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NCI Drug Dictionary

NCI Drug Dictionary

  

S-3304  
An orally-agent agent with potential antineoplastic activity. S-3304 inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), thereby inducing extracellular matrix degradation, and inhibiting angiogenesis, tumor growth and invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

S-adenosyl-L-methionine disulfate p-toluene-sulfonate  
The disulfate salt of the stable p-toluene-sulfonate complex of s-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) with chemopreventive activity. SAMe disulfate p-toluene-sulfonate undergoes hydrolytic conversion to its active compound SAMe within cells. Although the mechanism of action is largely unknown, SAMe attenuates experimental liver damage and prevents experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. In addition, SAMe may reduce mitochondrial cytochrome C release, caspase 3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and attenuate okadaic acid-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. SAMe is an essential compound in cellular transmethylation reactions and a precursor of polyamine and glutathione synthesis in the liver; SAMe deficiency is associated with chronic liver disease-associated decreases in the activity of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A), the enzyme that catalyzes the production of SAMe as the first step in methionine catabolism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

S1P receptor agonist KRP203  
The hydrochloride salt form of 2-amino-2 propanediol (KRP-203), a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist, with potential immunosuppressive activity. Upon administration of S1P receptor agonist KRP203, this agent binds to S1P receptors on lymphocytes, which prevents binding of serum S1P to S1P receptors and leads to S1P receptor internalization. This reduces the number of circulating blood leukocytes and accelerates lymphocyte homing into peripheral lymph nodes, thereby preventing their infiltration into peripheral inflammatory sites. This agent also decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines by lymphocytes, such as interferon gamma (IFN-g), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

sabarubicin  
A disaccharide analogue of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. Sabarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. This agent also induces apoptosis through a p53-independent mechanism. Sabarubicin is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Saccharomyces boulardii probiotic supplement  
A probiotic containing the non-pathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii with antidiarrheal and potential anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and immunomodulating activities. As a dietary supplement, S. boulardii may improve digestion and help maintain adequate colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by modulating the composition of the normal intestinal microflora. During colonization of the GI tract, S. boulardii forms a protective barrier that helps maintain the integrity of the epithelial barrier. This prevents attachment of pathogens to the intestinal mucosa. In addition, this probiotic secretes a protease that binds to and degrades toxins A and B produced by Clostridium difficile, thereby preventing their harmful effects. Dietary supplementation with this microorganism may reduce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and may potentiate natural and acquired immunity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

safingol  
A saturated derivative of sphingosine. As an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), safingol competitively binds to the regulatory phorbol-binding domain of PKC, a kinase involved in tumorigenesis. This agent has been shown to act synergistically with other chemotherapeutic agents and may potentiate chemotherapy drug-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sagopilone  
A fully synthetic low-molecular-weight epothilone with potential antineoplastic activity. Sagopilone binds to tubulin and induces microtubule polymerization while stabilizing microtubules against depolymerization, which may result in the inhibition of cell division, the induction of G2/M arrest, and apoptosis. The agent is not a substrate for the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump and so may exhibit activity in multidrug-resistant (MDR) tumors. The epothilone class of metabolites was originally isolated from the myxobacterium Solangium cellulosum. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Salagen  
(Other name for: pilocarpine hydrochloride)

salirasib  
A salicylic acid derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Salirasib dislodges all Ras isoforms from their membrane-anchoring sites, thereby preventing activation of RAS signaling cascades that mediated cell proliferation, differentiation, and senescence. RAS signaling is believed to be abnormally activated in one-third of human cancers, including cancers of the pancreas, colon, lung and breast. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

salmonella VNP20009  
A genetically stable Salmonella typhimurium strain, attenuated by chromosomal deletion of the purI and msbB genes, with tumor-targeting activity. In rodent models, salmonella VNP20009 has been shown to selectively accumulate and grow in a variety of tumor types, inhibiting the growth of primary and metastatic tumors. This agent may be genetically engineered to contain trangenes that express therapeutic agents or cell surface tumor-associated antigen-specific antibodies, such as CEA-specific antibodies, which may improve its tumor targeting and therapeutic potential. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Salvia officinalis extract tablet  
An oral tablet containing an extract of the plant Salvia officinalis (common sage) with reported antihydrotic, antibiotic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, astringent, antispasmodic, estrogenic, and hypoglycemic properties. The primary biologically active component of common sage appears to be its essential oil which contains mainly cineol, borneol, and alpha- and beta-thujone. In addition, sage leaf contains numerous other substances including tannic acid; resins with oleic, ursonic, and ursolic acids; bitter substances with cornsole and cornsolic acid; fumaric, chlorogenic, caffeic and nicotinic acids; nicotinamide; flavones; flavone glycosides; and estrogenic substances. However, the mechanism(s) of action of common sage in the treatment of various disorders is unclear. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

SAM-e Complete  
(Other name for: S-adenosyl-L-methionine disulfate p-toluene-sulfonate)

Sam68 modulator CWP232291  
A small molecule and prodrug of CWP232204 targeting Src associated in mitosis, of 68 kDa (Sam68 or KHDRBS1), with potential antineoplastic activity. CWP232291 is converted in serum into its active form CWP232204 which binds to Sam68, thereby resulting in the induction of apoptosis in selective cancer cells. Due to the multimodular structure of Sam68, the apoptosis mediated by CWP232204-Sam68 interaction can be attributed to 1) activation of transcription factor NF-kB induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha signaling, 2) alternative splicing of BCL-2 apoptosis gene, driving the balance towards pro-apoptotic as opposed to anti-apoptotic isoforms, 3) down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin via Want signaling. Sam68, a KH domain RNA-binding protein belonging to the signal transduction and activation of RNA (STAR) family, plays a key role in various cellular processes including cell cycle progression and apoptosis; it is upregulated in many types of cancer cells and its expression is associated with increased cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

samarium Sm 153 lexidronam pentasodium  
The pentasodium salt of samarium Sm 153 lexidronam, a therapeutic agent consisting of a medium energy beta- and gamma-emitting radioisotope, samarium Sm 153, and a teraphosphonate chelator, ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP). The chelator moiety of samarium Sm 153 lexidronam associates with hydroxyapatite crystals concentrated in areas of bone turnover, thereby selectively delivering samarium Sm 153-mediated cytotoxic radiation to osteoblastic bone metastases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Sancuso  
(Other name for: granisetron transdermal system)

Sandimmun  
(Other name for: cyclosporine)

Sandimmune  
(Other name for: cyclosporine)

Sandoglobulin  
(Other name for: therapeutic immune globulin)

Sandostatin  
(Other name for: octreotide acetate)

Sandostatin Lar Depot  
(Other name for: octreotide acetate)

Sandostatin pamoate  
(Other name for: octreotide pamoate)

Sandostatin pamoate LAR  
(Other name for: octreotide pamoate)

SangCya  
(Other name for: cyclosporine)

sapacitabine  
An orally bioavailable pyrimidine analogue prodrug with potential antineoplastic activity. Sapacitabine is hydrolyzed by amidases to the deoxycytosine analogue CNDAC (2'-Cyano-2'-deoxyarabinofuranosylcytosine), which is then phosphorylated into the active triphosphate form. As an analogue of deoxycytidine triphosphate, CNDAC triphosphate incorporates into DNA strands during replication, resulting in single-stranded DNA breaks during polymerization due to beta-elimination during the fidelity checkpoint process; cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase and apoptosis ensue. The unmetabolized prodrug may exhibit antineoplastic activity as well. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sapitinib  
An erbB receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Sapitinib binds to and inhibits erbB tyrosine receptor kinases, which may result in the inhibition of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis in tumors expressing erbB. The erbB protein family, also called the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, plays major roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

saponin-cholesterol-phospholipid adjuvant  
An adjuvant comprised of saponin, derived from the bark of Quillaia saponaria Molina, cholesterol and phospholipid with antigen-delivery and immunostimulatory activities. This saponin-based adjuvant in combination with various antigens, including those for human papilloma virus (HPV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the human cancer antigen NY-ESO-1, may result in potent antibody, CD4+ T-helper-cell, and CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell responses against the targeted antigen. In addition, this agent may reduce the amount of antigen necessary to induce an efficient immune response in the host. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

saquinavir mesylate  
The mesylate salt form of saquinavir, a synthetic peptidomimetic substrate with antiviral property. Saquinavir selectively binds to and inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease, an aspartic protease that cleaves viral gag and gag-pol polyprotein (precursors for viral proteases, reverse transcriptase, and integrase). Inhibition of HIV-1 protease prevents functional viral proteins to be cleaved from the viral polyprotein precursor and results in the release of immature, noninfectious virions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

saracatinib  
An orally available 5-, 7-substituted anilinoquinazoline with anti-invasive and anti-tumor activities. Saracatinib is a dual-specific inhibitor of Src and Abl, protein tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed in chronic myeloid leukemia cells. This agent binds to and inhibits these tyrosine kinases and their effects on cell motility, cell migration, adhesion, invasion, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Specifically, saracatinib inhibits Src kinase-mediated osteoclast bone resorption. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Sarasar  
(Other name for: lonafarnib)

