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NCI Drug Dictionary

NCI Drug Dictionary

  

T-Phyl  
(Other name for: theophylline)

T1E28z CAR-expressing autologous CD4-positive T lymphocytes  
Autologous CD4 positive T-lymphocytes engineered to express the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T1E28z containing the ErbB ligand, T1E, fused to the hinge region, transmembrane domain and endodomain of CD28 and the CD3zeta endodomain, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. T1E, a chimeric polypeptide containing the N-terminus of human transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha fused to the C-terminus of epidermal growth factor (EGF), binds to ErbB1 homodimers and heterodimers as well as ErbB2/3 heterodimers, but not to ErbB2 or ErbB3 alone. Upon intratumoral administration, the promiscuous ErbB ligand T1E of the T1E28z CAR-expressing autologous CD4-positive T lymphocytes binds to the specific ErbB homo- and heterodimers on tumor cells. This induces selective toxicity in ErbB-expressing tumor cells resulting in tumor cell lysis. ErbB1, ErbB2 and ErbB3, members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, are frequently overexpressed in solid tumors and play key roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

T900607  
A pentafluorophenylsulfonamide compound with potential antineoplastic activity. T900607 inhibits tubulin polymerization by binding irreversibly to colchicine binding sites, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tabalumab  
A human IgG4 monoclonal antibody against B-cell activating factor (BAFF), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Tabalumab binds to and inhibits the activity of both soluble and cell surface-bound BAFF. This may reduce the activity, proliferation and survival of B-cells. A dysregulated expression of BAFF, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family of proteins, is often seen in certain autoimmune diseases and certain cancers, and may promote B lymphocyte activation, proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Tabloid  
(Other name for: thioguanine)

Tabloid brand thioguanine  
(Other name for: thioguanine)

TAC regimen  
An combination chemotherapy regimen consisting of docetaxel (Taxotere), doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide used in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)

tacedinaline  
An orally bioavailable substituted benzamide derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Tacedinaline inhibits histone deacetylation, which may result in histone hyperacetylation, followed by the induction of differentiation, the inhibition of cell proliferation, and apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tacrolimus  
A macrolide isolated from the fungus Streptomyces tsukubaensis. Tacrolimus binds to the FKBP-12 protein and forms a complex with calcium-dependent proteins, thereby inhibiting calcineurin phosphatase activity and resulting in decreased cytokine production. This agent exhibits potent immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation. Tacrolimus possesses similar immunosuppressive properties to cyclosporine, but is more potent. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tadalafil  
A carboline-based compound with vasodilatory activity. Tadalafil selectively inhibits the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific type 5 phosphodiesterase- (PDE-5)-mediated degradation of cGMP, which is found in the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosa and corpus spongiosum of the penis. Inhibition of cGMP degradation by tadalafil results in prolonged muscle relaxation, vasodilation, and blood engorgement of the corpus cavernosa, and, so, prolonged penile erection. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tafamidis meglumine  
A soft gelatin capsule formulation containing the meglumine salt form of tafamidis, a small molecule and pharmacological chaperone with potential disease-modifying activity. Tafamidis binds to and stabilizes wild-type and variant (V122I) transthyretin (TTR), thereby preventing tetramer dissociation into monomers; this prevents misfolding of the TTR protein and inhibits the formation of TTR amyloid fibrils and the subsequent deposition of these insoluble protein clusters in peripheral nerve tissues and organs. TTR is a 127 amino acid transport protein for thyroxine and retinol and is secreted by the liver. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Tafinlar  
(Other name for: dabrafenib)

Tagamet  
(Other name for: cimetidine)

talabostat mesylate  
The orally bioavailable mesylate salt of an amino boronic dipeptide with antineoplastic and hematopoiesis- stimulating activities. By cleaving N-terminal Xaa-Pro or Xaa-Ala residues, talabostat inhibits dipeptidyl peptidases, such as fibroblast activation protein (FAP), resulting in the stimulation of cytokine and chemokine production and specific T-cell immunity and T-cell- dependent activity. This agent may also stimulate the production of colony stimulating factors, such as granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), resulting in the stimulation of hematopoiesis. Dipeptidyl peptidases are involved in the activation of polypeptide hormones and chemokines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

talactoferrin  
An orally bioavailable recombinant human lactoferrin produced in the fungus Aspergillus niger with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. Upon oral administration, talactoferrin is transported into small intestinal Peyer's patches of the gut-associated lymphoreticular tissues (GALT), where it recruits circulating immature dendritic cells (DCs) bearing tumor antigens and induces their maturation. In the GALT, DC maturation in the presence of tumor antigens and lymphoid effector cells may induce systemic innate and adaptive immune responses mediated by anti-tumor natural killer (NK) cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and natural killer T (NKT) cells; activation of tumor-draining lymph nodes, cellular infiltration of distant tumors, and tumor-cell death may follow. Raising the initial immune response in the GALT, distant from the primary tumor, may counter local tumor-mediated immunosuppression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

talampanel  
A synthetic derivative of dioxolo-benzodiazepine with anti-seizure activity. Talampanel noncompetitively binds to the AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) subtype of glutamate excitatory amino acid receptors and may inhibit the growth of gliomas by interfering with neurotransmitters involved in brain tumor growth. This agent may also protect against traumatic brain injury. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

talaporfin sodium  
An agent consisting of chlorin e6, derived from chlorophyll, and L-aspartic acid with photosensitizing activity. After intratumoral activation by light emitting diodes, taporfin sodium forms an extended high energy conformational state that generates singlet oxygen, resulting in free radical-mediated cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

talc  
Finely-powdered native hydrous magnesium silicate. When administered into the pleural space, talc initiates an inflammatory reaction, resulting in adhesion of the visceral pleura to the parietal pleura and fibrosis, thereby effectively closing the pleural space and preventing further accumulation of fluid. This agent exhibits no intrinsic antineoplastic activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

talimogene laherparepvec  
An ICP34.5, ICP47-deleted, oncolytic herpes simplex type-1 virus (HSV-1) based on the JS1 strain, and encoding the immunostimulating factor human cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral injection, talimogene laherparepvec selectively infects and replicates in tumor cells, thereby inducing tumor cell lysis. In addition, GM-CSF attracts dendritic cells (DCs) and may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell response against tumor cells, which results in immune-mediated tumor cell death. Deletion of the gene encoding for ICP34.5 provides tumor selectivity and prevents replication in healthy cells. As ICP47 blocks antigen presentation in HSV-infected cells, deletion of this gene may induce a more potent antitumor immune response in the tumor cells. Additionally, deletion of ICP47 causes increased expression of the HSV US11 gene and allows US11 to be expressed as an immediate early and not a late gene. This further enhances the degree of viral replication and oncolysis of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

talmapimod  
An orally bioavailable, small-molecule, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor with potential immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic activities. Talmapimod specifically binds to and inhibits the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which may result in the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. This agent may also enhance proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis. p38 MAPK is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in a MAPK signaling cascade that controls cellular responses to various environmental stresses, cytokines, and endotoxins. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

talotrexin ammonium  
The ammonium salt of an antimetabolite analogue of aminopterin with potential antineoplastic activity. As a folate antagonist, talotrexin binds to and inhibits the function of dihydrofolate reductase, resulting in the inhibition of folate metabolism, DNA synthesis, and cell division. Hydrosoluble, talotrexin is actively transported into cells by the reduced folate carrier (RFC) and, therefore, is unlikely to be associated with P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

