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NCI Drug Dictionary

NCI Drug Dictionary

  

R(+)XK469  
The R-isomer of a synthetic quinoxaline phenoxypropionic acid derivative with proapoptotic and antiproliferative activities. R(+)XK469 selectively inhibits topoisomerase II-beta, blocks activation of MEK/MAPK signaling kinases, stimulates caspases, and upregulates p53-dependent proteins, including cyclins A and B1, thereby arresting cancer cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Both R(+) and S(-) isomers of this agent are cytotoxic, although the R-isomer is more potent. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

R-(-)-gossypol acetic acid  
The orally bioavailable solvate of the R-(-) enantiomer of gossypol and acetic acid with potential antineoplastic activity. As a BH3 mimetic, R-(-)-gossypol binds to the hydrophobic surface binding groove BH3 of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, blocking their heterodimerization with pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins such as Bad, Bid, and Bim; this may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Racemic gossypol is a polyphenolic compound isolated from cottonseed. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

R-CHOP regimen  
An immunochemotherapy regimen consisting of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin hydrochloride (doxorubicin hydrochloride), vincristine (Oncovin) and prednisone used to treat both indolent and aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

R-CVP regimen  
A regimen consisting of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone used to treat indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

R1 Cooling Gel Plus R2 Moisturizing/Sun Protecting Lotion  
A skin care treatment system consisting of a cytokine-containing milk-based cooling gel and a cytokine-containing milk-based soothing lotion with hydrating and potential protective activity against radiation-induced dermatitis. Application of the R1 cooling gel immediately upon radiation treatment may hydrate the skin, provide cooling relief, and may protect the skin against radiation-induced dermatitis. The subsequent application of the R2 lotion moisturizes the skin while also protecting the skin against inflammation. In addition, R2 contains avobenzone, homosalate, octinoxate and octocrylene, which exert UVA and UVB skin protective activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

rabeprazole sodium  
The sodium salt of the prodrug rabeprazole, a substituted benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor, with potential anti-ulcer activity. After protonation, accumulation, and transformation to the active sulfenamide within the acidic environment of gastric parietal cells, rabeprazole selectively and irreversibly binds to and inhibits the H+, K+ATPase (hydrogen-potassium adenosine triphosphatase) enzyme system located on the parietal cell secretory surface, inhibiting gastric acid secretion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

rabusertib  
An inhibitor of the cell cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (chk2) with potential chemopotentiating activity. Rabusertib binds to and inhibits the activity of chk2, which may prevent the repair of DNA caused by DNA-damaging agents, thus potentiating the antitumor efficacies of various chemotherapeutic agents. Chk2, an ATP-dependent serine-threonine kinase, is a key component in the DNA replication-monitoring checkpoint system and is activated by double-stranded breaks (DSBs); activated chk2 is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

racemic XK469  
The racemic form of a synthetic quinoxaline phenoxypropionic acid derivative with antineoplastic properties. XK469R selectively inhibits topoisomerase II by stabilizing the enzyme-DNA intermediates in which topoisomerase subunits are covalently linked to DNA through 5-phosphotyrosyl linkages, thereby interfering with DNA repair and replication, RNA and protein synthesis. This agent possesses unusual solid tumor selectivity and activity against multidrug-resistant cancer cells. XK469R is more water soluble and active than the pure isomers, R(+)XK469 and S(-)XK469. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

racotumomab  
An anti-idiotype murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) specific to P3 MoAb with anti-metastatic effect. Racotumomab binds to the idiotype region of P3 MoAb and functionally mimics the three-dimensional structure of N-glycolyl ceramides of mono-sialyl lactose, the antigenic target of P3. As a result, this anti-idiotype antibody may stimulate the host immune system to elicit humoral and cellular immune responses against tumor cells expressing NeuGc-GM3 gangliosides, which are expressed in a wide variety of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

rAD-p53  
A replication-defective, recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the wild-type human tumor-suppressor protein p53 gene with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intratumoral administration, rAD-p53 binds to the coxsakie-and-adenovirus receptor (CAR) on tumor cells and enters cells selectively via receptor-mediated endocytosis, which may result in the overexpression of wild-type p53 intracellularly and p53-mediated tumor regression. In addition, this agent may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune response against tumor cells, may activate natural killer (NK) cells to exert antitumor ‘bystander effects’ and may downregulate the expression of various oncogenes. The p53 protein blocks tumor cell cycle progression and directly initiates apoptosis; the p53 gene, a tumor suppressor gene, is deleted or mutated in a significant number of cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

RadiaPlex Rx Gel  
(Other name for: sodium hyaluronate topical hydrogel)

radiosensitizer RRx-001  
A dinitroazetidine derivative with potential radiosensitizing activity. Upon administration, RRx-001 is able to dilate blood vessels, thereby increasing tumor blood flow and thus improving oxygenation to the tumor site. By increasing oxygen levels, these tumor cells may be more susceptible to radiation therapy. Tumor hypoxia is correlated with tumor aggressiveness, metastasis and resistance to radiotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

radium Ra 223 dichloride  
A radiopharmaceutical composed of the dichloride salt of the alpha-emitting isotope radium Ra 223, with antineoplastic activity. Like calcium, radium targets bone tissue and preferentially accumulates in osteoblastic lesions, such as those seen in areas of bone metastases. Radium Ra 223 forms complexes with hydroxyapatite and becomes incorporated into the bone matrix. The radioisotope Ra 223 kills bone cancer cells through local emission of high energy alpha particles, causing DNA double-strand breaks and tumor regression in the skeleton. The short range effects of alpha emission allows for localized DNA damage with limited toxicity to nearby healthy bone tissue. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Radix Angelicae sinensis/Radix Astragali herbal supplement  
A traditional Chinese medicine comprising of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS) and Radix Astragali (RA), with potential anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, neuroprotective, anti-hepatotoxic and antineoplastic activities. The main chemical constituents of RAS include ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, butylidenephthalide and various polysaccharides. RA is the dried root of Astragalus membranaceus with primary constituents such polysaccharides, triterpenoids as well as isoflavones. Though their mechanisms of action remain largely elusive, Radix Angelicae Sinensis/Radix Astragali herbal supplements are commonly used for the treatment of various health conditions affecting women including premenstrual syndrome, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, recovery from childbirth and menopausal symptoms. These agents are also used for alleviating constipation, preventing and treating anemia and allergic attacks, and for the management of hypertension, joint pain and ulcers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

radotinib hydrochloride  
An orally available, hydrochloride salt form of radotinib, a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor of Bcr-Abl fusion protein and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, radotinib specifically inhibits the Bcr-Abl fusion protein, an abnormal enzyme expressed in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells. In addition, this agent also inhibits PDGFR thereby blocking PDGFR-mediated signal transduction pathways. The inhibitory effect of radotinib on these specific tyrosine kinases may decrease cellular proliferation and inhibit angiogenesis. This agent has shown potent efficacy in CML cells that are resistant to the first-generation standard tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib, nilotinib and dasatinib. PDGFR, upregulated in many tumor cell types, is a receptor tyrosine kinase essential to cell migration and the development of the microvasculature. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Raf kinase inhibitor LGX818  
An orally available Raf kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. LGX818 specifically inhibits Raf kinase, a serine/threonine enzyme in the RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. By inhibiting the activation of the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway, the administration of LGX818 may result in a decrease in proliferation of tumor cells. The Raf mutation BRAF V600E is frequently upregulated in a variety of human tumors and results in the constitutive activation of the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway that regulates cellular proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Raf kinase inhibitor XL281  
An orally active, small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. XL281 specifically inhibits RAF kinases, located downstream from RAS in the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK kinase signaling pathway, which may result in reduced proliferation of tumor cells. RAS mutations may result in constitutive activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK kinase signaling pathway, and have been found to occur frequently in human tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Raf/MEK dual kinase inhibitor RO5126766  
A protein kinase inhibitor specific for the Raf and MEK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) with potential anti-neoplastic activity. Raf/MEK dual kinase Inhibitor RO5126766 specifically inhibits the kinase activities of Raf and MEK, resulting in the inhibition of of target gene transcription that promotes malignant transformation of cells. Both Raf and MEK are serine/threonine-specific kinases that respond to extracellular stimuli, such as mitogens, and are involved in the regulation of cellular processes, such as gene expression, mitosis, differentiation, and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

raloxifene  
A selective benzothiophene estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Raloxifene binds to estrogen receptors (ER) as a mixed estrogen agonist/antagonist; it displays both an ER-alpha-selective partial agonist/antagonist effect and a pure ER-beta-selective antagonist effect. This agent functions as an estrogen agonist in some tissues (bones, lipid metabolism) and as an estrogen antagonist in others (endometrium and breasts), with the potential for producing some of estrogen's beneficial effects without producing its adverse effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

raltegravir potassium  
The orally bioavailable potassium salt of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase strand transfer inhibitor (HIV-1 INSTI) with HIV-1 antiviral activity. Raltegravir binds to and inhibits integrase, an HIV enzyme that inserts viral genetic material into the genetic material of the infected human cell. Inhibition of integrase prevents insertion of HIV DNA into the human DNA genome, thus blocking HIV replication. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

