skin on hands, elbows, and knees, and helps prevent diaper rash. The original ointment also contained mineral oil, ceresin, lanolin alcohol. Its use is indicated in atopic dermatitis, eczema, and psoriasis when extra protection from a heavier base is needed. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

pexastimogene-devacirepvec  
A thymidine kinase-deleted vaccinia virus expressing human GM-CSF (hGM-CSF) with oncolytic activity. Upon intratumoral or intravenous administration, pexastimogene-devacirepvec may selectively infect and lyse tumor cells. While vaccinia displays a natural tumor cell tropism, deletion of the thymidine kinase gene increases the tumor selectivity of vaccinia by limiting viral replication to transformed cells. hGM-CSF expression by this agent may help recruit antigen processing cells (APCs), such as denritic cells and macrophages, to virally infected tumor cells, initiating a systemic antitumoral immune response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PGG beta-glucan  
An injectable formulation of the polysaccharide beta 1,3/1,6 glucan derived from the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. PGG beta-glucan binds to an alternate site on the neutrophil complement receptor 3 (CR3), priming the neutrophil to become cytotoxic when binding to complement on tumor cells via CR3. This agent has been reported to selectively activate immune cells without inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines, potentially reducing potential side effects observed with the induction of broad innate immune responses. In addition, PGG beta-glucan may induce hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) mobilization. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PGLA/PEG copolymer-based paclitaxel  
A controlled-release, intratumoral paclitaxel formulation in which paclitaxel is incorporated into a thermosensitive, biodegradable triblock copolymer consisting of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Upon intratumoral injection, paclitaxel is released slowly and continuously into tumor tissues from the gelled thermosensitive triblock copolymer over a period of 4 to 6 weeks; in tumor cells, paclitaxel binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly-assembly dynamics of microtubules, resulting in cell cycle arrest and cell death. The thermosensitive triblock copolymer component of this formulation transforms from a water-soluble polymer at room temperature to a water-insoluble, biodegradable gel depot at body temperature; intratumoral controlled-release of paclitaxel from the gel minimizes systemic exposure to paclitaxel and the paclitaxel toxicity profile. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PH20 hyaluronidase-expressing adenovirus VCN-01  
An oncolytic, replication-competent adenovirus encoding the human glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored enzyme PH20 hyaluronidase with potential antitumor activity. After intratumoral administration, PH20 hyaluronidase-expressing adenovirus VCN-01 selectively replicates in tumor cells, which may both cause oncolytic virus-induced cell death and induce the infection of adjacent tumor cells. In addition, the virus expresses hyaluronidase, which hydrolyzes and degrades the hyaluronic acid (HA) that coats tumor cells. The degradation of HA may result in a decrease for both the viscosity of the interstitial space and the tumor's interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). This increases viral spread and may result in the inhibition of tumor cell growth. In addition, HA degradation facilitates the penetration of chemotherapeutic agents into the tumor. HA is a glycosaminoglycan found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and is frequently overproduced by various tumor cell types. The presence of HA in tumors correlates with increases in tumor cell growth, metastatic potential, tumor progression and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Phaleria macrocarpa Extract DLBS-1425  
An extract of the flesh from the fruit of Phaleria macrocarpa, an Indonesian herbal medicine, with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the active ingredients and exact components are unclear, gallic acid and its derivatives in DLBS-1425 appear to inhibit the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway by reducing PI3K transcription followed by a reduction in AKT phosphorylation. This extract also appears to induce apoptosis through induction of pro-apoptotic genes such as BAX, BAD and PUMA and inhibition of the apoptosis suppressor Bcl-2. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PHC  
(Other name for: cholecalciferol/d-alpha tocopherol/L-selenomethionine/green tea extract/saw palmetto berry extract/daidzein/genistein/lycopene prostate health supplement)