taltirelin hydrate  
The hydrate of tatirelin, a thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) analogue with potential neuroprotective, analgesic and central nervous system-stimulating (CNS)/analeptic activities. Taltirelin mimics the physiological actions of TRH on the CNS while exerting a minimal effect on the release of thyrotrophin (TSH) from the anterior lobe of the pituitary. Like TRH, the mechanism of action of this agent in the CNS has not been fully elucidated mechanism, but may involve various cerebral monoamine pathways. Compared to TRH, taltirelin has a much longer half-life and duration of effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Talvesta  
(Other name for: talotrexin ammonium)

tamibarotene  
An orally active, synthetic retinoid, developed to overcome all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) resistance, with potential antineoplastic activity. As a specific retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha/beta agonist, tamibarotene is approximately ten times more potent than ATRA in inducing cell differentiation and apoptosis in HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cell lines in vitro. Due to a lower affinity for cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP), tamibarotene may show sustained plasma levels compared to ATRA. In addition, this agent may exhibit a lower toxicity profile than ATRA, in part, due to the lack of affinity for the RAR-gamma receptor, the major retinoic acid receptor in the dermal epithelium. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Tamiflu  
(Other name for: oseltamivir phosphate)

tamoxifen citrate  
The citrate salt of an antineoplastic nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Tamoxifen competitively inhibits the binding of estradiol to estrogen receptors, thereby preventing the receptor from binding to the estrogen-response element on DNA. The result is a reduction in DNA synthesis and cellular response to estrogen. In addition, tamoxifen up-regulates the production of transforming growth factor B (TGFb), a factor that inhibits tumor cell growth, and down-regulates insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a factor that stimulates breast cancer cell growth. Tamoxifen also down-regulates protein kinase C (PKC) expression in a dose-dependant manner, inhibiting signal transduction and producing an antiproliferative effect in tumors such as malignant glioma and other cancers that overexpress PKC. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tamsulosin hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of tamsulosin, a sulfonamide derivative with adrenergic antagonist activity. Tamsulosin selectivity binds to and blocks the activity of alpha1 adrenoreceptors in the human prostate and bladder neck; blockade of these adrenoceptors can cause smooth muscle in the prostate and bladder neck to relax, resulting in an improvement in urinary flow rate. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tandutinib  
A piperazinyl quinazoline receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antineoplastic activity. Tandutinib inhibits the autophosphorylation of FLT3 (FMS-Like Tyrosine kinase-3), c-KIT and PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) receptor tyrosine kinases, thereby inhibiting cellular proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tanespimycin  
A benzoquinone antineoplastic antibiotic derived from the antineoplastic antibiotic geldanamycin. Tanespimycin binds to and inhibits the cytosolic chaperone functions of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). HSP90 maintains the stability and functional shape of many oncogenic signaling proteins; the inhibition of HSP90 promotes the proteasomal degradation of oncogenic signaling proteins that may be overexpressed by tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tanezumab  
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against nerve growth factor (NGF), a modulator of nociceptor function, with potential analgesic activity. Tanezumab binds to NGF and prevents NGF binding to its high affinity, membrane-bound, catalytic receptor tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA), which is present on sympathetic and sensory neurons; reduced stimulation of TrkA by NGF inhibits the pain-transmission activities of these neurons. NGF, a neurotrophin, is critical to the growth and maintenance of sympathetic and sensory neurons. In addition, NGF may induce mast cells to release inflammatory proteins and may induce the upregulation of substance P and other pain-related peptides in sympathetic and sensory neurons. Upon neurotrophin binding, TrkA phosphorylates itself and members of the MAPK pathway, mediating the multiple neuronal effects of NGF. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tangerine tomato juice  
Tomato juice derived from the tangerine tomato, with potential antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. Tangerine tomato juice contains higher levels of the cis-isomer of lycopene (cis-LYC) compared to the trans-isomer (trans-LYC). Lycopene, a linear, unsaturated hydrocarbon carotenoid, is the major red pigment in certain fruits such as tomatoes, pink grapefruit, apricots, red oranges, watermelon, rosehips, and guava. As an antioxidant, lycopene scavenges free radicals, which may both inhibit cellular oxidation and prevent free radical damage to cells. cis-LYC is better absorbed than its trans form. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tanibirumab  
A fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), with potential antiangiogenic activity. Upon administration, tanibirumab specifically binds to VEGFR2, thereby preventing the binding of its ligand VEGF. This may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and a decrease in tumor nutrient supply. VEGFR2 is a pro-angiogenic growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase expressed by endothelial cells, while VEGF is overexpressed in many tumors and is correlated to tumor progression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tanomastat  
A biphenyl matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor (MMPI) with potential antineoplastic activity. Tanomastat inhibits MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9, inhibiting extracellular matrix degradation and potentially inhibiting angiogenesis, tumor growth and invasion, and metastasis. MMPs consist of at least 18 zinc-containing endo-proteinases that are capable of degrading collagen and proteoglycan. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tapentadol hydrochloride ER  
An orally active, extended-release preparation of the hydrochloride salt of tapentadol with analgesic activity. Tapentadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic with a dual mechanism of action involving mu-opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. This agent may be effective in the management of pain, cancer-related and other. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Tarabine PFS  
(Other name for: cytarabine)

Tarceva  
(Other name for: erlotinib hydrochloride)

tarenflurbil  
An orally active synthetic enantiomer of flurbiprofen. Tarenflurbil activates c-Jun N terminal kinase, increases AP-1 binding to DNA, and downregulates cyclin D1 expression, resulting in arrest of tumor cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis. This agent also affects the expression of nuclear factor kappa B, a rapid response transcription factor that stimulates the immune response to tumor cells. Tarenflurbil does not inhibit the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Targocid  
(Other name for: teicoplanin)

Targretin  
(Other name for: bexarotene)

tariquidar  
An anthranilamide derivative with multidrug resistance properties. Tariquidar non-competitively binds to the p-glycoprotein transporter, thereby inhibiting transmembrane transport of anticancer drugs. Inhibition of transmembrane transport may result in increased intracellular concentrations of an anticancer drug, thereby augmenting its cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

TARP 27-35 peptide vaccine  
A peptide-based cancer vaccine, containing amino acid residues 27 through 35 of T cell receptor gamma alternate reading frame protein (TARP), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, TARP 27-35 peptide vaccine may stimulate a host cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against TARP-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell cytotoxicity. The nuclear protein TARP is commonly expressed on prostate and breast cancer cells and is highly immunogenic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

TARP 29-37-9V peptide vaccine  
A peptide-based cancer vaccine, consisting of amino acid residues 29 through 37 of T cell receptor gamma alternate reading frame protein (TARP) with a leucine-to-valine substitution at position 9, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, TARP 29-37-9V peptide vaccine may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against TARP-expressing tumor cells, which may result in decreased tumor cell proliferation. The leucine-to-valine substitution at position 9 of this peptide improves its immunogenicity. The nuclear protein TARP is commonly expressed on prostate and breast cancer cells and is highly immunogenic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Tarvacin  
(Other name for: bavituximab)