SarCNU  
An alkylating chloroethylnitrosourea with antineoplastic activity. Selectively accumulating in some tumor cells, SarCNU forms covalent linkages with nucleophilic centers in DNA, causing depurination, base pair miscoding, strand scission, and DNA-DNA cross-linking, which may result in cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sargramostim  
A recombinant therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to endogenous human GM-CSF. Binding to specific cell surface receptors, sargramostim modulates the proliferation and differentiation of a variety of hematopoietic progenitor cells with some specificity towards stimulation of leukocyte production and may reverse treatment-induced neutropenias. This agent also promotes antigen presentation, up-regulates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and increases interleukin-2-mediated lymphokine-activated killer cell function; it may also augment host antitumoral immunity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sargramostim plasmid DNA hepatocellular carcinoma vaccine adjuvant  
A vaccine adjuvant consisting of a plasmid DNA encoding sargramostim (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor). Upon administration, expressed sargramostim may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell response enhancing the host immune response to a concomitantly administered hepatocellular carcinoma vaccine. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sargramostim plasmid DNA melanoma vaccine adjuvant  
A vaccine adjuvant consisting of a plasmid DNA encoding sargramostim (a granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor). Upon administration, expressed sargramostim may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell response enhancing the host immune response to a concomitantly administered melanoma vaccine. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sargramostim plasmid DNA pancreatic tumor cell vaccine  
A whole cell vaccine comprised of irradiated allogenic pancreatic tumor cells transfected with a plasmid DNA encoding human sargramostim (GM-CSF). Vaccination results in expression of GM-CSF, which induces proliferation and differentiation hematopoietic lineage cells as well as stimulating macrophage and dendritic cell functions in antigen presentation and antitumor cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, administration of this pancreatic tumor cell vaccine may elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against similar host tumor cells, resulting in decreased tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

saridegib  
An orally bioavailable, cyclopamine-derived inhibitor of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway with potential antineoplastic activity. Specifically, saridegib binds to and inhibits the cell membrane-spanning G-protein coupled receptor SMO, which may result in the suppression of Hh pathway signaling and a decrease in tumor cell proliferation and survival. SMO is activated upon binding of Hh ligand to the cell surface receptor Patched (PTCH); inappropriate activation of Hh signaling and uncontrolled cellular proliferation may be associated with SMO mutations. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in proliferation of neuronal precursor cells in the developing cerebellum and other tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Sativex  
(Other name for: nabiximols)

satraplatin  
An orally administered third generation platinum compound with potential antineoplastic activity. Satraplatin forms highly reactive, charged, platinum complexes which bind to nucleophilic groups in DNA, inducing intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-links, as well as DNA-protein cross-links. These cross-links result in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Satric  
(Other name for: metronidazole hydrochloride)

saw palmetto berry extract supplement  
An herbal supplement used commonly to alleviate symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. In vitro studies show that it may also have anti-cancer properties specific for prostate cancer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

SB-743921  
A synthetic small molecule with potential antineoplastic properties. SB-743921 selectively inhibits kinesin spindle protein (KSP), an important protein involved in the early stages of mitosis that is expressed in proliferating cells. Inhibition of KSP results in inhibition of mitotic spindle assembly and interrupts cell division, thereby causing cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

SB-AS02B adjuvant  
A proprietary oil-in-water emulsion specifically designed for combining protein preparations used in vaccines. SB-AS02B adjuvant contains monophosphoryl lipid A and QS21, a saponin extracted from the South American tree Quillaja saponaria Molina. This agent may be used for formulating cancer-specific vaccine preparations such as those containing MAGE-3 melanoma protein. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

SB-AS15 adjuvant  
A vaccine adjuvant containing CpG 7909, monophosphoryl lipid, and QS-21 with potential antineoplastic and immunostimulatory activities. CpG 7909 is a synthetic 24-mer oligonucleotide containing 3 CpG motifs that selectively targets Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), thereby activating dendritic and B cells and stimulating cytotoxic T cell and antibody responses against tumor cells bearing tumor antigens. Monophosphoryl lipid is a detoxified derivative of lipid A, a component of Salmonella minnesota lipopolysaccharide (LPS); this agent may enhance humoral and cellular responses to various antigens. QS-21 is a purified, naturally occurring saponin derived from the South American tree Quillaja saponaria Molina and exhibits various immunostimulatory activities. Combinations of monophosphoryl lipid and QS-21 may be synergistic in inducing humoral and cellular immune responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Sclerosol Intrapleural Aerosol  
(Other name for: talc)

SDF-1-targeted agent NOX-A12  
A 45-mer L-stereoisomer RNA oligonucleotide linked to a 40 kDa polyethyleneglycol that targets the small chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) with potential antineoplastic and hematopoietic stem cell-mobilization activities. SDF-1 targeted agent NOX-A12 specifically binds to SDF-1 thereby preventing the binding of SDF-1 to its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7, and blocking the subsequent receptor activation. This may prevent angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis and could sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapy. In addition, inhibition of SDF-1/CXCR4 interaction may induce mobilization of hematopoietic cells from the bone marrow into blood. The unique mirror-image configuration of this agent renders it resistant to hydrolysis and does not hybridize with native nucleic acids. Furthermore, this agent does not induce the innate immune response and has shown a favorable immunogenicity profile. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Se-methyl-seleno-L-cysteine  
A naturally occurring organoselenium compound found in many plants, including garlic, onions, and broccoli, with potential antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. Se-Methyl-seleno-L-cysteine (MSC) is an amino acid analogue of cysteine in which a methylselenium moiety replaces the sulphur atom of cysteine. This agent acts as an antioxidant when incorporated into glutathione peroxidase and has been shown to exhibit potent chemopreventive activity in animal models. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sedoxantrone trihydrochloride  
The trihydrochloride salt of the anthrapyrazole antineoplastic antibiotic sedoxantrone with potential antineoplastic activity. Sedoxantrone intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Seigen  
(Other name for: lactobacillus fermented extract)

selatinib ditosilate  
An orally bioavailable ditosilate salt form of selatinib, an analog of the quinazoline lapatinib and dual inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (ErbB-2 or HER-2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, selatinib reversibly blocks phosphorylation of both EGFR and ErbB2, thereby suppressing tumor growth in EGFR/ErbB-2-overexpressing tumor cells. The tyrosine kinases EGFR and ErbB2 have been implicated in the growth of various tumor types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

selective estrogen receptor degrader ARN-810  
An orally available, nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor degrader (SERD), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, SERD ARN-810 binds to the estrogen receptor and induces a conformational change that results in the degradation of the receptor. This may inhibit the growth and survival of ER-expressing cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

selenium  
A nonmetallic chemical element found in trace amounts in human body. Selenium primarily occurs in vivo as selenocompounds, mostly selenoproteins such as glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase (enzymes responsible for detoxification). Alone or in combination with Vitamin E, selenocompounds act as antioxidants. These agents scavenge free radicals; prevent blood clots by inhibiting platelet aggregation; strengthen the immune system; and have been shown, in some instances, to inhibit chromosomal damage and mutations. Exhibiting chemopreventive activity, selenocompounds also inhibit the induction of protein kinase C. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

seliciclib  
An orally bioavailable, small-molecule cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with potential proapoptotic and antineoplastic activities. Seliciclib primarily inhibits CDK2/E, CDK2/A, CDK7 and CDK9 by competing for their ATP binding sites, leading to a disruption of cell cycle progression. In addition, this agent appears to interfere with CDK-mediated phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, inhibiting RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription, which may result in the down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins such as induced myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein Mcl-1. CDKs, serine/threonine kinases that play an important role in cell cycle regulation, are overexpressed in various malignancies. Mcl-1 belongs to the Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins and is a protein crucial to the survival of a range of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