Phellodendron amurense bark extract  
A proprietary formulation consisting of a Phellodendron amurense (Amur cork tree) bark extract, often used in traditional Chinese medicine, with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and potential chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities. Phellodendron amurense bark extract contains certain isoquinoline alkaloids, flavone glycosides and phenolic compounds. Upon administration of Phellodendron amurense bark extract, the various phytochemicals in this formulation modulate multiple signal transduction pathways. This agent appears to block the activation of the transcription factor cAMP response binding protein (CREB) and inhibits Akt signaling, thereby inhibiting tumor cell growth and inducing apoptosis in Akt- and CREB-overexpressing cancer cells. In addition, this agent inhibits cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa b (NF-kB) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a)-mediated signaling; COX-2, NF-kB and TNF-a are upregulated in certain types of cancer and during inflammation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

phenelzine sulfate  
A hydrazine derivative and a potent non-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor with anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. Phenelzine sulfate irreversibly binds to MAO, thereby blocking the oxidative deamination of monoamines resulting in an increased concentration of biogenic amines and a concurrent decrease in catabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters, norepinephrine and serotonin, in the brain. In addition, through its primary metabolite phenylethylidenehyrazine (PEH), phenelzine causes elevated GABA levels in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens thereby exerting its anxiolytic effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Phenergan  
(Other name for: promethazine hydrochloride)

phenethyl isothiocyanate  
An isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables with chemopreventive and potential antitumor activities. Although the mechanism of action is unclear, phenethyl Isothiocyanate (PEITC) was shown to induce apoptosis in tumor cells, possibly mediated through its metabolic intermediates, reactive oxygen species (ROS). PEITC also is able to activate ERK and JNK signal transduction, which in turn induces expression of stress-responsive genes. Specifically, this agent has been shown to reactivate gene expression of a detoxification enzyme, glutathione S-transferase that is silenced in prostate carcinoma. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

phenethyl isothiocyanate-containing watercress juice  
A juice extracted from watercress containing high amounts of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), with potential chemopreventive and antitumor activities. Although the mechanism(s) of action through which PEITC exerts its effect(s) has yet to be fully elucidated, PEITC is able to induce apoptosis in tumor cells through the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, PEITC is able to modulate extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways, activating the expression of stress-responsive genes and eventually inducing apoptosis. PEITC also inhibits the expression of genes involved in tumor progression such as HIF, STAT-3, HER2, BCL-XL, and XIAP and induces the expression of genes involved in tumor suppression such as p53, ATF-2, and p57. Furthermore, this agent has been shown to reactivate the gene expression of certain detoxification enzymes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

phenobarbital  
A long-acting barbituric acid derivative with antipsychotic property. Phenobarbital binds to and activates the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor, thereby mimicking the inhibitory actions of GABA in the brain. The activation effects of the phenobarbital-receptor-ionophore complex include increased frequency of chloride channel openings, membrane hyperpolarization and ultimately synaptic inhibition and decreased neuronal excitability. In addition, this agent inhibits glutamate induced depolarization. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt form of phenoxybenzamine, a synthetic, dibenzamine alpha-adrenergic antagonist with antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. Phenoxybenzamine non-selectively and irreversibly blocks the postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptor in smooth muscle, thereby preventing vasoconstriction, relieving vasospasms, and decreasing peripheral resistance. Reflex tachycardia may occur and may be enhanced by blockade of alpha-2 receptors which enhances norepinephrine release. Phenoxybenzamine is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

phenprocoumon  
An orally available, long-acting derivative of coumarin with anticoagulant activity. Upon administration, phenprocoumon inhibits the vitamin K epoxide reductase enzyme; inhibition of this enzyme prevents the formation of the reduced, active form of vitamin K (vitamin KH2), which is essential for the carboxylation of glutamate residues of vitamin K-dependent proteins. This prevents the activation of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X and the anticoagulant proteins C and S, which abrogates both thrombin production and thrombus formation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

phentolamine mesylate  
The mesylate salt of a synthetic imidazoline with alpha-adrenergic antagonist activity. As a competitive alpha-adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine binds to alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptors, resulting in a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and vasodilatation. This agent also may block 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors and stimulate release of histamine from mast cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