TAS-108  
A synthetic, antiestrogenic steroidal compound with potential antitumor activity. TAS-108 binds to and inhibits estrogenic receptor alpha (ERa), mainly expressed in the mammary gland and uterus and upregulated in estrogen-dependent tumors. Blockage of ERa by TAS-108 prevents the binding and effects of estrogen and may lead to an inhibition of estrogen-dependent cancer cell proliferation. TAS-108 also is a partial agonist of the estrogenic receptor beta (ERb), expressed in many tissues including the central nervous system, urogenital tract, bone and cardiovascular system, thereby exerting a positive effect on these tissues. In addition, TAS-108 activates the co-repressor Silencing Mediator for Retinoid and Thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT), a protein that inhibits the activities of the estrogen receptors, which may contribute to the antitumor activity of TAS-108. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Tasigna  
(Other name for: nilotinib)

tasisulam sodium  
The sodium salt form of tasisulam, an acyl-sulfonamide compound with potential antiproliferative activity. Tasisulam activates, through an as of yet not fully elucidated mechanism, the intrinsic mitochondrial-mediated cell death pathway as manifested by decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP), cytochrome C release, activation of caspases, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and eventually apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tasquinimod  
A quinoline-3-carboxamide linomide analogue with antiangiogenic and potential antineoplastic activities. Tasquinimod has been shown to decrease blood vessel density but the exact mechanism of action is not known. This agent has also been shown to augment the antineoplastic effects of docetaxel and androgen ablation in a murine model of prostate cancer involving human prostate cancer xenografts. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

taurolidine  
A synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic with antibacterial, anticoagulant and potential antiangiogenic activities. Taurolidine, derived from the amino acid taurine, binds to and neutralizes bacterial exotoxins and endotoxins, or lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Taurolidine binding to LPS prevents bacterial adherence to host epithelial cells, thereby preventing bacterial invasion of uninfected host cells. Although the mechanism underlying its antineoplastic activity has not been fully elucidated, it may be related to this agent's anti-adherence property. In addition, taurolidine also promotes apoptosis by inducing various apoptotic factors and suppresses the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein that plays an important role in angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Tavocept  
(Other name for: dimesna)

Taxol  
(Other name for: paclitaxel)

taxol analogue SID 530  
An intravenous formulation containing docetaxel, a semi-synthetic, second-generation taxane derived from a compound found in the European yew tree, Taxus baccata, with potential antineoplastic activity. Taxol analogue SID 530 binds to and stabilizes tubulin, inhibiting microtubule disassembly, which results in cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Taxoprexin  
(Other name for: DHA-paclitaxel)

Taxotere  
(Other name for: docetaxel)

tazarotene  
A synthetic, topical retinoid. Tazarotene induces the expression of tazarotene-induced gene 3 (TIG3), a tumor suppressor gene. In psoriasis, tazarotene normalizes abnormal keratinocyte differentiation and reduces their hyperproliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Tazicef  
(Other name for: ceftazidime sodium)

Tazorac  
(Other name for: tazarotene)

Tc 99m sestamibi  
Sestamibi is a large synthetic molecule of the isonitrile family, which can be labeled with Tc99m. It passes through cells membranes passively, collecting in cells with large numbers of mitochondria. It is often used for imaging of the thyroid and parathyroid. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

TechneScan MDP  
(Other name for: technetium Tc 99m methylene diphosphonate)

technetium Tc 94m sestamibi  
A radioconjugate consisting of sestamibi labeled with the positron-emitting isotope Tc 94m. Sestamibi is a synthetic molecule of the isonitrile family that diffuses through cell membranes and may preferentially accumulate within mitochondria. Technetium Tc 94m sestamibi may be used in tumor-imaging studies utilizing positron emission tomography (PET). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

technetium Tc 99 hydrazinonicotinamide-tricine-linked interleukin-2  
A radioconjugate composed of the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) conjugated to the bifunctional chelating agent succinimidyl-6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylate (HYNIC-NHS) and co-ligand tricine and labeled with the radioisotope technetium Tc 99m (99mTc-HYNIC-IL2), that can potentially be used as a diagnostic agent to detect tumor inflammation. Upon intravenous administration, IL-2 selectively binds to the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) expressed on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs); upon internalization, the Tc99m moiety can be visualized using radioimaging, which allows the quantification of TILs expressing IL-2R. This agent detects tumor enlargement due to invasion by TILs and not tumor progression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

technetium Tc 99m demobesin-4  
A radioconjugate composed of the synthetic bombesin (BB) analog demobesin-4 bound to the radioisotope technetium Tc 99m with receptor ligand and gamma-emitting radioisotope activities. Upon intravenous administration, demobesin-4 selectively binds to the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expressed on the surfaces of various tumor cell types; upon internalization, tumor cells expressing GRPRs bound to technetium Tc 99m can then be visualized using scintigraphy. GRPR, a bombesin receptor subtype, is frequently overexpressed on the surface of tumor cells such as prostate and breast cancer cells. Demobesin-4 was developed for technetium Tc 99m imaging of GRPR-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

technetium Tc 99m DTPA  
A radiopharmaceutical core of chelating agent DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) complexed with the gamma-emitting radionuclide technetium Tc 99m with radioimaging application. Tc-99m-DTPA has been utilized as a radiotracer, when conjugated to tissue specific molecules, in a wide variety of nuclear imaging studies, including brain, lung, and renal function studies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

technetium Tc 99m ethylenedicysteine-deoxyglucose  
A radiopharmaceutical consisting of ethylenedicysteine-deoxyglucose (EC-DG) labeled with the metastable radioisotope technetium Tc-99 (99mTc). Upon administration, technetium Tc 99m ethylenedicysteine-deoxyglucose accumulates in cells with increased metabolic activity such as proliferating tumor cells; tumor tissue may then be imaged using gamma scintigraphy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

technetium Tc 99m galactosyl human serum albumin  
A colloid formulation of human galactosyl serum albumin (GSA) conjugated to the chelating agent diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and complexed to the gamma-emitting isotope technetium-99m (99mTc-GSA) with potential diagnostic imaging activity. Upon intravenous administration, the galactosyl moiety of 99mTc-GSA binds to asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) located on hepatic cells. Upon SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) imaging, liver function can be assessed. The expression of ASGPR, which are solely found on the plasma membrane of mammalian hepatocytes, is associated with hepatic function. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

technetium Tc 99m glycopeptide  
A technetium Tc 99m radiopharmaceutical of a glutamate-rich peptide (GP) conjugated, via carbodiimide linker, to the heparin-like polysaccharide chitosan (CH) in a 1:1 ratio, with potential tumor targeting property. Upon administration, 99m Tc-glycopeptide targets and is taken up by glutamate-specific transporters on tumor cells. Upon internalization, the Tc99m moiety can be visualized upon scanning. GP may potentially be used as a drug carrier for antineoplastic drug delivery to tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Technetium Tc 99m human serum albumin colloid  
A colloid formulation of human serum albumin (HSA) labeled with Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) with diagnostic imaging properties. This HSA radioconjugate contains the gamma-emitting Tc99m, a metastable nuclide of molybdenum-99. A potential advantage of the Tc-99m-HSA suspension is its smaller colloid particle size as compared to formulations containing either sulfur or tin, thereby allowing for enhanced imaging of the lymphatic draining pattern during lymphoscintigraphic or sentinel lymph node mapping procedures. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

technetium Tc 99m hydroxydiphosphonate  
A radioconjugate containing hydroxydiphosphonate (HDP) labeled with the metastable radioisotope technetium Tc (99mTc), with radioimaging activity. Upon intravenous administration, skeletal uptake of technetium Tc-99m HDP occurs as a function of skeletal blood flow and osteogenic activity. HDP has a specific affinity for hydroxyapatite crystals in bone where abnormal accumulation of increased osteoid mineralization has occurred. Labeling of HDP with 99mTc allows gamma scintigraphic imaging of areas of abnormal osteogenesis associated with malignant bone lesions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

technetium Tc 99m mebrofenin  
A radioconjugate composed of the iminodiacetic acid derivative mebrofenin bound to an isotope of the synthetic element technetium (Tc). Upon administration and rapid clearance form the circulation, technetium Tc 99m mebrofenin is secreted into the hepatobiliary system, emitting gamma rays that are detectable with planar scintigraphy or single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT). Mebrofenin has no pharmacological effect at the recommended dosage for diagnostic imagining. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