raltitrexed  
A quinazoline folate analogue with antineoplastic activity. After transport into cells via the reduced folate carrier, raltitrexed undergoes intracellular polyglutamation and blocks the folate-binding site of thymidylate synthase, thereby inhibiting tetrahydrofolate activity and DNA replication and repair and resulting in cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ramelteon  
A synthetic melatonin analogue with hypnotic and circadian rhythm-modulating activities. Ramelteon binds to and activates melatonin receptors 1 and 2 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, thereby promoting the onset of sleep. Unlike the nonbenzodiazepine sedative hypnotics zolpidem and zaleplon, this agent does not activate GABA receptors and, so, produces no GABA receptor-mediated anxiolytic, myorelaxant, and amnesic effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ramipril  
A prodrug and nonsulfhydryl angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with antihypertensive activity. Ramipril is converted in the liver by de-esterification into its active form ramiprilat, which inhibits ACE, thereby blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. This abolishes the potent vasoconstrictive actions of angiotensin II and leads to vasodilatation. This agent also causes an increase in bradykinin levels and a decrease in angiotensin II-induced aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex, thereby promoting diuresis and natriuresis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ramosetron hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of ramosetron, a selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor antagonist with potential antiemetic activity. Upon administration, ramosetron selectively binds to and blocks the activity of 5-HT subtype 3 (5-HT3) receptors located in the vagus nerve terminal and in the vomiting center in the central nervous system (CNS), suppressing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ramucirumab  
A recombinant, fully human monoclonal antibody directed against human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) with antiangiogenesis activity. Ramucirumab specifically binds to and inhibits VEGFR-2, which may result in an inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and a decrease in tumor nutrient supply. VEGFR-2 is a pro-angiogenic growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase expressed by endothelial cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ranexa  
(Other name for: ranolazine)

ranibizumab  
A second-generation, recombinant humanized IgG1 kappa monoclonal antibody fragment directed against human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) alpha. Ranibizumab binds to VEGF alpha and inhibits VEGF alpha binding to its receptors, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, thereby preventing the growth and maintenance of tumor blood vessels. The molecular weight of this agent (48 kD) is much smaller than the molecular weight of bevacizumab (MW ~149 kD), allowing complete penetration of the retina and the subretinal space following intravitreal injection. In contrast to other anti-VEGF aptamers such as pegaptanib, ranibizumab has a high specificity and affinity for all soluble human isoforms of VEGF. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ranimustine  
A chloroethylnitrosourea derivative that inhibits proliferation and growth of tumor cells by alkylation and cross-linkage of DNA strands of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ranolazine  
An orally available, piperazine derivative with anti-anginal and potential antineoplastic activities. Ranolazine’s mechanism of action for its anti-ischemic effects has yet to be fully elucidated but may involve the alteration of the trans-cellular late sodium current in the ischemic myocyte. By preventing the rise of intracellular sodium levels, ranolazine may affect the transport activity of sodium-dependent calcium channels and prevent the calcium overload during myocardial ischemia, thereby preventing cellular injury. Ranolazine’s potential antineoplastic effect may depend on its inhibitory effect on fatty acid oxidation, which may sensitize tumor cells to apoptosis and decrease tumor cell proliferation; fatty acid oxidation provides energy and promotes tumor cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

ranpirnase  
A natural homologue of ribonuclease A isolated from the eggs of the frog Rana pipiens. Ranpirnase primarily degrades cellular transfer RNA with a substrate specificity for uridine-guanidine base-pair sequences, resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis and cytotoxicity. This agent also activates caspase-9 in mitochondria, resulting in tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Rapamune  
(Other name for: sirolimus)

rapamycin-polarized Th1/Tc1 autologous T lymphocytes  
A population of T lymphocytes polarized by rapamycin with potential immunomodulating activity. The autologous T cells collected from the patient were co-stimulated with antibodies to the T-cell cell surface proteins CD3 and CD28 and expanded ex vivo in the presence of rapamycin, an immunosuppressive drug, and then infused back into the same patient. Both CD3 and CD28 are required for full T cell activation. These lymphocytes expressed anti-apoptotic bcl-2 family member proteins (reduced Bax, Bak; increased phospho-Bad); maintained mitochondrial membrane potentials; and displayed reduced apoptosis. Adoptive transfer of this type of T cell potentially induces an anti-apoptotic Th1/Tc1 effector phenotype by promoting autophagy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ras peptide cancer vaccine  
A cancer vaccine containing a RAS oncogene-encoded peptide with potential antineoplastic activity. RAS peptide cancer vaccine may stimulate a RAS peptide-specific antitumoral T-cell cytotoxic immune response, resulting in an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

rasburicase  
A recombinant urate oxidase enzyme isolated from a genetically-modified strain of Saccharomyces cerevisae. Urate oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid to the excretable mebolite allantoin, a molecule that is 5-10 times more water-soluble than uric acid. An enzyme that occurs endogenously in most mammals, urate oxidase is not found in humans. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ravuconazole  
A triazole with antifungal activity. Ravuconazole inhibits 14a demethylase, an enzyme involved in sterol synthesis, resulting in lysis of the fungal cell wall and fungal cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

RayGel  
(Other name for: reduced glutathione-L-cysteine-anthocyanins gel)

Razadyne  
(Other name for: galantamine hydrobromide)

razoxane  
An orally bioavailable bis-dioxopiperazine and a derivative of the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with antineoplastic, antiangiogenic, and antimetastatic activities. Razoxane specifically inhibits the enzyme topoisomerase II without inducing DNA strand breaks, which may result in the inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell division in the premitotic and early mitotic phases of the cell cycle. This agent may also exhibit antiangiogenic and antimetastatic activities although the precise molecular mechanisms of these actions are unknown. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Re-186 hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate  
An synthetic compound containing the organic phosphonate hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP) labeled with the radioisotope rhenium Re 186. Re-186 hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate binds to hydroxyapatitie in bone, delivering a cytotoxic dose of beta radiation to primary and metastatic bone tumors. Re-186 is a beta emitter with a short half-life, a radioisotope profile that provides localized antitumor radiocytotoxicity while sparing extramedullary bone marrow tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

rebamipide  
A quinolinone derivative with anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory activities. Rebamipide induces cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) synthesis which results in an increase in endogenous prostaglandin synthesis in the gastric mucosa. This agent also inhibits H. pylori-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and subsequent inflammation of the gastric mucosa. In addition, rebamipide scavenges oxygen-derived free radicals that potentially cause mucosal injury, and stimulates prostaglandin EP4 receptor gene expression followed by mucous secretion, thereby enhancing the gastric mucosal defense. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

rebastinib tosylate  
An orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Rebastinib binds to and inhibits the Bcr-Abl fusion oncoprotein by changing the conformation of the folded protein to disallow ligand-dependent and ligand-independent activation; in addition, this agent binds to and inhibits Src family kinases LYN, HCK and FGR and the receptor tyrosine kinases TIE-2 and VEGFR-2. Rebastinib may exhibit more potent activity against T315I Bcr-Abl gatekeeper mutant kinases than other Bcr-Abl kinase inhibitors. The TIE-2 and VEGFR-2 receptor tyrosine kinases regulate angiogenesis, respectively, while the Src family kinases Abl, LYN, and HCK Src regulate a variety of cellular responses including differentiation, division, adhesion, and the stress response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Rebetol  
(Other name for: ribavirin)

Rebif  
(Other name for: recombinant interferon beta)

rebimastat  
A sulfhydryl-based second-generation matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Rebimastat selectively inhibits several MMPs (MMP 1, 2, 8, 9, and 14), thereby inducing extracellular matrix degradation, and inhibiting angiogenesis, tumor growth and invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Recentin  
(Other name for: cediranib maleate)

receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor XL647  
An orally bioavailable small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. XL647 binds to and inhibits several tyrosine receptor kinases that play major roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ERBB1), epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; ERBB2), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), and ephrin B4 (EphB4). This may result in the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis, and tumor regression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant 70-kD heat-shock protein  
A recombinant peptide that is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous 70-kD heat shock protein (HSP70). HSP70 is a molecular chaperone that prevents physiologic stress-induced cell death by inhibiting both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis. Because this peptide is often overexpressed in tumor cells, autologous vaccination with HSP70 derived from tumor cells may stimulate the host immune system to mount a tumoricidal cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant adenovirus-hIFN-beta  
A recombinant replication-defective adenovirus which encodes the gene for the cytokine human interferon-beta (IFN-beta). Once inserted into and replicating in host tumor cells, recombinant adenovirus-hIFN-beta expresses human IFN-beta, which may stimulate an antiproliferative natural killer (NK) cell response against tumor cells and induce caspase-mediated tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant adenovirus-interferon SCH 721015  
A replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus encoding human interferon alpha-2b with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravesical administration, recombinant adenovirus-interferon SCH 721015 infects nearby tumor cells and expresses INF alpha-2b intracellularly which activates the transcription and translation of genes whose products mediate antiviral, antiproliferative, antitumor, and immune-modulating effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant adenovirus-interferon/Syn3  
A non-replicating recombinant adenovirus type 5 (Ad5)-vector encoding the gene for interferon alpha-2b (IFNα2b) and the gene transfer enhancement agent Syn 3, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravesical administration, recombinant adenovirus-interferon with Syn3 transfects both cancerous and normal bladder cells, and the adenovirus secretes interferon (IFNα2b) into the bladder. IFN exerts a direct antitumor killing effect and a bystander effect, thereby killing adjacent, non-transfected cancerous bladder cells. Syn 3 enhances the ability of the adenoviral vector to transfect cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant adenovirus-L523S vaccine  
A replication-defective adenovirus containing a gene that encodes the human protein L523S with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, recombinant adenovirus-L523S vaccine expresses L523S, which may stimulate antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against tumor cells expressing L523S. L523S is an RNA-binding protein that belongs to the KOC (K homology domain containing protein over-expressed in cancer) family of proteins. As an oncofetal protein, L523S is normally expressed in early embryonic tissues and certain normal adult tissues such as colon, fallopian tube, gall bladder, and ovary tissues but may be overexpressed in squamous cell cancers of the lung. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant adenovirus-p53 SCH-58500  
A genetically-engineered adenovirus that contains the gene that encodes the human tumor-suppressor protein p53 with potential antineoplastic activity. Recombinant adenovirus-p53 SCH-58500 delivers p53 into tumor cells, which may result in p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium expressing IL-2  
An orally available, genetically engineered Salmonella typhimurium strain expressing a truncated form of the human cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene, with antitumor activity. Upon administration of recombinant attenuated S. typhimurium expressing IL-2 (SalpIL2), this Salmonella strain may selectively accumulate and divide in a variety of tumor types, and express IL-2. In turn, IL-2 may induce natural killer (NK) cell proliferation thereby enhancing their activity. This may inhibit the growth of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant B. pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin-tyrosinase A2 epitope vaccine  
A recombinant vaccine containing a genetically detoxified adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis coupled, through its catalytic site, to the melanoma tyrosinase A2 epitope YMDGTMSQV, with potential antineoplastic activity. Via the toxin moiety, the recombinant B. pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin-tyrosinase A2 epitope specifically binds to the alphaMbeta2 integrin (CD11b/CD18) located on CD11b-positive antigen-presenting cells (APC). Upon processing and presentation of the melanoma-specific epitope by MHC class I molecules to the surface of these APCs, a specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing tyrosinase may be initiated, resulting in decreased tumor growth and cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