selinexor  
An orally available, small molecule inhibitor of CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1 protein, exportin 1 or XPO1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Selinexor modifies the essential CRM1-cargo binding residue cysteine-528, thereby irreversibly inactivating CRM1-mediated nuclear export of cargo proteins such as tumor suppressor proteins (TSPs), including p53, p21, BRCA1/2, pRB, FOXO, and other growth regulatory proteins. As a result, this agent, via the approach of selective inhibition of nuclear export (SINE), restores endogenous tumor suppressing processes to selectively eliminate tumor cells while sparing normal cells. CRM1, the major export factor for proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

selumetinib  
An orally active, small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. Selumetinib is an ATP-independent inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK or MAPK/ERK kinase) 1 and 2. MEK 1 and 2 are dual-specificity kinases that are essential mediators in the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, are often upregulated in various cancer cells, and are drivers of diverse cellular responses, including proliferation. Inhibition of both MEK1 and 2 by selumetinib prevents the activation of MEK1/2 dependent effector proteins and transcription factors, thereby leading to an inhibition of cellular proliferation in various cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

semaxanib  
A quinolone derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Semaxanib reversibly inhibits ATP binding to the tyrosine kinase domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), which may inhibit VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell migration and proliferation and reduce the tumor microvasculature. This agent also inhibits the phosphorylation of the stem cell factor receptor tyrosine kinase c-kit, often expressed in acute myelogenous leukemia cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

semuloparin  
An ultralow-molecular-weight heparin (ULMWH) (Mw: 2000-3000 daltons) consisting of a polydisperse mixture of oligomeric heparin fragments with potential anticoagulant activity. Semuloparin binds to and activates antithrombin III (ATIII), which may result in the inhibition of activated factor Xa and, to a much lesser extent, factor IIa (thrombin) and so the inhibition of fibrin formation. Compared to low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), AVE5026 exhibits an even higher ratio of anti-Factor Xa to anti-Factor IIa activity (>30:1). Compared to unfractionated heparins, the use of LMWHs is associated with lower incidences of major bleeding, osteoporosis and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Like LMWHs, this agent may inhibit tumor growth by regulating angiogenesis and apoptosis. AVE5026 is prepared by partial depolymerization of unfractionated porcine mucosal heparin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

semustine  
A methylated derivative of carmustine with antineoplastic activity. As an alkylating agent, semustine forms covalent linkages with nucleophilic centers in DNA, causing depurination, base-pair miscoding, strand scission, and DNA-DNA cross-linking, which may result in cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Seneca Valley virus-001  
A native, replication-competent oncolytic picornavirus with potential antineoplastic activity. Administered systemically, Seneca Valley virus-001 (SVV-001) specifically targets and infects tumor cells with neuroendocrine characteristics. Upon infection, this agent replicates intracellularly, resulting in tumor cell lysis and reduced tumor cell proliferation. The selective tropism of virus replication may involve receptor-mediated internalization. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

senna extract  
An extract made from the dried leaflets on the pods of Cassia angustifolia or Cassia acutifolia with cathartic activity. Dimeric glycosides in dried senna extract are converted to the active monoanthrones by bacterial action in the colon. Through direct effects on enterocytes, enteric neurons, and muscle, monoanthrones produce giant migrating colonic contractions in addition to water and electrolyte secretion. As do other stimulant laxatives, monoanthrones may induce a limited low-grade inflammation in the colon through activation of prostaglandin/cyclic AMP and nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathways and perhaps inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

senna fruit  
The fruit of Cassia acutifolia and Cassia angustifolia (Cassia) with laxative and purgative activities. The active ingredients in senna fruit include the hydroxyanthracene glycosides sennosides A and B (rhein dianthrones) and sennosides C and D (rhein aloe-emodin heterodianthrones). Sennosides irritate the bowel lining and stimulate the bowel muscular coat, particularly in the colon, resulting in accelerated bowel transit and evacuation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Sensipar  
(Other name for: cinacalcet hydrochloride)

Sensorcaine-MPF  
(Other name for: bupivacaine hydrochloride)

sepantronium bromide  
A small-molecule proapoptotic agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Sepantronium bromide selectively inhibits survivin expression in tumor cells, resulting in inhibition of survivin antiapoptotic activity (via the extrinsic or intrinsic apoptotic pathways) and tumor cell apoptosis. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene family, is expressed during embryonal development and is absent in most normal, terminally differentiated tissues; upregulated in a variety of human cancers, its expression in tumors is associated with a more aggressive phenotype, shorter survival times, and a decreased response to chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Septra  
(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)

serine protease inhibitor WX-671  
An orally bioavailable, 3-amidinophenylalanine-derived, second generation serine protease inhibitor prodrug targeting the human urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) system with potential antineoplastic and antimetastatic activities. After oral administration, serine protease inhibitor WX-671 is converted to the active Nα-(2,4,6-triisopropylphenylsulfonyl)-3-amidino-(L)-phenyla lanine-4-ethoxycarbonylpiperazide (WX-UK1), which inhibits several serine proteases, particularly uPA; inhibition of uPA may result in the inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis. uPA is a serine protease involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix and tumor cell migration and proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

serine/threonine kinase inhibitor XL418  
A selective, orally active small molecule, targeting protein kinase B (PKB or AKT) and ribosomal protein S6 Kinase (p70S6K), with potential antineoplastic activity. XL418 inhibits the activities of PKB and p70S6K, both acting downstream of phosphoinosotide-3 kinase (PI3K). These kinases are often upregulated in a variety of cancers. Inhibition of PKB by this agent will induce apoptosis, while inhibition of p70S6K will result in the inhibition of translation within tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Seromycin  
(Other name for: D-cycloserine)

Serophene  
(Other name for: clomiphene citrate)

sertraline hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of sertraline, a synthetic derivative of naphthalenamine with anti-serotoninergic and anti-depressant properties. Sertraline appears to selectively inhibit the neuronal uptake of serotonin, raising serotonin levels in the CNS. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sevoflurane  
A fluorinated isopropyl ether with general anesthetic activity. Although the mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated, sevoflurane may interfere with the release and re-uptake of neurotransmitters at post-synaptic terminals, and/or alter ionic conductance following receptor activation by a neurotransmitter. This agent may also interact directly with the lipid matrix of neuronal membranes, thereby affecting gating properties of ion channels. In addition, sevoflurane may activate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, hyperpolarizing cell membranes and resulting in a general anesthetic effect, a decrease in myocardial contractility and mean arterial pressure, and an increased respiratory rate. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

shark cartilage  
A nutritional supplement gleaned from the exoskeleton of the shark. Shark cartilage inhibits metalloproteinases (MMPs) and possesses antiangiogenic and antimetastatic properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

shark cartilage extract AE-941  
A multifunctional antiangiogenic agent derived from shark cartilage with potential antineoplastic activity. Shark cartilage extract AE-941 competitively inhibits the binding of pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to its cell receptor, thereby inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation. This agent also inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), stimulates tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and activates caspase-mediated apoptotic pathways in endothelial cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sheddase inhibitor INCB007839  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the ADAM (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease) family of multifunctional membrane-bound proteins with potential antineoplastic activity. Sheddase inhibitor INCB007839 represses the metalloproteinase "sheddase" activities of ADAM10 and ADAM17, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. The metalloproteinase domains of ADAMs cleave cell surface proteins at extracellular sites proximal to the cell membrane, releasing or "shedding" soluble protein etcodomains from the cell surface; the disintegrin domains of these multifunctional proteins interact with various components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). ADAM10 processes particular epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands and appears to regulate Notch signaling through the cleavage of Notch and its related ligand delta-like ligand-1 (Dll-1). ADAM17 (also known as Tumor necrosis factor-Converting Enzyme or TACE) is involved in processing tumor necrosis factor (TNF) from its membrane bound precursor to its soluble circulating form and in processing ligands for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Sheng-Mai San  
A Chinese herbal medicine composed of extracts from the roots of Panax ginseng (ren shen) and Ophiopogon japonicas (mai men dong), and the berries of Schisandra chinensis (wu wei zi) with potential protective activity. Ginseng contains a complex mixture of saponins, ginsenosides and panaxosides; homoisoflavonoids isolated from Ophiopogon show anti-inflammatory properties; Schisandra contains abundant amounts of phytoestrogen lignans with antioxidant activity. Although the mechanism of action maybe inexplicit or complex, these phytochemicals work synergistically and may improve symptoms such as shortness of breath, sweating, cough, thirst, dry mouth, and palpitations as well as have an effect on chemotherapy or radiotherapy-induced fatigue, weakness, and neutropenia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