technetium Tc 99m methylene diphosphonate  
A radiopharmaceutical containing methylene diphosphonate (medronate; MDP) complexed with the gamma-emitting radionuclide technetium Tc 99m with radioisotopic activity and hydroxyapatite affinity. Upon intravenous administration, skeletal uptake of technetium Tc 99m methylene diphosphonate occurs as a function of skeletal blood flow and osteogenic activity. The MDP moiety of this agent has affinity for hydroxyapatite crystals in bone with abnormal accumulation at sites with increased osteoid mineralization; labeling of MDP with Tc 99m allows scinitgraphic imaging of areas of abnormal osteogenesis associated with malignant bone lesions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid  
A gamma-emitting colloid used in scintillation scanning of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). After intravenous administration, technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid is phagocytized by the reticuloendothelial system and concentrated in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow; detection/localization of phagocytized gamma ray-emitting colloid is performed with a gamma-ray scintillation camera. Scintillation scanning using technetium Tc 99m colloid sulfur helps determine the distribution and function of the RES and the extent to which tumor involves the RES. The RES includes cells types that can phagocytize and sequester inert particles and vital dyes; RES cell types include macrophages or macrophage precursors, specialized endothelial cells lining the sinusoids of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, and reticular cells of lymphatic tissue and of bone marrow. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

technetium Tc 99m-3PRGD2  
A radiopharmaceutical agent comprised of a pegylated arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) dimer (PRGD2) labeled with technetium Tc 99m, with potential alphaVbeta3 integrin imaging activity when used with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). After intravenous administration of technetium Tc 99m-3PRGD2, the RGD moiety binds to alphaVbeta3 integrin on the cell membrane via the cyclic RGD motif. Upon PET imaging, alphaVbeta3 integrin-expressing tumor cells can be visualized and expression levels can be quantified. Compared to other radiolabeled RGD-containing peptides, this agent shows an increased affinity for alphaVbeta3 integrin, enhanced tumor uptake as well as improved pharmacokinetics. AlphaVbeta3 integrin, a member of the integrin receptor family, is overexpressed on certain tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells while minimally or not expressed on healthy, normal cells; this receptor plays a key role in angiogenesis, tumor proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

technetium Tc 99m-labeled albumin microspheres  
An injectable radiopharmaceutical formulation containing human serum albumin (HSA) microspheres labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) with diagnostic imaging activity. Technetium Tc 99m-labeled albumin microspheres contain the gamma-emitting Tc99m, a metastable nuclide of molybdenum-99. Upon injection into the hepatic artery, the radionuclide portion allows for SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging of distribution patterns of the albumin microspheres. This may possibly predict the distribution of other agents with similar particle sizes within the liver and may give a prediction of the tumor response upon administration of such agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

technetium Tc 99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin  
An injectable radiopharmaceutical formulation containing human serum albumin (HSA) labeled with technetium-99m (Tc99m) in macroaggregates (MAA) with diagnostic imaging activity. Technetium Tc 99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin contains the gamma-emitting Tc99m, a metastable nuclide of molybdenum-99. Upon injection into the hepatic artery and upon SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging, distribution patterns and possible prediction of expected distribution of agents with similar particle sizes within the liver can be assessed and may give a prediction about the tumor response upon administration of such agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

technetium Tc 99m-labeled tilmanocept  
A radiolabeled macromolecule consisting of the chelating agent diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and mannose each attached to a dextran backbone and labeled with metastable technetiumTc-99 (Tc-99m), with mannose binding and radioisotopic activities. Upon injection, the mannose moiety of technetium Tc 99m-labeled tilmanocept binds to mannose-binding protein (MBP). As MBPs reside on the surface of dendritic cells and macrophages, this gamma-emitting macromolecule tends to accumulate in lymphatic tissue where it may be imaged using gamma scintigraphy. This agent exhibits rapid clearance from the injection site, rapid uptake and high retention within the first draining lymph node, and low uptake by the remaining lymph nodes. MBP is a C-type lectin that binds mannose or fucose carbohydrate residues, such as those found on the surfaces of many pathiogens, and once bound activates the complement system. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

technetium Tc 99m-NC100692  
A synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing cyclic peptide radiolabeled with technetium Tc 99m with integrin-binding and radioisotopic activities. Upon administration, technetium Tc 99m-NC100692 binds to alpha5beta3 integrin and to a lesser extent alpha5beta5; subsequently, alpha5beta3-expressing tumor cells can be visualized using scintigraphy and the degree of tumor angiogenesis can be determined. Integrins, membrane-spanning protein receptors, may be upregulated on proliferating endothelial cells; their overexpression has been associated with neovascularization, differentiation, proliferation of tumor cells and poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

technetium TC-99m  
One of the radioactive isotopes of technetium, a gamma/beta-emitter with a half life of 6 hours. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tecogalan sodium  
A sulfated polysaccharide isolated from various Arthrobacter bacterial species. Possessing potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic properties, tecogalan binds to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), thereby preventing bFGF from binding to its receptors. Disruption of this receptor binding results in the inhibition of bFGF-stimulated endothelial cell growth, proliferation, and migration. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Tectin  
(Other name for: tetrodotoxin)

tegafur  
A congener of the antimetabolite fluorouracil with antineoplastic activity. Tegafur is a prodrug that is gradually converted to fluorouracil in the liver by the cytochrome P-450 enzyme. Subsequently, 5-FU is metabolized to two active metabolites, 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP) and 5-fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP) by both tumor cells and normal cells. FdUMP inhibits DNA synthesis and cell division by inhibiting thymidylate synthase and reducing normal thymidine production, while FUTP inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by competing with uridine triphosphate. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tegafur-gimeracil-oteracil potassium  
An orally bioavailable fluoropyrimidine antagonist composed of tegafur combined with two modulators of 5-flurouracil (5-FU) activity, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine (CDHP) and potassium oxonate, in a molar ratio of 1:0.4:1. Tegafur is a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil, an antimetabolite that inhibits thymidylate synthase, DNA synthesis and cell division, and competes with uridine triphosphate, thus inhibiting RNA and protein synthesis. CDHP is a reversible inhibitor of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), the liver enzyme responsible for rapid catabolism of 5-FU into inactive metabolites. Potassium oxonate preferentially localizes in the gut and inhibits the enzyme orotate phosphoribosyl-transferase (OPRT), thereby decreasing activation of 5-FU in the gut and activated 5-FU-related gastrointestinal toxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tegafur-uracil  
A formulated therapeutic oral agent consisting of a combination of the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) congener prodrug tegafur (tetrahydrofuranyl-5-fluorouracil) and uracil (1:4). The high concentration of uracil reversibly inhibits the uracil-reducing enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), thereby inhibiting first-pass DPD-mediated hepatic metabolism of the uracil analogue 5-FU and permitting administration of 5-FU as the orally bioavailable prodrug tegafur. Tegafur is bioactivated to 5-FU by liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes. 5-FU is subsequently converted into its active metabolites 5-fluoro-deoxyuridine-monophosphate (FdUMP) and 5-fluorouridine-triphosphate (FUTP) intracellularly; these metabolites inhibit the enzyme thymidylate synthase and intercalate into RNA, resulting in decreased thymidine synthesis, reduced DNA synthesis, disrupted RNA function, and tumor cell cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

teglarinad chloride  
A water-soluble prodrug of a cyanoguanidine compound with potential antineoplastic activity. In vivo, teglarinad chloride is rapidly converted into active drug through hydrolytic cleavage of a carbonate ester bond. Although the exact mechanism of action has yet to be fully elucidated, the active drug appears to antagonize nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) transcription, resulting in the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Tegretol  
(Other name for: carbamazepine)