recombinant bispecific single-chain antibody rM28  
A recombinant, bispecific, single chain antibody directed against both the T-cell surface-associated costimulatory molecule CD28 and a melanoma-associated proteoglycan (MAPG) with potential antitumor activity. By targeting both CD28 and MAPG, recombinant bispecific single-chain antibody rM28 enhances cytotoxic T-cell recognition of melanoma cells, which may result in immune effector cell-mediated tumor cell death and a decrease in distant metastases. This agent appears to have a long serum half-life secondary to the formation of dimers. When activated, CD28 facilitates interactions between T-cells and other immune effector cells resulting in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses; MAPG is a surface antigen expressed on the majority of melanomas, including primary cutaneous, ocular and metastatic melanomas. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant CD40-ligand  
A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to CD40-ligand. CD40-ligand, also known as CD40L/TRAP and CD154, is a type II membrane protein which binds to CD40, a cell surface receptor that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family; CD40 is expressed on B lymphocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells (DC), hematopoietic progenitors, endothelial cells and epithelial cells. Recombinant CD40-ligand may be used to activate DC ex vivo via CD40 binding; CD40-ligand-activated DC may provide or augment a protective antitumor immunity when administered in dendritic cell cancer vaccines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant cell-surface anchored sialidase DAS181  
A recombinant sialidase fusion protein composed of a sialidase catalytic domain derived from Actinomyces viscosus, a constituent of the normal oral and gastrointestinal flora in humans, fused to a cell surface-anchoring domain, with potential anti-viral activity. Following administration by oral inhalation, DAS181 proteolytically removes sialic acid from the airway epithelium, which inhibits viral binding to and internalization by cells of the respiratory epithelium and prevents viral replication. The cell surface anchoring-domain of this agent may increase retention time and drug potency. Sialic acids in the respiratory tract are used by influenza and parainfluenza viruses to invade airway epithelial cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant dHER2 vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of a truncated recombinant HER2 peptide (dHER2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, recombinant dHER2 vaccine may stimulate the host immune response to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against tumor cells that overexpress the HER2 protein, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The HER2 protein is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) that is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. dHER2 includes the extracellular domain (ECD) and a part of the intracellular domain (ICD) of the HER2 protein. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant dimeric filgrastim fusion protein F627  
A recombinant dimeric fusion peptide of the human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; filgrastim), with immunomodulating and hematopoietic activities. Recombinant dimeric filgrastim fusion protein F627 binds to the cell surface G-CSF receptors (G-CSFRs) inducing receptor dimerization and activation of signaling cascades such as the Jak-STAT and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. This stimulates neutrophil progenitor proliferation and differentiation. Compared to other preparations of monomer recombinant G-CSF, dimeric filgrastim may allow for stronger activation of G-CSFRs and a faster myeloid precursor response thus enhancing neutrophil recovery upon myelosuppressive therapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant DNA-L523S vaccine  
A plasmid DNA encoding human L523S, an RNA-binding protein that belongs to the KOC (K homology domain containing protein overexpressed in cancer) family, with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with L523S DNA may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that express the L523S protein. As an oncofetal protein, L523S is normally expressed in early embryonic tissue, but is overexpressed in certain cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant EphB4-HSA fusion protein  
A recombinant fusion protein composed of the full-length extracellular domain (soluble) of human receptor tyrosine kinase ephrin type-B receptor 4 (sEphB4) and fused, at its C-terminus, to full-length human serum albumin (HSA), with potential antineoplastic and anti-angiogenic activities. sEphB4-HSA functions as a decoy receptor for the membrane-bound ligand Ephrin-B2 (Efnb2) and interferes with the binding of Efnb2 to its native receptors, including EphB4 and EphA3. This may result in a reduction of angiogenesis and a reduction in cell growth of Efnb2 and/or EphB4 over-expressing tumor cells. In addition, this agent also prevents the angiogenic effects of numerous growth factors due to interactions between Efnb2 and EphB4. Efnb2 and EphB4 are overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types; the bi-directional signaling of Efnb2-EphB4 plays an important role in angiogenesis and tumor cell migration, invasion, and proliferation. Albumin reduces this agent’s degradation, improves circulation time and may thus improve efficacy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant flt3 ligand  
A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine Flt3. Flt3 ligand binds to the Flt3 tyrosine kinase receptor and, synergistically with other growth factors, stimulates the proliferation and mobilization of certain bone marrow precursor cells, including CD34+ cells, and dendritic cells. When proteolytically cleaved, the transmembrane isoform of Flt3 ligand generates the soluble form soluble Flt3 ligand , which is also biologically active. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant fowlpox GM-CSF vaccine adjuvant  
A cancer vaccine adjuvant consisting of a recombinant fowlpox virus encoding human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). GM-CSF binds to specific cell surface receptors on various immuno-hematopoietic cell types, enhancing their proliferation and differentiation and stimulating macrophage and dendritic cell functions in antigen presentation and antitumor cell-mediated immunity. Administration of recombinant fowlpox GM-CSF vaccine adjuvant may induce an immune response against tumor cells. Fowlpox virus is an attractive vector because its genome is easy to manipulate and it is replication incompetent in mammalian cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant fowlpox-B7.1 vaccine  
A cancer vaccine comprised of a recombinant fowlpox virus vector encoding the stimulatory molecule transgene B7-1. Recombinant fowlpox-B7.1 (rF-B7.1) vaccine may enhance antigen presentation and activate antitumoral cytotoxic T-cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant fowlpox-CEA(6D)/TRICOM vaccine  
A cancer vaccine comprised of a recombinant fowlpox virus vector encoding the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and a TRIad of COstimulatory Molecules (B7-1, ICAM-1 and LFA-3) (TRICOM). This agent may enhance CEA presentation to antigen presenting cells (APC) and activate cytotoxic T-cells against CEA-expressing tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant fowlpox-prostate specific antigen vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinant fowlpox virus encoding human prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Administration of this agent may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell response against PSA-expressing tumor cells. Fowlpox virus is an attractive vector because its genome is easy to manipulate and it is replication incompetent in mammalian cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant fowlpox-TRICOM vaccine  
A cancer vaccine comprised of a recombinant fowlpox virus vector encoding TRICOM. TRICOM is comprised of three co-stimulatory molecule transgenes (B7-1, ICAM-1 and LFA-3) that may enhance antigen presentation and activate cytotoxic T-cells. Fowlpox virus is an attractive vector because its genome is easy to manipulate and it is replication incompetent in mammalian cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant fowlpox-tyrosinase vaccine  
A recombinant fowlpox virus vaccine with potential antineoplastic activity. Binding to the melanoma antigen tyrosinase, recombinant fowlpox-tyrosinase vaccine generates cellular immune responses against melanoma cells expressing the tyrosinase antigen; this effect is enhanced by the co-administration of interleukin 2 (IL-2). Fowlpox virus is an attractive vector because its genome is easy to manipulate and it is replication incompetent in mammalian cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant hsp110-gp100 chaperone complex vaccine  
A recombinant chaperone-peptide complex-based vaccine composed of a complex between heat shock protein hsp110 and the human melanoma-associated antigen gp100, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon vaccination, recombinant hsp110-gp100 chaperone complex activates the immune system to exert a cytotoxic T cell immune response and antigen-specific interferon-gamma production against gp100-overexpressing cancer cells. Gp100, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. Hsp110, binds to and chaperones full-length proteins during heat shock; as an immunoadjuvant it is able to enhance an immune response against antigen(s) and stimulate T-lymphocyte activation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant human 6Ckine  
A therapeutic recombinant analogue of a member of the endogenous CC chemokines with potential antineoplastic activity. Expressed by various lymphoid tissues, endogenous 6Ckine is chemotactic for B and T lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant human adenovirus type 5 H101  
A replication selective, recombinant, E1B and partial E3 gene deleted form of human adenovirus type 5, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intratumoral injection of recombinant human adenovirus type 5, the adenovirus selectively replicates in cancer cells while preventing viral replication in normal, healthy cells. This induces a selective adenovirus-mediated cytotoxicity in cancer cells, which leads to cancer cell lysis. In addition, viral spread to adjacent cells, following lysis of infected cells, may activate the immune system to kill the infected tumor cells. The E1B protein causes p53 inactivation, which promotes viral replication; deletion of E1B allows for p53 activation in normal cells, which prevents viral replication in normal, healthy cells. The mutation and subsequent inactivation of p53 in cancer cells enables the E1B-deleted adenovirus to selectively replicate in cancer cells. Partial deletion of E3, encoding the adenovirus death protein, enhances the safety profile of the administered adenovirus. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant human albumin-human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor  
A long-acting recombinant fusion protein incorporating human serum albumin (HSA)-derived and human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-derived moieties with potential granulopoietic activity. G-CSF, a naturally occurring cytokine, stimulates the production of granulocytes and stem cells in the bone marrow and their release into the blood; it also stimulates the differentiation, function, and survival of neutrophil precursors and mature neutrophils. Albumin fusion may promote an increased serum half-life and bioavailability of the G-CSF moiety of this fusion protein. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 APN01  
A recombinant, soluble glycosylated form of human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (rhACE2) with antihypertensive and potential antineoplastic activities. Recombinant human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 APN01 may normalize ACE2 levels, cleaving angiotensin II to create angiotensin-(1-7) and restoring the function of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). ACE2, a homolog of ACE1, appears to function as a negative regulator of the RAS system by converting angiotensin II to angiotensin-(1-7), a peptide with actions that counteract the cardiovascular actions of angiotensin II. In addition, angiotensin-(1-7) may inhibit cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the production of proinflammatory prostaglandins and may activate the angiotensin-(1-7) G protein-coupled receptor Mas, resulting in diminished tumor cell proliferation. ACE2 levels may be reduced in malignancy and diabetes and in liver, cardiovascular and lung diseases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin  
A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous glycoprotein hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG binds to cells of the corpus luteum, thereby stimulating progesterone production and helping to maintain a secretory endometrium. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant human EGF-rP64K/Montanide ISA 51 vaccine  
A peptide vaccine preparation, containing recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rEGF) linked to the Neisseria meningitidis-derived recombinant immunogenic carrier protein P64k (rP64k) and mixed with the immunoadjuvant Montanide ISA 51, with potential active immunotherapy activity. Recombinant human EGF-rP64K/Montanide ISA 51 vaccine may trigger a humoral immune response against vaccine rEGF and rP64K and, so, against endogenous EGF. Antibody-mediated inhibition of endogenous EGF binding to its receptor, epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant human endostatin  
A recombinant human proteolytic fragment of the C-terminal end of type XVIII collagen. Endostatin induces microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis and inhibits endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis, which may result in a reduction in tumor burden. This agent also may decrease hepatic metastasis by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-dependent cell attachment to the hepatic microvasculature. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant human epidermal growth factor  
A recombinant form of the naturally-occurring polypeptide human epidermal growth factor with potential epithelial regenerative and cytoprotective activities. Upon topical application, recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) may stimulate epithelial proliferation, differentiation and migration, which may result in the acceleration of epithelial regeneration and wound healing. In addition, rhEGF may attenuate epithelial cytotoxicities related to chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant human fusion protein L19TNFalpha  
An immunocytokine consisting of human pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) fused to a human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) directed against the extra-domain B (ED-B) of fibronectin (L19), with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. The L19 moiety of recombinant human fusion protein L19TNFalpha binds to the ED-B domain of fibronectin on tumor cells in the tumor neovasculature. In turn, the TNFalpha moiety may locally induce an immune response against ED-B fibronectin-expressing tumor cells and may specifically decrease the proliferation of ED-B-expressing tumor cells. ED-B is predominantly expressed during angiogenesis and tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor  
A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Secreted by monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils and other cells after activation, G-CSF stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells committed to the neutrophil/ granulocyte lineage. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant human hyaluronidase  
A human recombinant form of the naturally occurring human enzyme hyaluronidase with potential chemoadjuvant activity. Upon local administration, recombinant human hyaluronidase hydrolyzes hyaluronic acid, a glucosaminoglycan responsible for the viscosity of the interstitial barrier. The digestion of hyaluronic acid lowers the viscosity in the interstitial space, thereby increasing permeability and facilitating local penetration of chemotherapeutic agents into cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant human mannose-binding lectin  