short chain fatty acid HQK-1004  
A short chain fatty acid (SCFA) with potential herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HSV-TK)-inducing activity. Upon administration, short chain fatty acid HQK-1004 may induce the expression of thymidine kinase (TK) by a silenced HSV-TK, which may activate a co-administered antiviral prodrug such as ganciclovir, resulting in the destruction of virally-infected cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sialyl Lewisª-keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccine  
A vaccine consisting of the oligosaccharide antigen sialyl Lewisª (CA19-9) conjugated to the nonspecific immunomodulator keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, sialyl Lewisª-keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccine may induce production of IgG and IgM antibodies as well as trigger an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells expressing the sialyl Lewisª antigen. Sialyl Lewisª is a blood group antigen and a tumor-associated antigen associated with epithelial cancers such as breast cancer and various digestive cancers. Sialyl Lewisª serves as a ligand for the cytokine-inducible cell adhesion molecule (CAM) E-selectin, an endothelial cell-specific type I transmembrane surface protein, thus facilitating hematogenous metastasis by mediating the adhesion of circulating cancer cells to vascular endothelium. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

siG12D LODER  
A proprietary, miniature biodegradable polymeric matrix containing small-interfering RNAs for the mutated KRAS oncogene, KRASG12D, (siG12D), with potential antitumor activity. Upon intratumoral injection, siG12D is released locally, thereby preventing translation of KRAS proteins and potentially inhibiting growth of tumor cells overexpressing KRAS. KRAS, a member of the small GTPase superfamily, is mutated in over 90% of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) and is associated with tumor cell proliferation and reduced survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Sigosix  
(Other name for: recombinant interleukin-6)

silatecan AR-67  
A synthetic, highly lipophilic derivative of camptothecin, with potential antineoplastic and radiosensitizing activities. Silatecan DB-67 binds to and stabilizes the topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex, inhibiting the religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-stranded DNA breaks and producing lethal double-stranded DNA breaks when encountered by the DNA replication machinery; inhibition of DNA replication and apoptosis follow. Camptothecin readily undergoes hydrolysis at physiological pH, changing its conformation from the active lactone structure to an inactive carboxylate form. Modifications on the E ring of camptothecin prevent binding of human serum albumin, which prefers the inactive carboxylate form, thereby enhancing the stability of the active lactone structure and resulting in prolonged agent activity. In addition, this agent may radiosensitize tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sildenafil citrate  
The citrate salt of a pyrazolopyrimidinone derivative structurally related to zaprinast. Sildenafil selectively inhibits cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific type 5 phosphodiesterase, resulting in vasodilation in the corpus cavernosum of the penis and penile erection. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

silicon phthalocyanine 4  
A synthetic photosensitizer agent containing a large macrocyclic ring chelated with silicon. Silicon phthalocyanine 4 localizes primarily in mitochondrial cytosolic membranes and, after photoexcitation, forms reactive oxygen species that induce apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

silmitasertib  
An orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of CK2 with potential antineoplastic activity. Silmitasertib selectively binds to and inhibits the enzyme casein kinase II (CK2), which may lead to an inhibition of cellular proliferation. CK2, a protein kinase often overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, appears to be correlated with malignant transformation, tumor growth and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

silodosin  
An orally available, alpha-1 adrenoreceptor (alpha-1a) selective antagonist that can be used to relieve symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Upon administration, silodosin selectively binds alpha-1a receptors located in the human prostate and bladder with high affinity and blocks signaling pathways mediated by alpha-1a. Blockade of these receptors causes smooth muscle relaxation, lowers intraurethral pressure, and results in improved urine flow and a reduction in the symptoms of BPH, such as difficulty with urinating, painful urination, urinary frequency and incomplete bladder emptying. In addition, silodosin may be used to improve lower urinary tract symptoms, which can occur after receiving radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

siltuximab  
A chimeric, human-murine, monoclonal antibody targeting the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6), with antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities. Upon intravenous administration of siltuximab, this agent targets and binds to IL-6. This inhibits the binding of IL-6 to the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), which results in the blockade of the IL-6/IL-6R-mediated signal transduction pathway. This inhibits cancer cell growth in tumors overexpressing IL-6. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Silvadene  
(Other name for: silver sulfadiazine)

silver nitrate  
An inorganic chemical with antiseptic activity. Silver nitrate can potentially be used as a cauterizing or sclerosing agent. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

silver sulfadiazine  
A sulfonamide-based topical agent with antibacterial and antifungal activity. Silver sulfadiazine may act through a combination of the activity of silver and sulfadiazine. When this agent interacts with sodium chloride-containing body fluids, silver ions are released slowly and sustainably into wounded areas. Ionized silver atoms catalyze the formation of disulfide bonds leading to protein structural changes and inactivating thiol-containing enzymes; silver ions may also intercalate DNA thereby interfering with replication and transcription of bacteria. As a competitive inhibitor of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), sulfadiazine inhibits bacterial dihydropteroate synthase, thereby resulting in disruption of folic acid metabolism and ultimately DNA synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Silybin-Phytosome  
(Other name for: phosphatidylcholine-bound silybin)

silymarin  
A mixture of flavonolignans isolated from the milk thistle plant Silybum marianum. Silymarin may act as an antioxidant, protecting hepatic cells from chemotherapy-related free radical damage. This agent may also promote the growth of new hepatic cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

simethicone  
A mixture of polydimethylsiloxanes with antifoaming and anti-bloating effects. Simethicone reduces the surface tension of gas bubbles causing them to coalesce into larger bubbles that can be passed more easily by belching or flatulence. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

simmitecan hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt form of simmitecan, an ester prodrug of chimmitecan, a 9-alkyl-substituted camptothecin derivative with potential antineoplastc activity. Upon intravenous administration, simmitecan is hydrolyzed by carboxylesterase and the activated form, chimmitecan, is produced. Chimmitecan inhibits topoisomerase I, stabilizes covalent topoisomerase I-DNA complexes, and inhibits the religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-strand DNA breaks. Futhermore, the covalent topoisomerase I-DNA complexes interfere and block the DNA replication machinery, resulting in the production of potentially lethal double-strand DNA breaks. This leads to an inhibition of DNA replication and the induction of apoptosis. The modification at position 9 yields improved cytotoxicity compared to some other camptothecin analogues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Simulect  
(Other name for: basiliximab)

simvastatin  
A lipid-lowering agent derived synthetically from a fermentation product of the fungus Aspergillus terreus. Hydrolyzed in vivo to an active metabolite, simvastatin competitively inhibits hepatic hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a key step in cholesterol synthesis. This agent lowers plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels, and modulates immune responses by suppressing MHC II (major histocompatibility complex II) on interferon gamma-stimulated, antigen-presenting cells such as human vascular endothelial cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Sinequan  
(Other name for: doxepin hydrochloride)