teicoplanin  
A glycopeptide antibiotic complex isolated from the bacterium Actinoplanes teichomyceticus. Teicoplanin inhibits peptidoglycan polymerization, resulting in inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

telaprevir  
An orally available peptidomimetic small molecule with activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV). Telaprivir is a selective protease inhibitor that targets the viral HCV NS3-4A serine protease and disrupts processing of viral proteins and formation of a viral replication complex. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

telapristone acetate  
The acetate form of the 21-substituted-19-nor-progestin telapristone, an orally available selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM), with potential anti-progesterone and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, telapristone competitively binds to the progesterone receptor (PR) in progesterone-responsive tissue and inhibits PR-mediated gene expression. This interferes with progesterone activity in the reproductive system. As a result, this agent may suppress ovulation and inhibit proliferation of endometrial tissue. Also, this agent may prevent cell growth and induce apoptosis in estrogen receptor (ER) and PR-positive breast cancer cells through a reduction in progesterone levels, ER downregulation and a suppression of the expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 2 and 4, ultimately leading to G1/S cell cycle arrest. Unlike some other SPRMs, this agent does not exert any estrogenic, androgenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activities. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

telatinib mesylate  
The orally bioavailable mesylate salt of the 17-allylaminogeldanamycin (17-AAG) small-molecule inhibitor of several receptor protein tyrosine kinases with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Telatinib binds to and inhibits the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) type 2 and 3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRb) and c-Kit, which may result in the inhibition of angiogenesis and cellular proliferation in tumors in which these receptors are upregulated. These telatinib-inhibited receptor protein tyrosine kinases are overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types and may play key roles in tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. 17-AAG is a synthetic analogue of the benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic geldanamycin and has also been found to inhibit the molecular chaperone Hsp90. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

telavancin hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt form of telavancin, a lipoglycopeptide and a semisynthetic derivative of vancomycin with antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria. Like vancomycin, telavancin binds tightly to the D-alanyl-D-alanine residue of cell wall precursors, thereby interfering with bacterial cell wall synthesis. In addition, the lipophilic moiety of telavancin may interact with the lipid bilayer in the bacterial cell membrane, thereby compromising the integrity of cell membrane and causing cell membrane depolarization. This novel mechanism of action may contribute to telavancin's rapid bactericidal activity and its improved activity over vancomycin against some antibiotic resistance gram-positive bacteria. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

telbivudine  
A synthetic thymidine nucleoside analogue with antiviral activity highly specific for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Intracellularly, telbivudine is phosphorylated to its active metabolite, telbivudine triphosphate. The dideoxy telbivudine triphosphate competes with thymidine for incorporation into viral DNA, thereby causing DNA chain termination and inhibiting the function of HBV DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase). This results in the blockade of HBV DNA replication and viral propagation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

TELCYTA  
(Other name for: canfosfamide hydrochloride)

Telintra  
(Other name for: ezatiostat hydrochloride)

telomerase peptide vaccine GV1001  
A synthetic peptide vaccine containing a 16-amino-acid human telomerase reverse transcriptase peptide(hTERT: 611-626) with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with telomerase peptide vaccine GV1001, which binds multiple HLA class II molecules and harbors putative HLA class I epitopes, may activate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against telomerase-expressing tumor cells. Telomerase, a reverse transcriptase normally repressed in healthy cells, is overexpressed in most tumor cell types and plays a key role in cellular proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

telomerase: 540-548 peptide vaccine  
A recombinant peptide consisting of the amino acid residues 540 to 548 of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Telomerase expression has been directly linked to tumor development; its catalytic subunit is expressed in the majority of human cancer cells, but infrequently in normal cells. Vaccination with telomerase:540-548 peptide may stimulate cytotoxic T cells to recognize and kill telomerase-expressing cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

telotristat etiprate  
An orally bioavailable, small-molecule, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) inhibitor prodrug, with potential antiserotonergic activity. Upon administration, telotristat etiprate is converted to its active moiety, telotristat (LP-778902), which binds to and blocks the activity of TPH. This may result in a reduction in peripheral serotonin (5-HT) production and improvement of serotonin-mediated gastrointestinal effects such as severe diarrhea. TPH, the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin biosynthesis, is overexpressed in carcinoid tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

teloxantrone hydrochoride  
The hydrochloride salt of an anthrapyrazole antineoplastic antibiotic. Teloxantrone intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair, as well as RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Temodar  
(Other name for: temozolomide)

temoporfin  
A synthetic light-activated chlorin with photodynamic activity. Upon systemic administration, temoporfin distributes throughout the body and is taken up by tumor cells. Upon stimulation of temoporfin by non-thermal laser light (at 652 nm), and in the presence of oxygen, this agent produces highly reactive short-lived singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen radicals, resulting in local damage to tumor cells. This may kill tumor cells and may reduce the tumor size. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

temozolomide  
A triazene analog of dacarbazine with antineoplastic activity. As a cytotoxic alkylating agent, temozolomide is converted at physiologic pH to the short-lived active compound, monomethyl triazeno imidazole carboxamide (MTIC). The cytotoxicity of MTIC is due primarily to methylation of DNA at the O6 and N7 positions of guanine, resulting in inhibition of DNA replication. Unlike dacarbazine, which is metabolized to MITC only in the liver, temozolomide is metabolized to MITC at all sites. Temozolomide is administered orally and penetrates well into the central nervous system. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Tempol  
(Other name for: topical piperidine nitroxide MTS-01)

Tempostatin  
(Other name for: halofuginone hydrobromide)

temsirolimus  
An ester analog of rapamycin. Temsirolimus binds to and inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), resulting in decreased expression of mRNAs necessary for cell cycle progression and arresting cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase which plays a role in the PI3K/AKT pathway that is upregulated in some tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tenifatecan  
A lipophilic preparation of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) with potential antineoplastic activity. Tenifatecan is an oil-in-water emulsion of tocopherol covalently linked, via a succinate linker, to SN-38, an active metabolite of the camptothecin derivative irinotecan. After the succinate linker is hydrolyzed in vivo, the active moiety SN-38 is released and selectively stabilizes topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes, thereby inhibiting religation of topoisomerase I-mediated single-stranded DNA breaks and inducing lethal double-stranded DNA breaks; DNA replication is inhibited and apoptosis is triggered. This agent may provide greater delivery and exposure of SN-38 to the tumor than can be achieved with irinotecan. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

teniposide  
A semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin with antineoplastic activity. Teniposide forms a ternary complex with the enzyme topoisomerase II and DNA, resulting in dose-dependent single- and double-stranded breaks in DNA, DNA: protein cross-links, inhibition of DNA strand religation, and cytotoxicity. This agent acts in the late S or early G phase of the cell cycle. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tenofovir  
A synthetic antiviral acyclic nucleotide analogue of adenosine 5-monophosphate. Tenofovir is incorporated into human immunodeficiency viral DNA instead of the natural substrate deoxyadenosine 5-triphosphate, thereby inhibiting HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, and resulting in DNA chain termination and impairment of viral replication and propagation. This agent prevents HIV from reproducing in uninfected cells only. Tenofovir exhibits activity against the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

terameprocol  
A synthetic tetra-methylated derivative of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and transcriptional inhibitor with potential antiviral, antiangiogenic, and antineoplastic activities. Terameprocol competes with the transcription factor Sp1 for specific Sp1 DNA binding domains within gene promoter regions during DNA synthesis. In virally-infected cells, blocking of the Sp1 binding site suppresses Sp1-regulated viral promoter activity and gene expression, thereby inhibiting viral transcription and replication. In tumor cells, blockage of Sp1 binding sites by this agent interferes with the transcription of the Sp1-dependant genes cyclin-dependant kinase (Cdc2), survivin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are overexpressed in a variety of cancers. By suppressing Sp1-regulated transcription of these genes, terameprocol may reduce tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation and induce tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