A recombinant protein similar or identical to human mannan-binding lectin (MBL) with opsonin activity. MBL, a soluble pattern recognition receptor (PRR) collectin in the C-type lectin superfamily, is a plasma protein that plays an important role in innate immunity; MBL contains a carbohydrate recognition domain at one end and a collagen-like stalk domain at the other. Upon MBL binding to mannose residues on mannose-containing polysaccharides (mannans) on the surfaces of a microorganisms, activation of the complement system results in the deposition of complement components (opsonization) and the clearance of the opsonized microorganisms by phagocytic cells. MBL is part of the mannan-binding lectin pathway (also known as the Ali/Krueger pathway), which has similarities to the classical complement pathway in that activation of C4 and C2 produce activated complement proteins further down the complement cascade. However, unlike the classical complement pathway, activation of this pathway is not antibody dependent. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant human serum amyloid P/pentraxin 2  
A fully recombinant form of the human pentraxin 2 (PTX2) protein with potential antifibrotic activity. Upon intravenous administration, recombinant human serum amyloid P/pentraxin 2 (PRM-151) may inhibit myofibroblast generation by preventing the differentiation of circulating monocytes into fibrocytes and profibrotic macrophages. PTX2 is a circulating plasma protein that belongs to the class of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) of the innate immune system. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant human stem cell factor  
A therapeutic glycoprotein cytokine chemically identical to or similar to endogenous human stem cell factor with hematopoietic activity. Recombinant human stem cell factor (rhSCF) binds to the receptor tyrosine kinase c-kit, which may stimulate the growth of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs). This agent works synergistically with other hematopoietic growth factors. rhSCF may promote bone marrow recovery after myeloablative therapies and procedures. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interferon  
One of a group of recombinant therapeutic glycoprotein cytokines with antiviral, anti-proliferative, and immunomodulating activities. Interferons bind to specific cell-surface receptors, leading to the transcription and translation of genes with interferon-specific response elements (ISREs). The resultant proteins mediate many complex effects, ultimately leading to inhibition of viral protein synthesis and cellular growth, alteration of cellular differentiation, interference with oncogene expression, activation of natural killer cells, alteration of cell surface antigen expression, and augmentation of lymphocyte and macrophage cytotoxicity. The production of endogenous interferons is induced in response to foreign agents such as bacteria, viruses and parasites and to tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interferon alfa  
A class of naturally-isolated or recombinant therapeutic peptides used as antiviral and anti-tumor agents. Alpha interferons are cytokines produced by nucleated cells (predominantly natural killer (NK) leukocytes) upon exposure to live or inactivated virus, double-stranded RNA or bacterial products. These agents bind to specific cell-surface receptors, resulting in the transcription and translation of genes containing an interferon-specific response element. The proteins so produced mediate many complex effects, including antiviral effects (viral protein synthesis); antiproliferative effects (cellular growth inhibition and alteration of cellular differentiation); anticancer effects (interference with oncogene expression); and immune-modulating effects (natural killer cell activation, alteration of cell surface antigen expression, and augmentation of lymphocyte and macrophage cytotoxicity). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interferon alfa-2b  
A non-glycosylated recombinant interferon with antiviral and antineoplastic activities. Alfa interferons bind to specific cell-surface receptors, resulting in the transcription and translation of genes whose protein products mediate antiviral, antiproliferative, anticancer, and immune-modulating effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interferon Alpha 2b-like protein  
A proprietary recombinant protein highly resembling human interferon alpha 2b (IFN-a2b), with potential anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and antiviral activities. Upon injection, recombinant IFN alpha 2b-like protein binds to specific IFN alpha cell surface receptors. This activates interferon-mediated signal transduction pathways and induces the transcription and translation of genes with interferon-specific response elements (ISREs). This may activate the immune system, including the activation of natural killer cells (NKs) and may result in an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, tumor angiogenesis, metastasis and an induction of apoptosis. Compared to human IFN-a2b (HuINF-a2b), this agent exhibits enhanced antiviral and antiproliferative activities. In addition, this agent exhibits antiviral activity against a variety of viruses, including hepatitis B and C viruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Avian Influenza. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interferon alpha-1b  
The non-glycosylated recombinant interferon alpha, subtype 1b, with immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Alpha interferon-1b binds to specific cell-surface receptors, resulting in the transcription and translation of genes whose protein products mediate antiviral, antiproliferative, anticancer, and immune-modulating effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interferon alpha-2a  
A non-glycosylated recombinant human alpha interferon, subtype 2a, produced in the bacterium E. coli. Interferon alpha-2a binds to its specific cell-surface receptor, resulting in the transcription and translation of genes whose protein products have antiviral, antiproliferative, anticancer, and immune modulating effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interferon beta  
A recombinant protein which is chemically identical to or similar to endogenous interferon beta with antiviral and anti-tumor activities. Endogenous interferons beta are cytokines produced by nucleated cells (predominantly natural killer cells) upon exposure to live or inactivated virus, double-stranded RNA or bacterial products. These agents bind to specific cell-surface receptors, resulting in the transcription and translation of genes with an interferon-specific response element. The proteins so produced mediate many complex effects, including antiviral (the most important being inhibition of viral protein synthesis), antiproliferative and immune modulating effects. The recombinant therapeutic forms of interferon beta are interferon beta 1-a and interferon beta 1-b. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interferon gamma  
A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous lymphokine interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) with antineoplastic, immunoregulatory, and antiviral activities. Therapeutic IFN-gamma binds to and activates the cell-surface IFN-gamma receptor, stimulating antibody-dependent cytotoxicity and enhances natural killer cell attachment to tumor cells. This agent also activates caspases, thereby inducing apoptosis in malignant cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interleukin-12  
A recombinant form of the endogenous heterodimeric cytokine interleukin-12 with potential antineoplastic activity. Recombinant interleukin-12 binds to and activates its cell-surface receptor, stimulating the production of interferon-gamma (IFN) which, in turn, induces IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) and so inhibits tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interleukin-15  
A recombinant agent that is chemically identical or similar to the endogenous cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) with immunomodulating activity. IL-15, secreted by mononuclear phagocytes (and some other cell types) following viral infection, regulates T and natural killer cell activation and proliferation. This cytokine induces activation of transcription activators STAT3, STAT5, and STAT6 via JAK kinase signal transduction pathways in mast cells, T cells, and dendritic epidermal T cells. IL-15 and interleukin-2 (IL-2) are structurally similar and share many biological activities; both may bind to common hematopoietin receptor subunits, negatively regulating each other's activity. CD8+ memory T cell number has been shown to be regulated by a balance between IL-15 and IL-2. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interleukin-18  
A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18). Produced primarily by macrophages, IL-18 induces the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and enhances the activity of natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). As a potential immunotherapeutic agent, IL-18 displays antitumor effects in vitro and in animal models. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interleukin-1-alpha  
A recombinant agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous protein cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1). The IL-1 precursor is produced by monocytes, activated macrophages, and other cell types; mature IL-1 is generated by proteolytic cleavage by proteases such as IL-1-beta converting enzyme (ICE). This agent enhances T cell proliferation and B cell growth and differentiation and induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interleukin-1-beta  
A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous protein cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1)-beta. Produced by monocytes and activated macrophages, endogenous mature IL-1 is generated through proteolytic cleavage by proteases such as IL-1-beta converting enzyme (ICE). This agent promotes angiogenesis, fibroblast proliferation, and neutrophil chemotaxis; it also regulates the functions of lymphocytes and epithelial cells and is involved in the 'acute phase response' to infection. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interleukin-3  
A recombinant form of interleukin-3, a cytokine produced by activated T-cells and mast cells involved in intercellular communication, hematopoiesis, and inflammation. IL-3 binds and activates specific receptors on hematopoietic cells and in the nervous system, triggering expression of specific genes via the Ras signaling pathway and through Jak2 activation. This agent stimulates the proliferation of pluripotent hematopoietic progenitor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interleukin-4  
A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). Produced primarily by activated T-cells, IL-4 binds to and activates its cell-surface receptor, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of activated B-cells and enhancing their ability to present antigens to T-cells. As a potential immunotherapeutic agent, recombinant IL-4 also augments the effects of other cytokines on dendritic cells (DC), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interleukin-6  
A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) with antiapoptotic, proinflammatory, antiinflammatory, proproliferative and proangiogenic activities. IL-6 binds to its receptor (IL-6R), activating a receptor-CD130 receptor complex; the CD130 portion of the complex is a signal transduction protein that activates JAK kinases and ras-mediated signaling pathways, which in turn activate downstream signaling pathways, resulting in the activation of various transcription factors (STAT, ELK-1, NF-IL-6, etc.) and gene transcription. The physiological effects of IL-6 are complex and varied and include hematopoietic, pyrogenic and thermogenic, proinflammatory, antiinflammatory, proproliferative (anti-apoptotic), and angiogenic effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant interleukin-7  
A recombinant protein which is chemically identical to or similar to endogenous interleukin-7 (IL-7) with hematopoietic and immunopotentiating properties. Produced by bone marrow, thymic stromal, and spleen cells, the cytokine interleukin-7 is a hematopoietic growth factor for progenitor B cells and T cells and stimulates proliferation and differentiation of mature T-cells and natural killer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant leukocyte interleukin  
A cocktail preparation of synthetic interleukin (IL) -1, IL-2, IL-6 , tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon gamma and other cytokines that are chemically identical to or similar to signaling molecules secreted by leukocyte cells. Leukocyte interleukins are essential in many immune responses, such as antibodies production, modulating secretion of other cytokines, and activation of bone marrow stem cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant macrophage colony-stimulating factor  
A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous protein cytokine macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Synthesized endogenously by mesenchymal cells, M-CSF stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series and can reverse treatment-related neutropenias. Recombinant M-CSF may also enhance antigen presentation and activate antitumoral cytotoxic T-cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant MAGE-3.1 antigen  
A recombinant tumor-specific melanoma antigen. Vaccination with recombinant MAGE-3.1 antigen may induce a host immune response against MAGE-expressing cells, resulting in antitumoral T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. MAGE-expressing cells are found in melanoma, non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, and esophageal carcinoma. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant MIP1-alpha variant ECI301  
A recombinant form of a human macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP1-alpha) with a substitution of aspartate to alanine at position 26, with potential immunomodulating and radiotherapy potentiating activity. Intravenous administration of recombinant MIP1-alpha variant ECI301 after local tumor irradiation enhances the anti-tumor effect of ionizing radiation at the irradiated site as well as the antitumor effect at non-irradiated tumor sites (known as the abscopal effect). The abscopal effect appears to be attributed to this agent’s ability to recruit and activate leukocytes, such as monocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and T lymphocytes, thereby initiating an anti-tumor immune response against cancer cells. MIP1-alpha, also known as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3, is a ligand for the chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR4 and CCR5 that are involved in immune and inflammatory responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara-5T4 vaccine  
A cancer vaccine comprised of a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viral vector encoding the 5T4 fetal oncoprotein (MVA-h5T4). Vaccination with recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara-5T4 vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a humoral and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing 5T4 fetal oncoprotein antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The MVA viral vector, derived from the replication-competent strain Ankara, is a highly attentuated, replication-defective vaccinia strain incapable of virion assembly. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2  
An 85-amino acid recombinant peptide derived from protein c2 of the hemophagocytic hookworm Ancylostoma caninum (a common canine parasite) with anticoagulant activity. Recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2 (rNAPc2) binds to circulating activated factor X (FXa) or zymogen factor X (FX) to form a binary complex which subsequently binds to and inhibits membrane-bound activated factor VII/tissue factor complex (FVIIa/TF). When administered prophylactically, this agent may reduce the incidence of deep venous thrombosis without hemostatic compromise. Because rNAPc2 inhibits the formation of the FVIIa/TF protease complex, which may play a role in the cellular signaling of both metastatic and angiogenic processes, it may impede tumor progression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant oncolytic poliovirus PVS-RIPO  
A recombinant, live attenuated, nonpathogenic oncolytic virus containing the oral poliovirus Sabin type 1 in which the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) is replaced with the IRES from human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intratumoral administration of recombinant oncolytic poliovirus PVS-RIPO, the poliovirus is selectively taken up by and replicates in tumor cells expressing CD155 (poliovirus receptor, PVR or NECL5) eventually causing tumor cell lysis. CD155, an oncofetal cell adhesion molecule and tumor antigen, is ectopically expressed in certain cancers, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GMB), and plays an important role in tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Due to the heterologous HRV2 IRES in this recombinant virus, PVS-RIPO only propagates in susceptible, nonneuronal cells (e.g., GBM). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