Singulair  
(Other name for: montelukast sodium)

siplizumab  
A monoclonal immunoglobulin G1 antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Siplizumab binds to CD2, a specific receptor found in T cells and NK cells, thereby triggering a host immune response that results in lysis of CD2+ cells, selective suppression of the immune system, and control of activated T cell growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sipuleucel-T  
A cell-based vaccine composed of autologous antigen-presenting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (enriched for a dendritic cell fraction) that have been exposed to a recombinant protein consisting of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) fused to prostatic-acid phosphatase (PAP), a protein expressed by prostate cancer cells. Upon administration, the vaccine may stimulate an antitumor T-cell response against tumor cells expressing PAP. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

siRNA-expressing SV40 vector  
A simian virus 40 (SV40)-based shuttle vector, encoding small interfering RNA (siRNA), with potential antineoplastic activity. The expression of siRNA in target tumor cells transfected with an siRNA-expressing SV40 vector may result in siRNA-mediated silencing of target oncogenes and, so, the inhibition of tumor cell growth and the induction of tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

siRNA-transfected peripheral blood mononuclear cells APN401  
Autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) transfected ex vivo with small-interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) directed against the E3 ubiquitin ligase casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b gene (Cbl-b), with potential immunoactivating and antineoplastic activities. The Cbl-b gene is silenced ex vivo through the binding of Cbl-b siRNA to Cbl-b mRNA, which prevents the translation of the Cbl-b protein in T-lymphocytes. Upon infusion, the activated, Cbl-b-silenced T-lymphocytes are able to increase the production of cytokines, proliferate and activate the immune system, which leads to cancer cell eradication. Cbl-b, a negative regulator of the immune system, is mutated in a variety of cancer cell types. Its expression is inversely correlated with activation of T-lymphocytes and tumor cell eradication. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sirolimus  
A natural macrocyclic lactone produced by the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus, with immunosuppressant properties. In cells, sirolimus binds to the immunophilin FK Binding Protein-12 (FKBP-12) to generate an immunosuppressive complex that binds to and inhibits the activation of the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR), a key regulatory kinase. This results in inhibition of T lymphocyte activation and proliferation that occurs in response to antigenic and cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IL-15) stimulation and inhibition of antibody production. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sivifene gel  
The phenylhydrazone 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone formulated as a topical agent with immunomodulating and potential antineoplastic activities. Applied topically as a gel, sivifene may stimulate a local immune response against human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Sixofilan  
(Other name for: sizofiran)

sizofiran  
A soluble beta-D-glucan produced by the Basidiomycetes fungus, Schizophyllum commune Fries, with potential immunomodulating and antitumor activities. Although sizofiran’s exact mechanism of action has yet to be fully elucidated, this agent appears to stimulate the immune system by increasing cytokine production, activating macrophages and enhancing the activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PML) and natural killer (NK) cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Sk-Dexamethasone  
(Other name for: dexamethasone)

SK-Diphenhydramine  
(Other name for: diphenhydramine hydrochloride)

SK-Furosemide  
(Other name for: furosemide)

SK-Probenecid  
(Other name for: probenecid)

Slo-bid  
(Other name for: theophylline)

Slo-Phyllin  
(Other name for: theophylline)

Smac mimetic CUDC-427  
An orally available, monovalent mimetic of second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases (Smac/DIABLO) and inhibitor of IAPs (Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins) with potential antineoplastic activity. Smac mimetic CUDC-427 binds to the Smac binding groove on IAPs, including the direct caspase inhibitor X chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP) and the cellular IAPs 1 and 2. This inhibits the activities of these IAPs and promotes the induction of apoptosis through apoptotic signaling pathways. IAPs are overexpressed by many cancer cell types and suppress apoptosis by binding to and inhibiting active caspases-3, -7 and -9 via their baculoviral lAP repeat (BIR) domains. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Smac mimetic GDC-0152  
A second mitochondrial activator of caspases (Smac) mimetic inhibitor of IAPs (Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins) with potential antineoplastic activity. Smac mimetic GDC-0152 binds to the Smac binding groove on IAPs, including the direct caspase inhibitor X chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP) and the cellular IAPs 1 and 2, which may inhibit their activities and promote the induction of apoptosis through apoptotic signaling pathways. IAPs are overexpressed by many cancer cell types and suppress apoptosis by binding to and inhibiting active caspases-3, -7 and -9 via their baculoviral lAP repeat (BIR) domains. Smac, the endogenous IAP antagonist, relies on its N-terminal four amino-acid motif for binding to IAPs. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

SMAC mimetic LCL161  
An orally bioavailable second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases (SMAC) mimetic and inhibitor of IAP (Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein) family of proteins, with potential antineoplastic activity. SMAC mimetic LCL161 binds to IAPs, such as X chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP) and cellular IAPs 1 and 2. Since IAPs shield cancer cells from the apoptosis process, this agent may restore and promote the induction of apoptosis through apoptotic signaling pathways in cancer cells. IAPs are overexpressed by many cancer cell types and suppress apoptosis by binding and inhibiting active caspases-3, -7 and -9, which play essential roles in apoptosis (programmed cell death), necrosis and inflammation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

SMO antagonist BMS 833923  
An orally bioavailable small-molecule SMO (Smoothened) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. SMO antagonist BMS-833923 inhibits the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway protein SMO, which may result in a suppression of the SHH signaling pathway. SMO is a G-protein coupled receptor that lies just downstream of the SHH ligand cell surface receptor Patched-1 in the SHH pathway; in the absence of ligand Patched-1 inhibits SMO and ligand binding to Patched-1 results in increased levels of SMO. The SHH signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular growth, differentiation and repair; constitutive activation of this pathway is associated with uncontrolled cellular proliferation and has been observed in a variety of cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Smo receptor-specific Hh signaling inhibitor LY2940680  
An orally bioavailable small molecule antagonist of the Hedgehog (Hh)-ligand cell surface receptor smoothened (Smo) with potential antineoplastic activity. Smo inhibitor LY2940680 inhibits signaling that is mediated by the Hh pathway protein Smo, which may result in a suppression of the Hh signaling pathway and may lead to the inhibition of the proliferation of tumor cells in which this pathway is abnormally activated. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular growth, differentiation and repair; constitutive activation of this pathway is associated with uncontrolled cellular proliferation and has been observed in a variety of cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

smokeless tobacco  
Tobacco that is not smoked but used in another form such as chewing tobacco or snuff. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Smoothened antagonist LDE225 topical  
A topical formulation of the small-molecule Smoothened (Smo) antagonist LDE225 with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon topical application, smoothened antagonist LDE225 topical selectively binds to the Hedgehog (Hh)-ligand cell surface receptor Smo, which may result in the suppression of the Hh signaling pathway and, so, the inhibition of tumor cells in which this pathway is abnormally activated. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular growth, differentiation and repair. Inappropriate activation of Hh pathway signaling and uncontrolled cellular proliferation, as is observed in a variety of cancers, may be associated with mutations in the Hh-ligand cell surface receptor Smo. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Smoothened antagonist LEQ506  
An orally bioavailable small-molecule Smoothened (Smo) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Smoothened antagonist LEQ506 selectively binds to the Hedgehog (Hh)-ligand cell surface receptor Smo, which may result in the suppression of the Hh signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting tumor cell growth. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular growth, differentiation and repair. Dysregulated activation of Hh pathway signaling and uncontrolled cellular proliferation, as is observed in a variety of cancers, may be associated with mutations in the Hh-ligand cell surface receptor Smo. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

SN-38-loaded polymeric micelles NK012  
A formulation consisting of polymeric micelles loaded with the irinotecan metabolite SN-38 with potential antineoplastic activity. SN-38-loaded polymeric micelles NK012 is an SN-38-releasing nanodevice constructed by covalently attaching SN-38 to the block copolymer PEG-PGlu, followed by self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in an aqueous milieu. SN-38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin), a biological active metabolite of the prodrug irinotecan (CPT-11), binds to and inhibits topoisomerase I by stabilizing the cleavable complex between topoisomerase I and DNA, resulting in DNA breaks, inhibition of DNA replication, and apoptosis. SN-38 has been reported to exhibit up to 1,000-fold more cytotoxic activity against various cancer cells in vitro than irinotecan. This formulation increases the water-solubility of SN-38 and allows the delivery of higher doses of SN-38 than those achievable with SN-38 alone. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

SNS01-T nanoparticles  
A colloidal mixture of nanoparticles consisting of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the native eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), plasmids expressing a pro-apoptotic mutant of elF5A under the control of a B-cell specific promoter (B29), and a synthetic cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) as a delivery vehicle, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the siRNA component of SNS01-T suppresses elF5A expression, thereby interfering with translation of eIF5A and reducing levels of hypusinated elF5A in cancer cells. In turn, this inhibits activation of the transcription factor NF-kB and induces apoptosis. In addition, the B-cell specific plasmid component expresses an arginine substituted form of eIF5A, eIF5AK50R, which can not be hypusinated, thus leads to a selective induction of apoptosis in B-cells. The native unhypusinated form of eIF5A is pro-apoptotic and can be modified at the lysine residue, by deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and subsequently deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DHH), to the anti-apoptotic hypusinated form which is associated with tumor cell growth and survival. The delivery vehicle protects the siRNA and plasmid from degradation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

soblidotin  
A dolastatin-10 derivative. Soblidotin inhibits tubulin polymerization, resulting in cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