terephthalamidine  
A derivative of the phthalanilide compounds. Terephthalamidine belongs to a family of compounds which appear to reversibly bind to the minor groove of the DNA double helix but not intercalate DNA. This agent also has been suggested to form ionic complexes with many biological components in vitro, including nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

teroxirone  
A triazene triepoxide with antineoplastic activity. Teroxine alkylates and cross-links DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tesetaxel  
A semi-synthetic, orally bioavailable taxane derivative with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic properties. Tesetaxel binds to and stabilizes tubulin, promoting microtubule assembly and thereby preventing microtubule depolymerization. This may lead to cell cycle arrest and an inhibition of cell proliferation. This agent may also inhibit pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). As it represents poor substrate for P-glycoprotein-related drug resistance mechanisms, this agent may be useful for treating multi-drug resistant tumors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Teslac  
(Other name for: testolactone)

Testoderm  
(Other name for: therapeutic testosterone)

testolactone  
A progesterone derivative with antineoplastic activity. Testolactone inhibits steroid aromatase, thereby preventing the formation of estrogen from adrenal androstenedione and reducing endogenous estrogen levels. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Testolin  
(Other name for: therapeutic testosterone)

testosterone cypionate  
An eight-carbon ester form of testosterone. The number of ester carbon atoms correlate with the half-life of the prodrug. Testosterone inhibits gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary gland and ablates estrogen production in the ovaries, thereby decreasing endogenous estrogen levels. In addition, this agent promotes the maintenance of male sex characteristics and is indicated for testosterone replacement in hypogonadal males. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

testosterone gel  
A topical gel preparation of synthetic testosterone. In vivo, testosterone is irreversibly converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in target tissues by the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. Testosterone or DHT ligand-androgen receptor complexes act as transcription factor complexes, stimulating the expression of various responsive genes, resulting in an increase in protein anabolism, a decrease in amino acid catabolism, and retention of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus; DHT binds with higher affinity to nuclear androgen receptors than testosterone. In addition, testosterone is irreversibly converted to estradiol by the enzyme complex aromatase, particularly in the liver and adipose tissue. Testosterone and DHT promote the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics related to the internal and external genitalia, skeletal muscle, and hair follicles; estradiol promotes epiphyseal maturation and bone mineralization. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

testosterone undecanoate  
The undecanoate ester form of the androgen testosterone, with gonadotropin-secretory inhibiting and hormone replacement activity. As testosterone inhibits the secretion of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland, administration of testosterone decreases the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH). By inhibiting LH secretion, the growth of Leydig cells, which are normally stimulated by LH to produce testosterone, may be suppressed. In addition, this agent promotes the maintenance of male sex characteristics and can be used for testosterone replacement in hypogonadal males. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

testosterone vaginal cream  
A topical cream containing a synthetic form of the endogenous androgenic steroid testosterone. Upon vaginal application, testosterone is irreversibly converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in target tissues by the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. Testosterone or DHT ligand-androgen receptor complexes act as transcription factor complexes, stimulating the expression of various responsive genes. DHT binds with higher affinity to androgen receptors than testosterone, activating gene expression more efficiently. In addition, testosterone is irreversibly converted to estradiol by the enzyme complex aromatase, particularly in the liver and adipose tissue. Topical application of testosterone may improve symptoms of vaginal dryness. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Testostroval  
(Other name for: therapeutic testosterone)

Testostroval-PA  
(Other name for: therapeutic testosterone)

Testro AQ  
(Other name for: therapeutic testosterone)

tetanus peptide melanoma vaccine  
A vaccine consisting of peptides derived from melanoma-associated antigens and a modified T-cell epitope derived from tetanus toxoid. Vaccination with this agent may stimulate a host cytotoxic and helper T-cell response against tumor cells expressing melanoma-associated antigens, resulting in decreased tumor growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tetanus toxoid  
A solution of formaldehyde-deactivated toxin isolated from the bacterium Clostridium tetani. Tetanus toxoid stimulates the production of antitoxin antibodies. This agent may be used as an adjuvant in cancer vaccines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tetanus toxoid helper peptide  
Obtained by genetic engineering from the bacterial Clostridium tetani toxoid, tetanus toxoid helper peptide QYIKANSKFIGITEL (amino acids 830-844) binds to class II MHC molecules as a nonspecific vaccine helper epitope (adjuvant) and induces an increased (and long term) immune response by increasing the helper T-cell response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tetanus-CMV fusion peptide vaccine  
A vaccine containing an inactivated epitope of tetanus toxin fused to a cytomegalovirus (CMV) peptide epitope, with potential anti-viral and immunomodulating activities. Upon administration, tetanus-CMV fusion peptide may stimulate a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CMV in the CMV-infected host. Tetanus toxin contains universal T cell helper epitopes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tetracycline antibiotic  
Any of a group of broad spectrum naphthacene antibiotics isolated from various species of Streptomyces or produced semisynthetically. In bacteria, tetracycline antibiotics block binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tetracycline hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt of tetracycline, a broad-spectrum naphthacene antibiotic produced semisynthetically from chlortetracycline, an antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces aureofaciens. In bacteria, tetracycline blocks binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and bacterial cell growth. Because naturally fluorescing tetracycline binds to newly formed bone at the bone/osteoid interface, tetracycline-labeling of bone and fluorescence microscopy may be used to perform bone histomorphometry. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tetradecanoylphorbol acetate  
A phorbol ester with potential antineoplastic effects. Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) induces maturation and differentiation of hematopoietic cell lines, including leukemic cells. This agent may induce gene expression and protein kinase C (PKC) activity. In addition to potential antineoplastic effects, TPA may exhibit tumor promoting activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tetrahydrouridine  
A synthetic pyrimidine nucleoside analogue with biomodulating activity. Tetrahydrouridine increases the efficacy of the radiosensitizer cytochlor (5-chloro-2'-deoxycytidine) by inhibiting the enzyme deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP) deaminase and preventing the premature deamination of the cytochlor metabolite 5-chloro-2'-deoxycytidine monophosphate (CldCMP) to 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine monophosphate (CldUMP); in turn, this increases tumor concentrations of CldUMP which is then further anabolized and incorporated selectively into tumor DNA as CldU (5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tetraphenyl chlorin disulfonate  
A meso-tetraphenylchlorin substituted by two adjacent sulfonated groups with potential photosensitizing activity. Upon administration, tetraphenyl chlorin disulfonate incorporates into the cell’s endosome and lysosome membranes. Subsequently, cytotoxic agents are administered and accumulate in endosomal and lysosomal compartments; upon local activation by light, tetraphenyl chlorin disulfonate produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen, damaging endo/lysosomal membranes and accumulated cytotoxic agents are released into the tumor cell cytosol. This photochemical internalization (PCI) method can enhance the efficacy and selectivity of cytotoxic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tetrodotoxin  
A neurotoxin with potential analgesic activity. Tetrodotoxin binds to the pores of fast voltage-gated fast sodium channels in nerve cell membranes, inhibiting nerve action potentials and blocking nerve transmission. Although found in various species of fish (such as the pufferfish), newts, frogs, flatworms, and crabs, tetrodotoxin, for which there is no known antidote, is actually produced by bacteria such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis, and other vibrio and pseudomonas bacterial species. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tezacitabine  
A synthetic purine nucleoside analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Phosphorylated by cellular kinases, tezacitabine is converted into its active diphosphate and triphosphate metabolites. Tezacitabine diphosphate binds to and irreversibly inhibits the activity of the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), which may result in the inhibition of DNA synthesis in tumor cells and tumor cell apoptosis. Tezacitabine triphosphate acts as a substrate for DNA polymerase, further compromising DNA replication. This agent is relatively resistant to metabolic deactivation by cytidine deaminase. RNR catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleoside 5'-diphosphates to deoxyribonucleoside 5'-diphosphates necessary for DNA synthesis and is overexpressed in many tumor types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