phosphatidylcholine-bound silybin  
An oral preparation of the flavonoid silybin with potential antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. Silybin, also known as silibinin, is a mixture of two stereoisomers, denoted silybin A and silybin B, and is the major active constituent of silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from blessed milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Silybin modulates P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated cellular efflux; has oxygen radical-scavenging effects; inhibits the arachidonic acid pathway; and inhibits various cytochrome P450 enzymes. This agent may also exhibit anti-angiogenic activity, possibly by inducing endothelial cell apoptosis via modulation of the transcription factor NF-kB, the Bcl-2 family of proteins, and caspases. Complexing silybin with phosphatidylcholine increases its bioavailability. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Phosphoral  
(Other name for: sodium phosphate)

phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer AVI-4126  
A c-Myc antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) with potential antineoplastic activity. Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer AVI-4126 binds to c-Myc mRNA and blocks its translation, which may result in the death of tumor cells overexpressing c-Myc. Differing from traditional antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), neutrally charged PMOs are composed of subunits of nucleic acid bases linked to a synthetic backbone and, so, are less prone to enzymatic degradation. c-Myc, a proto-oncogene overexpressed in a variety of cancers, is involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

phosphorus P32  
A radioactive isotope of phosphorus with beta particle-emitting radiocytotoxic activity. Emitted by phosphorus P32, beta particles directly damage cellular DNA and, by ionizing intracellular water to produce several types of cytotoxic free radicals and superoxides, indirectly damage intracellular biological macromolecules, resulting in tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Photochlor  
(Other name for: HPPH)

photocyanine  
A metal complex compound of phthalocyanide with photosensitizing activity. Upon injection with photocyanide and subsequent introduction to photodynamic therapy (PDT), photocyanide becomes activated and forms reactive oxygen species that induce apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Photofrin  
(Other name for: porfimer sodium)

photosensitizer LUZ 11  
A bacteriochlorin-based photosensitizer, with antineoplastic activity upon photodynamic therapy (PDT). Following intravenous administration, the photosensitizer LUZ 11 preferentially accumulates in hyperproliferative tissues, such as tumors. Local application of laser light at the tumor site results in the absorption of light by this agent and a photodynamic reaction between LUZ 11 and oxygen. This results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which includes singlet oxygen molecules, the superoxide ion, and other cytotoxic free radicals. The formation of ROS induces free radical-mediated DNA damage and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Phyllocontin  
(Other name for: aminophylline)