SOD1 inhibitor ATN-224  
An orally bioavailable, second-generation tetrathiomolybdate analog with potnetial antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. SOD1 inhibitor ATN-224 selectively chelates the copper ion in copper-zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), inhibiting SOD1 activity; this may result in a decrease in intra-cellular H2O2 levels and, in turn, increased activity of intracellular phosphatases. The ATN-224-mediated increase in phosphatase activity may interfere with the activation of multiple kinase signaling pathways required for cellular proliferation and angiogenesis. This agent has been shown to inhibit VEGF and FGF-2 signaling in endothelial cells, IGF-1, EGF, NF-kB, and integrin signaling in tumor cells, and PDGF signaling in pericytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium alginate microspheres  
An embolic agent containing microporous hydrospheres of sodium alginate with potential arterial occlusive activity. In transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), the sodium alginate microspheres (KMG) are administered into blood vessels that feed the tumor, occluding tumor blood vessels and inducing ischemic tumor necrosis. In addition, these microspheres may be used to encapsulate various therapeutic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium bicarbonate  
The monosodium salt of carbonic acid with alkalinizing and electrolyte replacement properties. Upon dissociation, sodium bicarbonate forms sodium and bicarbonate ions. Ion formation increases plasma bicarbonate and buffers excess hydrogen ion concentration, resulting in raised blood pH. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

sodium bicarbonate solution  
An aqueous oral mouthwash solution containing the monosodium salt of carbonic acid with alkalinizing and antimucositis activities. Upon introduction into the mouth, the sodium bicarbonate dissociates, forming sodium and bicarbonate ions, which buffer excess hydrogen ion and elevates the oral pH. An alkaline oral environment is less prone to colonization with yeast and aciduric bacteria. In addition, this solution may help relieve mucositis and mucositis-induced pain by diluting human saliva, and cleansing and lubricating mucosal tissues of the mouth, tongue and oropharynx. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium bicarbonate/potassium bicarbonate/anhydrous citric acid  
A combination preparation containing sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, and anhydrous citric acid, with acid-neutralizing properties. This combination in water principally contains the antacids potassium citrate and sodium citrate, and is used for the relief of acid indigestion and heartburn. This combination does not contain aspirin, and therefore does not exert aspirin's analgesic or anti-inflammatory effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium biphosphate/sodium phosphate oral laxative  
An oral hyperosmotic saline laxative containing sodium biphosphate and sodium phosphate. Sodium phosphate/sodium biphosphate oral laxative promotes retention of water in the bowel, thereby increasing stool water content and volume, which results in increased gastrointestinal motility and stool transit time and evacuation of colonic contents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium borocaptate  
A boron-carrying compound. After parenteral administration, borocaptate sodium accumulates preferentially in tumor cells. When exposed to neutron irradiation, borocaptate absorbs neutrons and self-destructs releasing short-range alpha radiation and 'recoil' lithium in tumor cells, resulting in alpha radiation-induced tumor cell death. This highly selective, localized radiotargeting of tumor cells, known as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), spares adjacent normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium carboxymethylcellulose dressing  
A textile fiber dressing composed of sodium carboxymethylcellulose with potential wound-healing activity. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose dressing protects the wound site from external factors that may cause pain, promote infection, or slow the natural wound healing process. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose is a non-toxic, non-allergenic, anionic water-soluble polymer derived from cellulose. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium citrate  
The sodium salt of citrate with alkalinizing activity. Upon absorption, sodium citrate dissociates into sodium cations and citrate anions; organic citrate ions are metabolized to bicarbonate ions, resulting in an increase in the plasma bicarbonate concentration, the buffering of excess hydrogen ion, the raising of blood pH, and potentially the reversal of acidosis. In addition, increases in free sodium load due to sodium citrate administration may increase intravascular blood volume, facilitating the excretion of bicarbonate compounds and an anti-urolithic effect. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium dichloroacetate  
The sodium salt of dichloroacetic acid with potential antineoplastic activity. Dichloroacetate ion inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, resulting in the inhibition of glycolysis and a decrease in lactate production. This agent may stimulate apoptosis in cancer cells by restoring normal mitochondrial-induced apoptotic signaling. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium ferric gluconate complex in sucrose  
A compound containing elemental iron as the sodium salt of a ferric ion carbohydrate complex in an alkaline aqueous solution with approximately 20% sucrose w/v in water for injection, used to replete the total body content of iron. Iron is critical for normal hemoglobin and myoglobin syntheses to maintain oxygen transport and various enzymatic processes, including the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides catalyzed by ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium fluoride  
An inorganic salt of fluoride used topically or in municipal water fluoridation systems to prevent dental caries. Fluoride appears to bind to calcium ions in the hydroxyapatite of surface tooth enamel, preventing corrosion of tooth enamel by acids. This agent may also inhibit acid production by commensal oral bacteria. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium glycididazole  
The sodium salt of glycididazole with potential radiosensitizing activity. Due to its low redox potential, glycididazole is selectively activated via bioreduction in hypoxic tumor cells and may sensitize hypoxic tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium hyaluronate topical hydrogel  
A proprietary topical gel formulation containing sodium hyaluronate with wound repair and skin moisturizing properties. Upon application, sodium hyaluronate topical hydrogel adheres to injured tissues, hydrates skin, and provides protection from further chemical or mechanical irritation. Hyaluronate, a non-sulfated glucosaminoglycan, is a chief component of the extracellular matrix in connective, epithelial, and neural tissues and contributes significantly to cell proliferation and migration. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium iodide I-131  
A radiopharmaceutical containing the beta- and gamma-emitting radioisotope I-131. After absorption, the iodide is distributed through the extracellular fluid of the body and accumulates in the thyroid gland, thereby allowing the imaging of the thyroid. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium metaarsenite  
A highly soluble, orally available trivalent arsenic-containing telomerase inhibitor with potential antitumor activity. Although the exact mechanism through which sodium metaarsenite exerts its effect has yet to be fully elucidated, this agent appears to target and bind to telomeric sequences, specifically TTAGGG repeats, leading to a shortening of telomeres, and subsequent induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor cell growth. In addition, sodium metaarsenite also leads to the translocation of the catalytic subunit of telomerase into the cytoplasm and inhibition of the activity of telomerase. Telomerase is active in most tumors cells and is responsible for the maintenance of telomere length and plays a key role in cellular proliferation, but is quiescent in normal, healthy cells. The susceptibility to sodium metaarsenite seems to be inversely correlated with initial length of telomeres. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium phenylbutyrate  
The sodium salt of phenylbutyrate, a derivative of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, with potential antineoplastic activity. Phenylbutyrate reversibly inhibits class I and II histone deacetylases (HDACs), which may result in a global increase in gene expression, decreased cellular proliferation, increased cell differentiation, and the induction of apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium phosphate  
An inorganic compound used as a laxative, dietary supplement and for electrolyte-replacement purposes. Phosphate, a predominant intracellular anion, plays an important role in energy storage, osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities, regulating serum calcium concentrations, and numerous cellular phosphate-transfer reactions. Sodium phosphate increases fluidity of the intestinal contents by retention of water by osmotic forces, thereby indirectly inducing intestinal smooth muscle constriction. Sodium phosphate is also used in the renal excretion of hydrogen ions while promoting the reabsorption of sodium ions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium picosulfate/magnesium oxide/citric acid oral laxative  
An oral laxative formulation containing the stimulant cathartic sodium picosulfate as the primary active ingredient . Picosulfate acts on the enteric nerves in the intestinal wall to increase muscle contractions, thereby stimulating peristaltic action and promoting defecation. Other active ingredients are osmotic agents that increase stool water content. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium salicylate  
The sodium salt of salicylic acid. As a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sodium salicylate irreversibly acetylates cyclooxygenases I and II, thereby inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis and associated inflammation and pain. This agent may also activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), thereby inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium selenite  
An inorganic form of the trace element selenium with potential antineoplastic activity. Selenium, administered in the form of sodium selenite, is reduced to hydrogen selenide (H2Se) in the presence of glutathione (GSH) and subsequently generates superoxide radicals upon reaction with oxygen. This may inhibit the expression and activity of the transcription factor Sp1; in turn Sp1 down-regulates androgen receptor (AR) expression and blocks AR signaling. Eventually, selenium may induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and inhibit tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium stibogluconate  
Pentavalent antimony (Sb) in differential complex formation with gluconic acid with leishmanicidal and potential antineoplastic activities. The Sb moiety of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) may inhibit protein tyrosine phophorylases (PTPases) by covalently modifying sulfhydryl groups in PTPase cysteine residues, resulting in specific inactivation of SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases-1 and -2 (SHP-1 and SHP-2), PTPases which negatively regulate interferon (IFN) signaling; enhancement of IFN-induced Stat1 tyrosine phosphorylation; and induction of cellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation. SSG in combination with IFN-alpha may synergize to overcome tumor cell resistance to IFN-alpha-mediated apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sodium thiosulfate  
A water soluble salt and reducing agent that reacts with oxidizing agents. Although its exact mechanism of action is unknown, thiosulfate likely provides an exogenous source of sulfur, thereby hastening the detoxification of cyanide through the enzyme rhodanese (thiosulfate cyanide sulfurtransferase) which converts cyanide to the relatively nontoxic, excretable thiocyanate ion. In addition, this agent neutralizes the reactive alkylating species of nitrogen mustard, thereby decreasing skin toxicity related to nitrogen mustard extravasation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Sodothiol  
(Other name for: sodium thiosulfate)