TGF-beta-resistant LMP-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes  
A preparation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-resistant cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) reactive to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane proteins 1 and 2 (LMP 1 and 2) with potential antineoplastic activity. T lymphocytes are transduced with a retroviral vector expressing the dominant-negative mutant type II TGF-beta receptor, which blocks signaling by all three TGF-beta isoforms. These TGF-beta-resistant T-lymphocytes are exposed ex-vivo to dendritic cells (DCs) transfected with a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding EBV LMP; subsequent exposure to LMP1- or LMP2-expressing lymphoblastoid cell lines is used to expand the CTL. Administered to patients with EBV-positive tumors, TGF-beta-resistant LMP-specific CTL target LMP-positive cells, which may result in a specific CTL response, followed by cell lysis and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Tumor-expressed TGF-beta inhibits T lymphocyte activation and expansion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

TGFa-PE38 immunotoxin  
A recombinant, chimeric toxin composed of human transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) fused to a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE38) without its cell-binding domain. The TGF-alpha moiety of the agent attaches to tumor cells expressing the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR); the exotoxin induces caspase-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells via a mechanism involving mitochondrial damage; it also catalyzes the transfer of ADP ribose from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to elongation factor-2 in eukaryotic cells, thereby inactivating elongation factor 2 and inhibiting protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

TGFbDNRII-transduced autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes  
A preparation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that are transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a gene for a dominant-negative form of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFb) receptor, TGFbDNRII, with potential immunomodulating activity. Upon administration, the TGFbDNRII-transduced autologous TILs recognize and kill tumor cells. The expression of TGFbDNRII allows for the TILs to be resistant to TGF-b-mediated inhibition of T cell proliferation and activation, which allows optimal TIL activity. The immunosuppressant TGF-b is produced by tumor cells and plays a key role in the repression of the immune system. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

thalicarpine  
A natural aporphine benzylisoquinoline vinca alkaloid with antineoplastic activity. Thalicarpine binds to and inhibits p-glycoprotein, the multidrug resistance efflux pump. Thalicarpine also induces single-strand breaks in DNA and arrests cancer cells at the G2/M and G1 phase of the cell cycle. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

thalidomide  
A synthetic derivative of glutamic acid (alpha-phthalimido-glutarimide) with teratogenic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. Thalidomide acts primarily by inhibiting both the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in stimulated peripheral monocytes and the activities of interleukins and interferons. This agent also inhibits polymorphonuclear chemotaxis and monocyte phagocytosis. In addition, thalidomide inhibits pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), thereby inhibiting angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Thalomid  
(Other name for: thalidomide)

thapsigargin prodrug G-202  
A soluble, thapsigargin prodrug containing the cytotoxic analog of thapsigargin, 8-O-(12Aminododecanoyl)-8-O debutanoylthapsigargin (12-ADT) linked, via a carboxyl group, to the targeting peptide containing aspartic acid with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the non-toxic prodrug targets prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a type II membrane carboxypeptidase, which is overexpressed in prostate cancer cells and in the neovasculature of most solid tumors but not in normal blood vessels. G-202 is subsequently converted, through hydrolysis, into the active cytotoxic analog of thapsigargin 12-ADT-Asp. 12-ADT binds to and blocks the Sarcoplasmic/Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase (SERCA) pump, thereby increasing the concentration of cytosolic calcium which leads to an induction of apoptosis. By preventing nutrient supply to tumor cells, G-202 may be able to inhibit tumor growth. Compared to thapsigargin alone, thapsigargin prodrug G-202 is able to achieve higher concentrations of the active agents at the tumor site while avoiding systemic toxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Theo-24  
(Other name for: theophylline)

Theobid Duracap  
(Other name for: theophylline)

Theochron  
(Other name for: theophylline)