phytochemical  
The term 'phyto' originated from a Greek word meaning plant. Phytonutrients are certain organic components of plants, and these components are thought to promote human health. Fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts and teas are rich sources of phytonutrients. Unlike the traditional nutrients (protein, fat, vitamins, minerals), phytonutrients are not 'essential' for life, so some people prefer the term 'phytochemical'. (USDA Agricultural Research Service) Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PI-88  
A mixture of highly sulfated, monophosphorylated mannose oligosaccharides, derived from the extracellular phosphomannan of the yeast Pichia (Hansenula) holstii, with potential antiangiogenic activity. Heparanase inhibitor PI-88 inhibits the endo-beta-D-glucuronidase heparanase, which may interfere with the heparanase-mediated degradation of heparan-sulfate proteoglycans in extracellular matrices, an important step in the metastatic process. This agent may also bind with high affinity to the heparan sulfate-binding domains of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2, thereby reducing their functional activities and inhibiting VEGF and FGF stimulation of tumor angiogenesis. Increased heparanase activity has been implicated in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PI3K alpha inhibitor INK1117  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) alpha isoform with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K alpha inhibitor INK1117 selectively inhibits PI3K alpha kinase, including mutations of PIK3CA, in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in PI3K alpha-expressing tumor cells. By specifically targeting class I PI3K alpha, this agent may be more efficacious and less toxic than pan-PI3K inhibitors. Dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is frequently found in solid tumors and results in promoting tumor cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; PIK3CA, one of the most highly mutated oncogenes, encodes the p110-alpha catalytic subunit of the class I PI3K. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PI3K alpha/beta inhibitor BAY1082439  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) alpha and beta isoforms with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K alpha/beta inhibitor BAY1082439 selectively inhibits both PI3K alpha, including mutated forms of PIK3CA, and PI3K beta in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in PI3K-expressing and/or PTEN-driven tumor cells. By specifically targeting class I PI3K alpha and beta, this agent may be more efficacious and less toxic than pan PI3K inhibitors. Dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is frequently found in solid tumors and results in increased tumor cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. PIK3CA, one of the most highly mutated oncogenes, encodes the p110-alpha catalytic subunit of the class I PI3K. PTEN, a tumor suppressor protein and negative regulator of PI3K activity, is often mutated in a variety of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PI3K alpha/mTOR inhibitor PWT33597 mesylate  
The mesylate salt form of PWT33597, an orally bioavailable dual inhibitor of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) alpha and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K alpha/mTOR dual inhibitor PWT33597 selectively inhibits both PI3K alpha kinase and mTOR kinase, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in PI3K/mTOR-overexpressing tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, may also be activated independent of PI3K. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PI3K delta/gamma inhibitor IPI-145  
An orally bioavailable, highly selective and potent small molecule inhibitor of the delta and gamma isoforms of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, PI3K delta/gamma inhibitor IPI 145 prevents the activation of the PI3K delta/gamma-mediated signaling pathways which may lead to a reduction in cellular proliferation in PI3K delta/gamma-expressing tumor cells. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, the delta and gamma isoforms are overexpressed primarily in hematologic malignancies and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. By selectively targeting these PI3K isoforms, PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells is minimally or not affected which would result in a more favorable side effect profile. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PI3K delta/gamma inhibitor RP6530  
An orally active, highly selective, small molecule inhibitor of the delta and gamma isoforms of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, PI3K delta/gamma inhibitor RP6530 inhibits the PI3K delta and gamma isoforms and prevents the activation of the PI3K/AKT-mediated signaling pathway. This may lead to a reduction in cellular proliferation in PI3K delta/gamma-expressing tumor cells. In addition, this agent modulates inflammatory responses through various mechanisms, including the inhibition of both the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from neutrophils and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha activity. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, the delta and gamma isoforms are overexpressed primarily in hematologic malignancies and in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. By selectively targeting these isoforms, PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells is minimally impacted or not affected at all, which minimizes the side effect profile for this agent. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PI3K inhibitor BGT226  
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor BGT226 specifically inhibits PIK3 in the PI3K/AKT kinase (or protein kinase B) signaling pathway, which may trigger the translocation of cytosolic Bax to the mitochondrial outer membrane, increasing mitochondrial membrane permeability; apoptotic cell death may ensue. Bax is a member of the proapoptotic Bcl2 family of proteins. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PI3K inhibitor BYL719  
An orally bioavailable phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor BYL719 specifically inhibits PIK3 in the PI3K/AKT kinase (or protein kinase B) signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway. This may result in inhibition of tumor cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis. Dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 bismesylate  
The orally bioavailable bismesylate salt of a potent small-molecule thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine inhibitor of the class I phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) isoforms p100alpha and p100delta with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 selectively binds to PI3K isoforms in an ATP-competitive manner, inhibiting the production of the secondary messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway; inhibition of tumor cell growth, motility and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations may result. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis; dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

PI3K inhibitor GSK1059615  
A phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor GSK1059615 inhibits PI3K in the PI3K/AKT kinase signaling pathway, which may trigger the translocation of cytosolic Bax to the mitochondrial outer membrane and an increase in mitochondrial membrane permeability, followed by apoptosis. Bax is a member of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins. PIK3, an enzyme often overexpressed in cancer cells, plays a crucial role in tumor cell regulation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

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