sofosbuvir  
An orally available nucleotide prodrug and a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor with potential HCV inhibiting activity. Upon oral administration, sofosbuvir is metabolized to 2'-deoxy-2'-alpha-fluoro-beta-C-methyluridine-5'-monophosphate, which is then converted into the active triphosphate nucleotide that inhibits the NS5B polymerase, thereby preventing viral replication. The HCV NS5B protein, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is essential for the replication of the viral HCV RNA genome. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Solaraze  
(Other name for: diclofenac sodium gel)

Solatene  
(Other name for: beta carotene)

Soliris  
(Other name for: eculizumab)

solitomab  
A recombinant bispecific monoclonal antibody directed against both CD3 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Solitomab attaches to both CD3-expressing T lymphocytes and EpCAM-expressing tumor cells, thereby selectively cross-linking tumor and T lymphocytes; this may result in the recruitment of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) to T lymphocyte/tumor cell aggregates and the CTL-mediated death of EpCAM-expressing tumor cells. CD3 is an antigen expressed on mature T cells; EpCAM, a cell surface protein, is expressed by a variety of tumor cells and is frequently found in head and neck cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Solu-Cortef  
(Other name for: hydrocortisone sodium succinate)

Solu-Medrol  
(Other name for: methylprednisolone)

somatotropin  
A recombinant form of endogenous human growth hormone (GH), a polypeptide produced by the anterior lobe of the human pituitary gland. GH exhibits growth-promoting effects and metabolic effects on carbohydrate, fat, protein and bone metabolism. GH stimulates protein synthesis and the uptake of amino acids into cells, and induces lipolysis in adipose tissues. The secretion of GH increases with sexual maturation and then declines steadily. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Somatuline Depot  
(Other name for: lanreotide acetate)

Somavert  
(Other name for: pegvisomant)

Somophyllin-CRT  
(Other name for: theophylline)

Somophyllin-T  
(Other name for: theophylline)

sonepcizumab  
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, sonepcizumab binds S1P, which may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. S1P is the extracellular ligand for the G protein-coupled lysophospholipid receptor EDG-1 (endothelial differentiation gene-1). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sorafenib tosylate  
The tosylate salt of sorafenib, a synthetic compound targeting growth signaling and angiogenesis. Sorafenib blocks the enzyme RAF kinase, a critical component of the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway that controls cell division and proliferation; in addition, sorafenib inhibits the VEGFR-2/PDGFR-beta signaling cascade, thereby blocking tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Sorghum bicolor supplement  
An herbal-based nutritional supplement containing the leaf sheaths of the plant Sorghum bicolor, with potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and immunomodulating activities. Sorghum bicolor supplement contains various phytochemicals, including phenolic acids and polyphenols such as proanthocyanidins. Sorghum bicolor supplement is particularly rich in 3-deoxyanthocyanins, such as luteolinidin and apigeninidin, and appears to induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation in cancer cells through the stimulation of various apoptosis promoter genes and the downregulation of certain apoptosis inhibitor genes. In addition, due to the strong antioxidant nature of the phytochemicals, these compounds are able to scavenge free radicals and prevent tissue damage. Also, intake of this supplement modulates the immune system by both increasing the activity of natural killer (NK) cells and initiating the activation of macrophages. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Soriatane  
(Other name for: acitretin)

sotatercept  
A soluble fusion protein composed of the extracellular domain of the activin receptor type IIA (ActRIIA) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1 with anabolic bone activity. Sotatercept selectively binds to activin, inhibiting its binding to ActRIIA and ActRIIA signaling, resulting in the stimulation of osteoblast activity and the inhibition of osteoclast activity and so normal bone formation and increased bone mineral density and strength. The Fc moiety of this fusion protein binds to the salvage receptor FcRN, preventing its lysosomal degradation and so extending its half-life in the circulatory system. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sotrastaurin acetate  
The acetate salt form of sotrastaurin, an orally available pan-protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor with potential immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities. Sotrastaurin inhibits both T- and B-cell activations via PKC theta and beta isozymes, respectively. Both PKCs are important in the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB). Inhibition of PKC beta in B-cells results in prevention of NF-kB-mediated signaling and down regulation of NF-kB target genes. This may eventually lead to an induction of G1 cell cycle arrest and tumor cell apoptosis in susceptible tumor cells. This agent may act synergistically with other chemotherapeutic agents. PKC, a family of serine/threonine protein kinases overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, is involved in cell differentiation, mitogenesis, inflammation, and the activation and survival of lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Sotret  
(Other name for: isotretinoin)

soy isoflavones  
A dietary supplement isolated from soybeans containing phytoestrogen isoflavones. Although the mechanism of action is unclear, soy isoflavones mimic estrogen action mediated through estrogen receptors. In addition, this agent also modulates estrogen metabolism. As a result, soy isoflavones have been shown to reduce tumor cell proliferation and induce tumor cell apoptosis, as well as to be able to regulate hormone balance and reduce the risks of breast cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

soy lecithin/glycerol dioleate-based oral spray  
An oral spray containing soy phospholipid and glycerol dioleate, with protective, analgesic and anti-mucositic activities. Upon spraying onto the oral mucosal surface and contact with saliva, the soy lecithin/glycerol dioleate-based oral spray forms a gel and adheres to the mucosal surfaces thereby forming a lipid film. This provides a protective barrier and an analgesic effect within the oral cavity. In addition, the lipid barrier prevents bacterial growth at affected areas thereby decreasing infection risk. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

soy protein isolate  
A dietary protein isolated from soybeans that contains isoflavone phytoestrogens. Soy protein isolate has been shown to reduce tumor incidence and growth in some animal studies, possibly by modulating estrogen metabolism, reducing tumor cell proliferation, and inducing tumor cell apoptosis. Soy protein isolate may also inhibit endothelial cell proliferation. Isoflavone phytoestrogens display mild estrogen-like activities which may regulate hormone balance and reduce the risks of breast cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sparfosic acid  
A stable transition state analogue for an aspartate transcarbamylase- cartalyzed reaction with antineoplastic activity. Sparfosic acid is a stable transition analogue of the activated complex for the reaction catalyzed by aspartate transcarbamylase, the first step in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. This agent inhibits de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis and increases the extent to which fluorouracil metabolites are incorporated into RNA. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

sphingosine kinase-2 inhibitor ABC294640  
An orally available, aryladamantane compound and selective inhibitor of sphingosine kinase-2 (SK2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, ABC294640 competitively binds to and inhibits SK2, thereby preventing the phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic amino alcohol sphingosine to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), the lipid mediator that is pro-survival and critical for immunomodulation. This may eventually lead to the induction of apoptosis and may result in an inhibition of cell proliferation in cancer cells overexpressing SK2. SK2 and its isoenzyme SK1 are overexpressed in numerous cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Spiriva  
(Other name for: tiotropium bromide monohydrate)

spirogermanium  
A synthetic organometallic compound containing the element germanium with possible antineoplastic activity. Spirogermanium exhibits significant toxicity, particularly neurotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

spiromustine  
A bifunctional nitrogen alkylating agent with antineoplastic activity and lipophilic properties. Containing a lipophilic hydantoin group that serves as a carrier to cross the blood brain barrier, spiromustine forms covalent linkages with nucleophilic centers in DNA, causing depurination, base-pair miscoding, strand scission, and DNA-DNA cross-linking, which may result in cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