recombinant parathyroid hormone  
A recombinant therapeutic agent that is identical or similar to an 84-amino-acid polypeptide produced by the parathryoid gland which functions to maintain a constant concentration of calcium ions (Ca2+) in the extracellular fluid. In target tissues, parathyroid hormone (PTH) binds to and activates the parathryorid hormone receptor (PTHR), a cell surface G protein-coupled receptor; there are two types of receptors, parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTH1R) found in bone and the kidney and parathyroid hormone receptor 2 (PTH2R) found primarily in the central nervous system (CNS), pancreas, testis, and placenta. Activation of PTHRs results in the activation of adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C in target tissue cells, which, depending upon the specific target tissue, results in the enhancement of intestinal Ca2+ absorption, mobilization of bone Ca2+, and renal Ca2+ reabsorption. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant platelet factor 4  
A recombinant form of the endogenous chemokine platelet factor 4 with potential antiangiogenesis and antineoplastic activities. As a heparin-binding tetramer, recombinant platelet factor 4 inhibits growth factor-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis; it has been shown that this agent inhibits fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) angiogenic activity downstream from the FGF2 receptor. Its activity is antagonized by heparin. Recombinant platelet factor 4 may also directly inhibit the proliferation of some tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant PRAME protein plus AS15 adjuvant GSK2302025A  
A recombinant form of the human PRAME (Preferentially Expressed Antigen of Melanoma) protein combined with the AS15 adjuvant, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intramuscular administration, GSK2302025A may stimulate the host immune response to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that overexpress the PRAME protein, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The tumor-associated antigen PRAME is often overexpressed by a variety of tumor cell types. AS15 is an potent adjuvant liposomal formulation that contains CpG 7909, monophosphoryl lipid, and QS-21. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisia-CEA(610D) vaccine GI-6207  
A whole, heat-killed, recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast-based vaccine genetically altered to express the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) peptide 610D with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisia-CEA(610D) vaccine GI-6207 may stimulate a host cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CEA-expressing tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell lysis. CEA, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed on a wide variety of human cancer cells including colorectal, gastric, lung, breast and pancreatic cancer cells. CEA 610D encodes for 9 amino acids (605-613) in which aspartate is substituted for asparagine at position 610 (610D) in order to strengthen the induction of the CTL response against CEA-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant soluble human CD4 protein  
A recombinant human soluble CD4 with antiviral activity. Recombinant human soluble CD4 has the amino terminus but not the T-cell binding domain of the endogenous CD4 antigen. This soluble CD4 protein competitively binds to envelope glycoprotein (gp120) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) resulting in inhibition of interaction between gp120 and the endogenous CD4 antigen, thereby blocking viral recognition of CD4 and subsequent entry of HIV into CD4 bearing cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant thymosin  
A recombinant form of a polypeptide chemically identical to or similar to the hormone secreted by the thymus gland. Thymosin is generally known to have functions in the preprocessing of T cells and the development of B cells to plasma cells to produce antibodies. In particular, the predominant form of thymosin, beta 4 thymosin, is the principal actin-sequestering protein that plays an important role in functions that involve actin molecules, such as maintenance of cell shape, cytoplasmic organization, cell movement, and cell division. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant thyroid-stimulating hormone  
A peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. It promotes the growth of the thyroid gland and stimulates the synthesis of thyroid hormones and the release of thyroxine by the thyroid gland. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant thyrotropin alfa  
A recombinant form of the human anterior pituitary glycoprotein thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with use in the diagnostic setting. With an amino acid sequence identical to that of human TSH, thyrotropin alfa binds to TSH receptors on normal thyroid epithelial cells or well-differentiated thyroid cancer cells, stimulating iodine uptake and organification, synthesis and secretion of thyroglobulin (Tg), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant transforming growth factor-beta-2  
A recombinant polypeptide chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous cytokine transforming growth factor-beta-2 (TGF-beta-2). TGF-beta-2 modulates cell growth and immune function and may promote or inhibit tumor growth, depending on the tumor cell type. TGF-beta-2 may also suppress host immune system recognition of and/or response to tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant tumor necrosis factor family protein  
A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to one of a number of endogenous tumor necrosis factor (TNF) proteins. TNF family cytokines bind to and activate specific cell-surface receptors, thereby mediating inflammatory processes, cell proliferation, immunity, angiogenesis, and tumor cell cytotoxicity. One primary antitumor effect of TNFs involves stimulation of T cell-mediated antitumor cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant tyrosinase-related protein-2  
A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to an endogenous non-mutated melanocyte differentiation antigen expressed by both normal and malignant melanocytes. Vaccinations with recombinant tyrosinase-related protein-2 may elicit an antitumoral cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells and some normal cells that express tyrosinase-related protein-2. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant vaccinia prostate-specific antigen vaccine  
A vaccine consisting of recombinant vaccinia virus encoding prostate specific antigen (PSA). Vaccination with recombinant vaccinia prostate-specific antigen vaccine stimulates the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells expressing PSA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant vaccinia viral vector RO5217790  
A vaccine consisting of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viral vector encoding mutated forms of the genes for the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 derived from the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and the human cytokine interleukin-2 (hIL2), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, recombinant vaccinia viral vector RO5217790 may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against cells expressing HPV E6 and E7, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Oncoproteins E6 and E7 have been implicated in the tumorigenesis of cervical carcinoma. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant vaccinia-B7.1 vaccine  
A recombinant vaccinia virus encoding the T-cell co-stimulatory molecule B7-1. Co-administration of recombinant vaccinia-B7.1 and a tumor-associated antigen in a cancer vaccine may enhance tumor-associated antigen-specific T-cell responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant vaccinia-CEA(6D)-TRICOM vaccine  
A vaccine consisting of recombinant vaccinia virus encoding the tumor-associated antigen carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and a TRIad of COstimulatory Molecules (B7-1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3; also called TRICOM). Vaccination with recombinant vaccinia-CEA(6D)-TRICOM vaccine stimulates the host immune system to mount a T-cell response against tumor cells expressing the CEA antigen. The use of TRICOM in the vaccine may elicit a greater antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immune response compared to the use of vaccinia-CEA alone. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant vaccinia-MUC1 vaccine  
A vaccine containing a recombinant vaccinia virus that encodes the gene for human mucin-1, a tumor-associated antigen. Upon administration, recombinant vaccinia-MUC-1 vaccine may elicit a MUC-1-specific cytotoxic T cell response against tumor cells bearing MUC-1. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant vaccinia-multiepitope melanoma peptides-B7.1-B7.2 vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of an inactivated recombinant vaccinia virus encoding epitope peptides derived from melanoma-related HLA-A2-restricted tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), including Melan-A(27-35), gp100(280-288) and tyrosinase(1-9), and two co-stimulatory B7 proteins, B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86). Upon administration, recombinant vaccinia-multiepitope melanoma peptides-B7.1-B7.2 vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against melanoma cells that express TAAs which share epitopes with the epitope peptides expressed by the vaccine viral vector, resulting in tumor cell lysis; vaccine viral vector-expressed co-stimulatory proteins B7.1 and B7.2 may enhance the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response to the TAAs. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant vaccinia-NY-ESO-1 vaccine  
A cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinant vaccinia viral vector encoding an immunogenic peptide derived from the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1, an antigen found in normal testis and various tumors, including bladder, breast, hepatocellular, melanoma, and prostate cancers. Vaccination with recombinant vaccinia- NY-ESO-1 peptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a humoral and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing NY-ESO-1 antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant vaccinia-TRICOM vaccine  
A vaccine consisting of recombinant vaccinia virus encoding a triad of costimulatory molecules (B7-1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3; also called TRICOM). Vaccination with recombinant vaccinia-TRICOM vaccine stimulates the host immune system to mount a non-specific T-cell response. With the addition of a tumor-associated antigen peptide, this vaccine may enhance a tumor-specific immune response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-expressing interferon-beta  
A recombinant, replicating oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) carrying the human interferon-beta (IFN-b) gene, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration, recombinant VSV expressing IFN-b replicates in the tumor environment specifically, partially due to defective innate antiviral host defense mechanisms in tumor cells, involving type I IFNs, and exerts its cytolytic activity towards the tumor cells. By expressing human IFN-b, an INF-b-mediated antiviral immune response in surrounding normal cells is activated which protects normal cells against virus replication and VSV-mediated cell lysis. However, tumor cells have a defective IFN-b-mediated innate antiviral immune response allowing for VSV to replicate in these cells without interference. In addition, the IFN-b produced by VSV may activate an immune response in surrounding normal cells and may activate T-lymphocytes, dendritic cells and natural killer cells; thus, inducing an anti-tumor immune response against the tumor cells. VSV, a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, is relatively nonpathogenic to healthy humans. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Recombivax HB  
(Other name for: hepatitis B vaccine (recombinant))

