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NCI Drug Dictionary

  

QS21  
A purified, natural saponin isolated from the soapbark tree Quillaja saponaria Molina with potential immunoadjuvant activity. When co-administered with vaccine peptides, QS21 may increase total antitumoral vaccine-specific antibody responses and cytotoxic T-cell responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Quadramet  
(Other name for: samarium Sm 153 lexidronam pentasodium)

quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine  
A non-infectious recombinant, quadrivalent vaccine prepared from the highly purified virus-like particles (VLPs) of the major capsid (L1) protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) Types 6, 11, 16, and 18 with immunoprophylactic activity. The immunoprohylactic efficacy of L1 VLP vaccines, such as quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine, appear to be mediated by the development of humoral immune responses. HPV Types 16 and 18 account for approximately 70% of cervical cancers and HPV Types 6 and 11 account for approximately 90% of genital warts. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

quarfloxacin  
A fluoroquinolone derivative with antineoplastic activity. Quarfloxin disrupts the interaction between the nucleolin protein and a G-quadruplex DNA structure in the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) template, a critical interaction for rRNA biogenesis that is overexpressed in cancer cells; disruption of this G-quadruplex DNA:protein interaction in aberrant rRNA biogenesis may result in the inhibition of ribosome synthesis and tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine nanoparticles  
A crosslinked nanoparticle formulation containing quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (QA-PEI) with potential antibacterial activity. The cationic polymer PEI kills bacteria by rupturing their cell membranes without the development of resistance. Quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine nanoparticles can be incorporated into dental composite resins or silicon obturator prostheses and may prevent or delay bacterial growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

quercetin  
A polyphenolic flavonoid with potential chemopreventive activity. Quercetin, ubiquitous in plant food sources and a major bioflavonoid in the human diet, may produce antiproliferative effects resulting from the modulation of either EGFR or estrogen-receptor mediated signal transduction pathways. Although the mechanism of action of action is not fully known, the following effects have been described with this agent in vitro: decreased expression of mutant p53 protein and p21-ras oncogene, induction of cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and inhibition of heat shock protein synthesis. This compound also demonstrates synergy and reversal of the multidrug resistance phenotype, when combined with chemotherapeutic drugs, in vitro. Quercetin also produces anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy effects mediated through the inhibition of the lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways, thereby preventing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

quinacrine dihydrochloride  
The dihydrochloride salt of the 9-aminoacridine derivative quinacrine with potential antineoplastic and antiparasitic activities. Quinacrine may inhibit the transcription and activity of both basal and inducible nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which may result in the induction of tumor suppressor p53 transcription, the restoration of p53-dependent apoptotic pathways, and tumor cell apoptosis. Continuous NF-kappaB signaling, present in many tumors and in chronic inflammatory processes, promotes the expression of antiapoptotic proteins and cytokines while downregulating the expression of proapoptotic proteins, such as p53. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Quinamed  
(Other name for: amonafide dihydrochloride)

quinidine  
An alkaloid extracted from the bark of the Cinchona tree with class 1A antiarrhythmic and antimalarial effects. Quinidine stabilizes the neuronal membrane by binding to and inhibiting voltage-gated sodium channels, thereby inhibiting the sodium influx required for the initiation and conduction of impulses resulting in an increase of the threshold for excitation and decreased depolarization during phase 0 of the action potential. In addition, the effective refractory period (ERP), action potential duration (APD), and ERP/APD ratios are increased, resulting in decreased conduction velocity of nerve impulses. Quinidine exerts its antimalarial activity by acting primarily as an intra-erythrocytic schizonticide through association with the heme polymer (hemazoin) in the acidic food vacuole of the parasite thereby preventing further polymerization by heme polymerase enzyme. This results in accumulation of toxic heme and death of the parasite. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

quinine  
A quinidine alkaloid isolated from the bark of the cinchona tree. Quinine has many mechanisms of action, including reduction of oxygen intake and carbohydrate metabolism; disruption of DNA replication and transcription via DNA intercalation; and reduction of the excitability of muscle fibers via alteration of calcium distribution. This agent also inhibits the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein which is overexpressed in multi-drug resistant tumors and may improve the efficacy of some antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

quisinostat  
An orally bioavailable, second-generation, hydroxamic acid-based inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) with potential antineoplastic activity. Quisinostat inhibits HDAC leading to an accumulation of highly acetylated histones, which may result in an induction of chromatin remodeling; inhibition of the transcription of tumor suppressor genes; inhibition of tumor cell division; and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HDAC, an enzyme upregulated in many tumor types, deacetylates chromatin histone proteins. Compared to some first generation HDAC inhibitors, JNJ-26481585 may induce superior HSP70 upregulation and bcl-2 downregulation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Quixin  
(Other name for: levofloxacin)

quizartinib  
An orally available small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. Quizartinib selectively inhibits class III receptor tyrosine kinases, including FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3/STK1), colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R/FMS), stem cell factor receptor (SCFR/KIT), and platelet derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs), resulting in inhibition of ligand-independent leukemic cell proliferation and apoptosis. Mutations in FLT3, resulting in constitutive activation, are the most frequent genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and occur in approximately one-third of AML cases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Qvar  
(Other name for: beclomethasone dipropionate)

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