spironolactone  
A synthetic 17-spironolactone corticosteroid with potassium-sparing diuretic, antihypertensive, and antiandrogen activities. Spironolactone competitively inhibits adrenocortical hormone aldosterone activity in the distal renal tubules, myocardium, and vasculature. This agent may inhibit the pathophysiologic effects of aldosterone produced in excess by various types of malignant and benign tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

spiroplatin  
A synthetic derivative of cyclohexane sulfatoplatinum with antineoplastic properties. Spiroplatin induces DNA cross-links, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and RNA and protein synthesis. Similar to other platinum compounds, this agent has been shown to be mutagenic and carcinogenic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor GS-9973  
An orally available inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration of spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor GS-9973, this agent may inhibit the activity of Syk, which inhibits B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and leads to an inhibition of tumor cell activation, migration, adhesion and proliferation. Syk, a non-receptor cytoplasmic, BCR-associated tyrosine kinase, is expressed in hematopoietic tissues and is often overexpressed in hematopoeitic malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor TAK-659  
An inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase (syk), with potential anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, and antineoplastic activities. Spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor TAK-659 may inhibit the activity of syk, which abrogates downstream B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and leads to an inhibition of B-cell activation, chemotaxis, adhesion and proliferation. Syk, a BCR-associated non-receptor tyrosine kinase that mediates diverse cellular responses, including proliferation, differentiation, and phagocytosis, is expressed in hematopoietic tissues and is often overexpressed in hematopoietic malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Sporanox  
(Other name for: itraconazole)

Sprycel  
(Other name for: dasatinib)

spyrine  
(Other name for: trientine hydrochloride)

SR-T100 gel  
A cutaneous gel preparation containing an extract from Solanum incanum with potential antineoplastic activity. SR-T100 gel contains high amounts of the steroidal alkaloid glycoside solamargine. Solamargine is able to upregulate expression of tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 (TNFR1) and 6 (TNFRSF6 or Fas), and their signaling adaptors TNFR1-associated death domain, and Fas-associated death domain. In addition, this agent is able to upregulate expression of apoptosis promoter Bax, and suppress the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. Altogether, this induces apoptosis in tumor cells and may lead to an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

SR31747A  
A synthetic peripheral sigma receptor ligand with immunomodulatory and potential antitumor activities. Although the exact mechanism by which SR31747A exerts its antitumor effects has not been fully established, SR31747A binds to and inhibits the sigma1 receptor (SR31747A-binding protein-1 or SR-BP1), human sterol isomerase (emopamil-binding protein) and the sigma2 receptor, which may result in a reduction in tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell apoptosis. In addition, this agent inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines. Upregulated in various cancers, the sigma1 and sigma2 receptors and human sterol isomerase are proteins that are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Src kinase inhibitor KX2-391  
An orally bioavailable small molecule Src kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Unlike other Src kinase inhibitors which bind to the ATP-binding site, Src kinase inhibitor KX2-391 specifically binds to the peptide substrate binding site of Src kinase; inhibition of kinase activity may result in the inhibition of primary tumor growth and the suppression of metastasis. Src tyrosine kinases are upregulated in many tumor cells and play important roles in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Src/Abl kinase inhibitor AZD0424  
An orally bioavailable small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets both Abl and Src kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, AZD0424 selectively inhibits both Src and Abl kinase activity which may result in the inhibition of tumor growth in susceptible tumor cells. Src and Abl kinases are upregulated in certain tumor cells and play important roles in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

SS1(dsFv)-PE38 immunotoxin  
A recombinant immunotoxin consisting of the single chain anti-mesothelin monoclonal antibody SS1(dsFv) linked to Pseudomonas exotoxin PE-38. The monoclonal antibody moiety of the agent binds to cells that express mesothelin, a cell surface glycoprotein which may be overexpressed in ovarian cancer, mesotheliomas, and some squamous cell carcinomas; after internalization, the exotoxin moiety inactivates eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2, thereby disrupting tumor cell protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

SSD  
(Other name for: silver sulfadiazine)

St. John's wort  
An herbal extract prepared from the plant Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) with photodynamic, antineoplastic, and antidepressant activities. Hypericin, one of the active compounds found in Hypericum perforatum, is a photosensitizer that, when exposed to a particular wavelength and intensity of light, may induce tumor cell apoptosis. Another compound, hyperforin, induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in certain tumor cell lines. Hypericum perforatum preparations may also stimulate the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein drug transporters, resulting in increased metabolism and decreased efficacy of various chemotherapeutic agents and other drugs. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

stabilized sulphur hexafluoride microbubble-based contrast agent  
An injectable ultrasound contrast media formulation composed of microbubbles of stabilized sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) in sodium chloride solution. With stabilized sulphur hexafluoride microbubble-based contrast agent, ultrasound waves are scattered and reflected at the microbubble-blood interface during ultrasound imaging, thereby enhancing blood vessel visualization and the contrast between blood vessels and adjacent tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Stakel  
(Other name for: padeliporfin)

standardized freeze-dried table grape powder  
A standardized freeze-dried preparation of desiccated table grapes containing polyphenols (including flavanols, anthocyanins, flavonols, and stilbenes such as resveratrol) and other unidentified compounds with antioxidant activity. Standardized freeze-dried table grape powder increases serum antioxidant activity and reduces the macrophage-mediated oxidation and uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). This agent has been shown to inhibit genes linked to the development of sporadic colorectal cancer and may exhibit chemopreventive activity for other human cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Stanford V regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of mechlorethamine, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vinblastine, vincristine, bleomycin, etoposide and prednisone, administered on a compressed schedule and used in the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma; it may be followed by consolidative radiation therapy. (NCI Thesaurus)

staphylococcus aureus protein A  
A protein that resides in the microbial wall of staphylococcus aureus and interferes with opsonization by binding to the Fc portion of immunoglobulin. The protein has a deleterious effect on the epithelial cells that line the respiratory tract, and plays a role in the induction of pneumonia. Protein A also initiates polymorphonuclear cell migration into airway passages via TNFR1 activation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

STAT3 antisense oligonucleotide ISIS 481464  
An antisense oligonucleotide targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) with potential antitumor activity. STAT3 antisense oligonucleotide ISIS 481464 binds to STAT3 mRNA, thereby inhibiting translation of the transcript. Suppression of STAT3 expression induces tumor cell apoptosis and decreases tumor cell growth. STAT3, a protein overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, plays a critical role in tumor cell growth and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide  
A double-stranded 15-mer oligonucleotide, corresponding closely to the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) response element within the c-fos promoter, with potential antineoplastic activity. STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide binds specifically to activated STAT3 and blocks binding of STAT3 to DNA sequences on a variety of STAT3-responsive promoters, which results in the inhibition of STAT3-mediated transcription and, potentially, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of cancers including squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, contributing to the loss of cell growth control and neoplastic transformation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

STAT3 inhibitor OPB-31121  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), with potential antineoplastic activity. OPB-31121 inhibits the phosphorylation of STAT3, which prevents binding of STAT3 to DNA sequences on a variety of STAT3-responsive promoters and may result in the inhibition of STAT3-mediated transcription and, potentially, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of cancers, contributing to the loss of cell growth control and neoplastic transformation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

STAT3 inhibitor OPB-51602  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), with potential antineoplastic activity. STAT3 inhibitor OPB-51602 inhibits the phosphorylation and thus the activation of STAT3 protein, impeding STAT3 protein from translocating from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and thereby blocking STAT3's regulation of gene expression through direct binding to the promoters of responsive genes. STAT3 regulates the cellular functions that lead to the cancer phenotype, and constitutive activation of STAT3 is observed in a wide range of human cancers, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and neoplastic transformation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Statex SR  
(Other name for: morphine sulfate)

stavudine  
A synthetic nucleoside, analog of didehydro-3-deoxythymidine with potent antiretroviral activity. In vivo, stavudine is phosphorylated by cellular kinases to the active metabolite stavudine triphosphate; this metabolite inhibits the activity of HIV reverse transcriptase both by competing with the natural substrate deoxythymidine triphosphate and by incorporation into viral DNA causing a termination of DNA chain elongation (due to the lack the essential 3'-OH group). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Stelara  
(Other name for: ustekinumab)

Stelazine  
(Other name for: trifluoperazine hydrochloride)

STEPA  
(Other name for: thiotepa)

Sterile Talc Powder  
(Other name for: talc)

Steritalc  
(Other name for: talc)

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