Rectoid  
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)

red tomato juice  
Tomato juice derived from red tomatoes, with potential antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. Red tomato juice contains higher levels of the trans-isomer of lycopene (trans-LYC) compared to the cis-isomer (cis-LYC). Lycopene, a linear, unsaturated hydrocarbon carotenoid, is the major red pigment in certain fruits such as tomatoes, pink grapefruit, apricots, red oranges, watermelon, rosehips, and guava. As an antioxidant, lycopene scavenges free radicals which may both inhibit cellular oxidation and prevent free radical damage to cells. cis-LYC is better absorbed than its trans form. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

reduced glutathione-L-cysteine-anthocyanins gel  
A gel formulation containing reduced glutathione, L-cysteine, and anthocyanins with potential antioxifdant, immunostimulating, and chemoprotective activities. Reduced glutathione is the primary cellular antioxidant and plays important roles in the antioxidation of reactive oxygen species and free radicals and, as a thiol-containing co-enzyme, in the detoxification of xenobiotic compounds. In addition, glutathione affects DNA synthesis and repair and exerts immunostimulating activity by increasing the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), promoting antigen presentation, and stimulating T-suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8 cells) cells. The flavonoid anthocyanins, derived from various blue and purple flowering plants, are potent scavengers of reactive oxygen species. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

refametinib  
An orally bioavailable selective MEK inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Refametinib specifically inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAP2K1 or MAPK/ERK kinase 1), resulting in inhibition of growth factor-mediated cell signaling and tumor cell proliferation. MEK, a dual specificity threonine/tyrosine kinase, is a key component of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway that regulates cell growth; constitutive activation of this pathway has been implicated in many cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Refludan  
(Other name for: lepirudin)

regadenoson  
An adenosine derivative and selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist with coronary vasodilating activity. Upon administration, regadenoson selectively binds to and activates the A2A adenosine receptor, which induces coronary vasodilation. This leads to an increase in coronary blood flow and enhances myocardial perfusion. Compared to adenosine, regadenoson has a longer half-life and shows higher selectivity towards the A2A adenosine receptor. This agent is a very weak agonist for the A1 adenosine receptor and has negligible affinity for the A2B and A3 adenosine receptors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Regenecare  
(Other name for: collagen/aloe vera/vitamin E/lidocaine topical hydrogel)

Regitine  
(Other name for: phentolamine mesylate)

Reglan  
(Other name for: metoclopramide hydrochloride)

regorafenib  
An orally bioavailable small molecule with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Regorafenib binds to and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) 2 and 3, and Ret, Kit, PDGFR and Raf kinases, which may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. VEGFRs are receptor tyrosine kinases that play important roles in tumor angiogenesis; the receptor tyrosine kinases RET, KIT, and PDGFR, and the serine/threonine-specific Raf kinase are involved in tumor cell signaling. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Relenza  
(Other name for: zanamivir)

Remeron  
(Other name for: mirtazapine)

remestemcel-L  
Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) harvested from bone marrow of healthy adult donors and expanded ex vivo, with potential immunosuppressive activity. Remestemcel-L cells are hypo-immunogenic due to lack of major histocompatibility II (MHC II) molecule expression, eliciting little, if any, host immune response upon intravenous infusion. Infusion of allogeneic MSCs may result in: a) increased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10, prostaglandin E, and hepatocyte growth factor; b) decreased mononuclear phagocyte expression of indoleamine 2,3,-dioxygenase, which catabolizes L-tryptophan into its pro-inflammatory metabolites; and c) modulated dendritic cell (DC)maturation and disrupted activities of natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. In addition, pluripotent MSCs, upon administration, may be recruited to damaged tissue sites, differentiating along specific lineages when stimulated. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Remicade  
(Other name for: infliximab)

Remifemin  
(Other name for: black cohosh)

remifentanil hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt form of remifentanil, a synthetic anilidopiperidine derivative and short-acting opiate agonist with analgesic and anesthetic properties. Remifentanil selectively binds to and activates the mu-opioid receptor, thereby producing analgesia, respiratory depression, miosis, reduced gastrointestinal motility, and euphoria. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Reminyl  
(Other name for: galantamine hydrobromide)

Remitogen  
(Other name for: apolizumab)

renal cell carcinoma peptides vaccine IMA901  
A multipeptide cancer vaccine targeting renal cell carcinoma with potential immunopotentiating activity. Renal cell carcinoma peptides vaccine IMA901 consists of 10 different synthetic tumor-associated peptide (TUMAP) antigens (9 HLA-class I-binding and 1 HLA class II-binding); endogenously, these TUMAPs are expressed by the majority of renal cell carcinomas. Vaccination with this agent may significantly increase host cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune responses against tumor cells expressing these peptide antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

renal cell carcinoma/CD40L RNA-transfected autologous dendritic cell vaccine AGS-003  
A cancer vaccine in which autologous dendritic cells are transfected with patient-specific renal cell carcinoma (RCC) RNA and a synthetic, truncated human CD40 ligand (CD40L) RNA with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Individual RCC-specific RNA, encoding a unique repertoire of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) (including telomerase reverse transcriptase, G250, and oncofetal antigen) is electroporated into autologous dencritic cells (DCs), transfected with synthetic RNA that encodes a truncated version of the T-cell protein CD40L; the transfected autlogous DCs express and process both patient-specific RCC TAAs and the truncated CD40L protein. When reintroduced back to the patient, renal cell carcinoma/CD40L RNA-transfected autologous dendritic cell vaccine AGS-003 may elicit a highly specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against RCC cells expressing the patient-specific RCC TAA repertoire. The signal cascade initiated by stimulation of the truncated, ectopically expressed co-stimulatory molecule CD40L results in the secretion of the inflammatory cytokine IL-12 downstream. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Rencarex  
(Other name for: girentuximab)

Renova  
(Other name for: tretinoin)

REOLYSIN  
(Other name for: wild-type reovirus)

reparixin  
An orally available inhibitor of CXC chemokine receptor types 1 (CXCR1) and 2 (CXCR2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, reparixin allosterically binds to CXCR1 and prevents CXCR1 activation by its ligand interleukin 8 (IL-8 or CXCL8). This may cause cancer stem cell (CSC) apoptosis and may inhibit tumor cell progression and metastasis. CXCR1, overexpressed on CSCs, plays a key role in CSC survival and the ability of CSC to self-renew; it is also linked to tumor resistance to chemotherapy. Inhibition of the IL-8/CXCR1 interaction also potentiates the cytotoxic effect of chemotherapeutic agents. In addition, reparixin inhibits CXCR2 activation and may reduce both neutrophil recruitment and vascular permeability during inflammation or injury. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Resectisol  
(Other name for: mannitol)

Resimmune  
(Other name for: anti-CD3 immunotoxin A-dmDT390-bisFv(UCHT1))

resiniferatoxin  
A naturally occurring capsaicin analog found in the latex of the cactus Euphorbia resinifera with analgesic activity. Resiniferatoxin (RTX) binds to and activates the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a non-selective cation channel in the plasma membrane of primary afferent sensory neurons. This increases the permeability to cations, and leads to an influx of calcium and sodium ions. This results in membrane depolarization, causing an irritant effect, followed by desensitization of the sensory neurons thereby inhibiting signal conduction in afferent pain pathways and causing analgesia. TRPV1, a member of the transient receptor potential channel (TRP) superfamily, is a heat- and chemo-sensitive calcium/sodium ion channel that is selectively expressed in a subpopulation of pain-sensing primary afferent neurons. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

resiquimod  
An imidazoquinolinamine Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist with potential immunostimulatory activity. Resiquimod binds to and activates TLRs 7 and 8, mainly on dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and B-lymphocytes, which results in the activation of the TLR signaling pathway and nuclear translocation of the transcription activator NF-kB another transcription factors; subsequently, the production of cytokines, especially interferon-alpha (INF-a), increases, enhancing T-helper 1 (Th1) immune responses. In addition, topical application of resiquimod appears to activate Langerhans cells, which may result in enhanced activation of T-lymphocytes. Due to its immunostimulatory activity, this agent may potentially be useful as a vaccine adjuvant. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

resiquimod topical gel  
A topical gel containing the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist resiquimod, an imidazoquinolinamine and with potential immunomodulating activity. Resiquimod binds toTLR7 and 8, mainly on dendritic cells, macrophages, and B-lymphocytes, and activates the TLR signaling pathway, resulting in the induction of the nuclear translocation of transcription activator NF-kB and activation of other transcription factors; subsequently, gene expression increases and the production of cytokines increases, especially interferon-alpha (INF-a), resulting in the enhancement of T-helper 1 (Th1) immune responses. In addition, topical application of resiquimod appears to activate epidermal Langerhans cells, leading to an enhanced activation of T-lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

resistant starch  
A form of dietary fiber that resists degradation in the small intestine by gastrointestinal (GI) enzymes with potential chemopreventive and prebiotic activity. Upon consumption of resistant starch, the fiber is not metabolized or absorbed in the small intestine and enters the colon unaltered. Once in the colon, the starch is fermented by anaerobic colonic bacteria and produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including butyrate, which has anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. In addition, butyrate appears to exert antitumor effects by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing tumor cell differentiation and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

resminostat  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) with potential antineoplastic activity. Resminostat binds to and inhibits HDACs leading to an accumulation of highly acetylated histones. This may result in an induction of chromatin remodeling, inhibition of the transcription of tumor suppressor genes, inhibition of tumor cell division and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HDACs, upregulated in many tumor types, are a class of enzymes that deacetylate chromatin histone proteins. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Respbid  
(Other name for: theophylline)

Restasis  
(Other name for: cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion)

resveratrol  
A phytoalexin derived from grapes and other food products with antioxidant and potential chemopreventive activities. Resveratrol induces phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (anti-initiation activity); mediates anti-inflammatory effects and inhibits cyclooxygenase and hydroperoxidase functions (anti-promotion activity); and induces promyelocytic leukemia cell differentiation (anti-progression activity), thereby exhibiting activities in three major steps of carcinogenesis. This agent may inhibit TNF-induced activation of NF-kappaB in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

resveratrol formulation SRT501  
A proprietary formulation of resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin derived from grapes and other food products with potential antioxidant, anti-obesity, antidiabetic and chemopreventive activities. Resveratrol may activate sirtuin subtype 1 (SIRT-1). SIRT1 activation has been reported to inhibit tumorigenesis and tumor cell proliferation. SIRT-1 is a member of the silent information regulator 2 (SIR2) (or sirtuin) family of enzymes that plays an important role in mitochondrial activity and acts as a protein deacetylase. SIRT1 appears to be involved in the regulation of numerous transcription factors such as Nf-kB and p53. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

retaspimycin hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of a small-molecule inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) with antiproliferative and antineoplastic activities. Retaspimycin binds to and inhibits the cytosolic chaperone functions of HSP90, which maintains the stability and functional shape of many oncogenic signaling proteins and may be overexpressed or overactive in tumor cells. Retaspimycin-mediated inhibition of HSP90 promotes the proteasomal degradation of oncogenic signaling proteins in susceptible tumor cell populations, which may result in the induction of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Retin-A  
(Other name for: tretinoin)

Retin-A MICRO  
(Other name for: tretinoin)

retinoid 9cUAB30  
A synthetic analogue of 9-cis retinoic acid with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. Retinoid 9cUAB30 binds to and activates retinoid X receptor (RXR) homodimers and/or and retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/RXR heterodimers, which may result in the dissociation of corepressor protein and the recruitment of coactivator protein, followed by transcription of downstream target genes into mRNAs and protein translation. Gene transcription regulated by these transcription factors may result in inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell differentiation, and apoptosis of both normal cells and tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

retinoid analogue NRX 195183  
An orally bioavailable retinoid acid receptor (RAR) alpha agonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Retinoid analogue NRX 195183 binds to and activates RAR alpha, modulating the transcription of genes responsible for cell differentiation and proliferation, which may result in cell differentiation, decreased cell proliferation, and the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Encoded by the RARA gene, RAR alpha is a nuclear receptor and a member of the steroid receptor superfamily. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

retinol  
The fat soluble vitamin retinol. Vitamin A binds to and activates retinoid receptors (RARs), thereby inducing cell differentiation and apoptosis of some cancer cell types and inhibiting carcinogenesis. Vitamin A plays an essential role in many physiologic processes, including proper functioning of the retina, growth and differentiation of target tissues, proper functioning of the reproductive organs, and modulation of immune function. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

retinyl acetate  
A naturally-occurring fatty acid ester form of retinol (vitamin A) with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. Retinyl acetate binds to and activates retinoid receptors, inducing cell differentiation and decreasing cell proliferation. This agent also inhibits carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation in some cancer cell types and exhibits immunomodulatory properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

retrovector encoding mutant anti-cyclin G1  
A replication-incompetent, pathotropic, tumor matrix (collagen)-targeted, retroviral vector encoding an N-terminal deletion mutant form of the cyclin G1 gene with potential antineoplastic activity. Under the control of a hybrid long-terminal repeat/cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, retrovector encoding mutant anti-cyclin G expresses the mutant cyclin G1 construct, resulting in disruption of tumor cell cyclin G1 activity and decreased cellular proliferation and angiogenesis. This agent preferentially targets collagen of the tumor matrix because of the incorporation of the collagen-binding domain of von Willebrand factor (vWF) on the retrovector surface. Exploiting the collagen-targeting mechanism of vWF permits delivery of the retrovector to tumor sites where angiogenesis and collagen matrix exposure occur. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Retrovir  
(Other name for: zidovudine)

retroviral virus vector encoding cytosine deaminase  
A replication competent retroviral vector, derived from the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV), encoding a modified form of the yeast suicide gene cytosine deaminase (CD) (Toca 511) used as an antineoplastic adjuvant. Upon transcranial injection, retroviral virus vector encoding CD preferentially enters and transfects tumor cells, and expresses cytosine deaminase, an enzyme that catalyzes the intracellular conversion of the prodrug flucytosine (5-FC) into the antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). After administration of 5-FC, the tumor can be eradicated upon activation of 5-FU. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Revia  
(Other name for: naltrexone hydrochloride)

Revival  
(Other name for: soy protein isolate)

Revlimid  
(Other name for: lenalidomide)

RevM10 gene  
RevM10 is a dominant-negative mutant of HIV-1 Rev gene, which encodes a RNA-binding protein involving in nuclear trafficking of unspliced viral mRNAs. Due to the fact that Rev is essential for HIV-1 replication makes it an attractive target for antiviral approaches. Based on the notion of intracellular immunization, in vitro studies that introducing RevM10 gene into stem cells have demonstrated its ability to combat HIV-1 infection in human hematopoietic cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

REXIN-G  
(Other name for: retrovector encoding mutant anti-cyclin G1)

rexinoid NRX194204  
An orally bioavailable synthetic retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist with potential antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory activities. Rexinoid NRX 194204 selectively binds to and activates RXRs. Because RXRs can form heterodimers with several nuclear receptors (NRs), RXR activation by this agent may result in a broad range of gene expression depending on the effector DNA response elements activated. Rexinoid NRX 194204 may inhibit the tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated release of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL6) and may inhibit tumor cell proliferation. This agent appears to be less toxic than RAR-selective ligands. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Rezulin  
(Other name for: troglitazone)

RFT5-dgA immunotoxin  
A recombinant immunotoxin consisting of the anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody RFT5 fused to the deglycosylated ricin A-chain (dgA) with potential antitumor activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of RFT5-dgA immunotoxin attaches to CD25 (the alpha chain of the IL-2 receptor complex) on the cell membrane; after internalization, the dgA moiety cleaves the N-glycosidic bond between the ribose and adenine base at position 4324 in 28S ribosomal RNA, resulting in ribosome inactivation, inhibition of protein synthesis, and cell death. CD25 is expressed on activated normal T and B cells and macrophages and is frequently upregulated in many hematologic malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

rhEndostatin  
(Other name for: recombinant human endostatin)

rhenium Re 188 ethiodized oil  
A rhenium (Re) 188 conjugate of ethiodized oil (lipiodol), an iodinated ethyl ester derived from poppy seed oil, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon hepatic intra-arterial injection rhenium Re 188 ethiodized oil accumulates in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor cells, thereby delivering a cytotoxic dose of radiation through Re 188 directly to the tumor cells. This may kill tumor cells while sparing surrounding normal cells and tissues. Compared to iodine I 131, Re 188 has a shorter half-life. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

rhizoxin  
A macrocyclic lactone. Rhizoxin binds to tubulin and inhibits microtubule assembly, thereby inducing cytotoxicity. This agent also may inhibit endothelial cell-induced angiogenic activity, which may result in decreased tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

rhubarb/licorice herbal supplement  
A decoction of rhubarb root (Da Huang) and licorice root (Gan Cao) used in Chinese Herbal Medicine. Upon ingestion, the rhubarb/licorice herbal supplement may help improve appetite. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

ribavirin  
A synthetic nucleoside analogue of ribofuranosyl with antiviral activity. Ribavirin incorporates into viral nucleic acid, inhibits viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis, induces viral genome mutations, and inhibits normal viral replication. Ribavirin shows activity against a variety of RNA viruses, especially hepatitis C virus. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

riboflavin  
An essential human nutrient that is a heat-stable and water-soluble flavin belonging to the vitamin B family. Riboflavin is a precursor of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). These coenzymes are of vital importance in normal tissue respiration, pyridoxine activation, tryptophan to niacin conversion, fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism, and glutathione reductase mediated detoxification. Riboflavin may also be involved in maintaining erythrocyte integrity. This vitamin is essential for healthy skin, nails, and hair. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ribonuclease QBI-139  
A nuclease of mammalian origin that cleaves the phosphodiester bond between nucleotides of ribonucleic acids with potential antineoplastic activity. Ribonuclease QBI-139 catalyzes the hydrolysis and degradation of RNA leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ribosome-inactivating protein CY503  
A recombinant protein that inactivates the ribosome with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. Ribosome-inactivating protein CY503 binds to the cell surface sialyltransferase CD75 and is internalized; intracellularly, CY503 cleaves an adenine-specific N-glycosidic bond on the 28S ribosomal subunit, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis. This agent has also been shown to activate natural killer (NK) cells, induce cytokine receptor expression, and stimulate the release of cytokines. CD75 is expressed on mature B-cells and subsets of T-cells and erythrocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Riboxamide  
(Other name for: tiazofurin)

rice bran  
The nutrient-rich hard outer layer of the rice cereal grain, with potential chemopreventive, antioxidant, iron chelating, anticholesterol and anti-inflammatory activities. Rice bran is rich in fiber, such as beta-glucan, pectin and gum; it also comprises vitamins and minerals, such as iron, magnesium and phosphorus, and essential fatty acids. In addition, Rice bran contains various bioactive components, including ferulic acid, tricin, beta-sitosterol, gamma-oryzanol, phytic acid, and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6). The potential anticancer activity of rice bran may be due to the synergistic effects of these phytochemicals on their ability to induce apoptosis, inhibit cell proliferation, and alter cell cycle progression in cancer cells. Rice bran's bioactive components also protect against tissue damage by scavenging free radicals and blocking chronic inflammatory responses. In addition, they are able to modulate the gut microflora and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, thereby further exerting a chemopreventive effect. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ridaforolimus  
A small molecule and non-prodrug analogue of the lipophilic macrolide antibiotic rapamycin with potential antitumor activity. Ridaforolimus binds to and inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which may result in cell cycle arrest and,consequently, the inhibition of tumor cell growth and proliferation. Upregulated in some tumors, mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase involved in regulating cellular proliferation, motility, and survival that is located downstream of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ridaura  
(Other name for: auranofin)

rifabutin  
A semisynthetic ansamycin antibiotic with potent antimycobacterial properties. Rifabutin inhibits bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, thereby suppressing the initiation of RNA formation and leading to inhibition of RNA synthesis and transcription. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

rifaximin  
An orally administered, semi-synthetic, nonsystemic antibiotic derived from rifamycin SV with antibacterial activity. Rifaximin binds to the beta-subunit of bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, inhibiting bacterial RNA synthesis and bacterial cell growth. As rifaximin is not well absorbed, its antibacterial activity is largely localized to the gastrointestinal tract. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

rigosertib sodium  
A synthetic benzyl styryl sulfone analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Rigosertib sodium inhibits polo-like kinase1 (Plk1), inducing selective G2/M arrest followed by apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells while causing reversible cell arrest at the G1 and G2 stage without apoptosis in normal cells. This agent may exhibit synergistic antitumor activity in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Plk1, named after the polo gene of Drosophila melanogaster, is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in regulating mitotic spindle function in a non-ATP competitive manner. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

rilimogene-galvacirepvec  
A vaccine formulation consisting of recombinant vaccinia virus encoding prostate specific antigen (PSA) and recombinant vaccinia virus encoding three co-stimulatory molecule transgenes B7.1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3 (TRICOM). Vaccination with PSA in combination with TRICOM may enhance antigen presentation, resulting in the augmentation of a cytotoxic T cell (CTL) immune response against tumor cells expressing PSA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

rilotumumab  
A fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody directed against the human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) with potential antineoplastic activity. Rilotumumab binds to and neutralizes HGF, preventing the binding of HGF to its receptor c-Met and so c-Met activation; inhibition of c-Met-mediated signal transduction may result in the induction of apoptosis in cells expressing c-Met. c-Met (HGF receptor or HGFR), a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in a variety of epithelial cancer cell types, plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Rilutek  
(Other name for: riluzole)

riluzole  
A benzothiazole derivative with neuroprotective and potential anti-depressant and anxiolytic activities. While the mechanism of action of riluzole is unknown, its pharmacological activities in motor neurons include the following, some of which may be related to its effect: 1) an inhibitory effect on glutamate release, 2) inactivation of voltage-dependent sodium channels, and 3) interference with intracellular events that follow transmitter binding at excitatory amino acid receptors. In animal models, this agent has been shown to exhibit myorelaxant and sedative activities, apparently due to the blockade of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

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