theophylline  
A natural alkaloid derivative of xanthine isolated from the plants Camellia sinensis and Coffea arabica. Theophylline appears to inhibit phosphodiesterase and prostaglandin production, regulate calcium flux and intracellular calcium distribution, and antagonize adenosine. Physiologically, this agent relaxes bronchial smooth muscle, produces vasodilation (except in cerebral vessels), stimulates the CNS, stimulates cardiac muscle, induces diuresis, and increases gastric acid secretion; it may also suppress inflammation and improve contractility of the diaphragm. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic allogeneic cytotoxic T lymphocytes  
A population of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) that are therapeutically administered to a recipient individual who is genetically distinct from a donor of the same species. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic allogeneic lymphocytes  
A population of lymphocytes therapeutically administered to a recipient individual who is genetically distinct from a donor of the same species. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic angiotensin-(1-7)  
A synthetic heptapeptide identical to endogenous angiotensin-(1-7) with vasodilator and antiproliferative activities. Therapeutic angiotensin 1-7 may inhibit cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the production of proinflammatory prostaglandins and may activate the angiotensin-(1-7) receptor Mas, resulting in diminished tumor cell proliferation. Activation of the angiotensin-(1-7) receptor Mas, a G-protein coupled, seven transmembrane protein, may down-regulate the phophorylation and activation of Erk1 and Erk2 in the Erk1/Erk2 Mapk signaling pathway. In the renin-angiotensin system, the vasodlilating activity of angiotensin- (1-7), hydrolysed from angiotensin II by the type I transmembrane metallopeptidase and carboxypeptidase angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in vivo, counteracts the vasoconstricting activity of angiotensin II. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic autologous dendritic cells  
A population of a type of antigen-presenting cell (APC), the dendritic cell (DC), harvested from a patient and grown in vitro in the presence of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) derived from the patient's tumor (a technique known as 'pulsing') and then injected back into the patient; autologous DCs so manipulated may stimulate a specific cell-mediated antitumoral cytotoxicity. DCs derived from a patient may also be fused with the patient's tumor cells in vitro to combine sustained tumor antigen expression with the antigen-presenting and immunostimulatory capacities of DCs; when injected back into the patient, these autologous DC-tumor cell hybrids (fusion cells) may stimulate an active antitumoral immune response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic autologous lymphocytes  
A population of lymphocytes isolated from an individual, altered in vitro, and returned to the same individual for therapeutic purposes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic breast/ovarian/prostate cancer vaccine DPX-0907  
A lipid-based multi-peptide cancer vaccine targeted against multiple cancers with immunopotentiating activity. Therapeutic breast/ovarian/prostate peptide cancer vaccine DPX-0907 is a lyophilized liposomal proprietary preparation comprised of 7 tumor-specific HLA-A2-restricted epitopes (TAAs): topoisomerase II alpha, B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (CDM protein), TNF-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM17), Abelson homolog 2 (Abl2), gamma catenin (Junction plakoglobin), epithelial discoidin domain receptor 1 (EDDR1) and integrin beta 8 subunit. Upon vaccination, the lyophilized antigen/adjuvant/liposome complex is re-suspended in Montanide 1SA51 VG to create a depot effect, thereby presenting the TAAs to the immune system for a prolonged period of time. This may stimulate a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune response against cancer cells that express these 7 TAAs and share epitopes with the vaccine epitope peptides, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The 7 TAAs are overexpressed on the surface of breast/ovarian and prostate cancer cells and play an important role in tumor cell growth and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic epinephrine  
The synthetic form of the naturally occurring sympathomimetic amine with vasoconstricting, intraocular pressure-reducing, and bronchodilating activities. By stimulating vascular alpha-adrenergic receptors, epinephrine causes vasoconstriction, thereby increasing vascular resistance and blood pressure. When administered in the conjunctiva, this agent binds to alpha-adrenergic receptors in the iris sphincter muscle, resulting in vasoconstriction, a decrease in the production of aqueous humor, and a lowering of intraocular pressure. Through its beta1 receptor-stimulating actions, epinephrine increases the force and rate of myocardial contraction and relaxes bronchial smooth muscle, resulting in bronchodilation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic estetrol  
A synthetic steroid similar or identical to endogenous estetrol, a short-acting estrogen with both agonistic and antagonistic estrogen receptor activity. Administered orally, therapeutic estetrol binds to the estrogen receptor and as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) exhibits estrogen agonism in certain tissues and estrogen antagonism in others. Displaying weak estrogen activity in the uterus, estetrol acts as an estrogen antagonist in breast tissue. Produced solely by the human fetal liver, endogenous estetrol is the primary estrogen metabolite of estrogen biosynthesis in the human fetal liver. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic estradiol  
A steroid sex hormone vital to the maintenance of fertility and secondary sexual characteristics in females. Typically esterified, estradiol derivatives are formulated for oral or parenteral administration. As the primary, most potent estrogen hormone produced by the ovaries, estradiol binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors. Estradiol exhibits mild anabolic and metabolic properties, and increases blood coagulability. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic hemin  
A sterile, lyophilized powder of hemin, the Fe3+ oxidation product of heme (Fe2+), derived from processed red blood cells. Therapeutic hemin appears to inhibit delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthetase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the porphyrin/heme biosynthetic pathway, resulting in inhibition of the hepatic and/or marrow synthesis of porphyrin precursors. The mechanism by which therapeutic hematin produces symptomatic improvement in patients with acute episodes of the hepatic porphyrias has not been determined. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic hydrocortisone  
A synthetic or semisynthetic analog of natural hydrocortisone hormone produced by the adrenal glands with primary glucocorticoid and minor mineralocorticoid effects. As a glucocorticoid receptor agonist, hydrocortisone promotes protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, capillary wall stability, renal excretion of calcium, and suppresses immune and inflammatory responses. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic immune globulin  
A preparation of plasma proteins derived from the pooled plasma of adult donors. Largely comprised of IgG antibodies, therapeutic immune globulin provides passive immunization by increasing the recipient's serum levels of circulating antibodies. IgG antibodies have multiple functions, including binding to and neutralizing bacterial toxins; opsonization of pathogens; activation of complement; and suppression of pathogenic cytokines and phagocytes through binding to CD5, interleukin-1a (IL-1a), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and T-cell receptors. Therapeutic immune globulin may diminish pathogenic mechanisms in some autoimmune diseases by binding to and inhibiting the activity of autoantibodies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic insulin  
A synthetic or animal-derived form of insulin used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Therapeutic insulin is formulated to be short-, intermediate- and long-acting in order to individualize an insulin regimen according to individual differences in glucose and insulin metabolism. Therapeutic insulin may be derived from porcine, bovine or recombinant sources. Endogenous human insulin, a pancreatic hormone composed of two polypeptide chains, is important for the normal metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats and has anabolic effects on many types of tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic melatonin  
A therapeutic chemically synthesized form of the pineal indole melatonin with antioxidant properties. The pineal synthesis and secretion of melatonin, a serotonin-derived neurohormone, is dependent on beta-adrenergic receptor function. Melatonin is involved in numerous biological functions including circadian rhythm, sleep, the stress response, aging, and immunity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic progesterone  
A synthetic form of the endogenous hormone progesterone. Progesterone binds to the progesterone receptor, resulting in dissociation of heat shock proteins, receptor phosphorylation, and transcription activation through direct or indirect interaction with transcription factors. This agent exerts inhibitory effects on estrogens by decreasing the number of estrogen receptors and increasing its metabolism to inactive metabolites. Progesterone induces secretory changes in the endometrium, decreases uterine contractility during pregnancy, and maintains pregnancy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic testosterone  
A synthetic form of the endogenous androgenic steroid testosterone. In vivo, testosterone is irreversibly converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in target tissues by the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. Testosterone or DHT ligand-androgen receptor complexes act as transcription factor complexes, stimulating the expression of various responsive genes. DHT binds with higher affinity to androgen receptors than testosterone, activating gene expression more efficiently. In addition, testosterone is irreversibly converted to estradiol by the enzyme complex aromatase, particularly in the liver and adipose tissue. Testosterone and DHT promote the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics related to the internal and external genitalia, skeletal muscle, and hair follicles; estradiol promotes epiphyseal maturation and bone mineralization. Due to rapid metabolism by the liver, therapeutic testosterone is generally administered as an ester derivative. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic triiodothyronine  
A therapeutic formulation of the primary physiologically active form of endogenous thyroid hormone. In vivo, triiodothyronine enters the nucleus and binds to nuclear thyroid hormone receptors that subsequently bind to thyroid response elements (TREs) located in target genes. Receptor binding by triiodothyronine in combination with recruited coactivators results in maximal transcriptional activation after binding to TREs; in general, binding of thyroid hormone receptor alone to TREs leads to repression of gene transcription. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

therapeutic tumor infiltrating lymphocytes  
A preparation of cells, consisting of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, that are manipulated in vitro and, upon administration in vivo, re-infiltrate the tumor to initiate tumor cell lysis. In vitro, therapeutic tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are isolated from tumor tissue and cultured with lymphokines such as interleukin-2; the therapeutic TILs are then infused into the patient, where, after re-infiltration of the tumor, they may induce lysis of tumor cells and tumor regression. The use of therapeutic TILs is considered a form of adoptive immunotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

TheraSphere  
(Other name for: yttrium Y 90 glass microspheres)

Thermazene  
(Other name for: silver sulfadiazine)

ThermoDox  
(Other name for: lyso-thermosensitive liposomal doxorubicin)

thiabendazole  
A benzimidazole derivative with anthelminthic property. Although the mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated, thiabendazole inhibits the helminth-specific mitochondrial enzyme fumarate reductase, thereby inhibiting the citric acid cycle, mitochondrial respiration and subsequent production of ATP, ultimately leading to helminth's death. In addition, it has been suggested that thiabendazole may lead to inhibition of microtubule polymerization by binding to beta-tubulin and has an overt ovicidal effect with regard to some trichostrongylids. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

thiamine  
A heat-labile and water-soluble essential vitamin, belonging to the vitamin B family, with antioxidant, erythropoietic, mood modulating, and glucose-regulating activities. Thiamine reacts with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to form an active coenzyme, thiamine pyrophosphate. Thiamine pyrophosphate is necessary for the actions of pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate in carbohydrate metabolism and for the actions of transketolase, an enzyme that plays an important role in the pentose phosphate pathway. Thiamine plays a key role in intracellular glucose metabolism and may inhibit the action of glucose and insulin on arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation. Thiamine may also protect against lead toxicity by inhibiting lead-induced lipid peroxidation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

thiarabine  
A analog of antimetabolite cytarabine (ara-C), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, thiarabine (T-araC) is phosphorylated to the triphosphate form T-araCTP and competes with cytidine for incorporation into DNA. This results in an inhibition of DNA replication and RNA synthesis, chain termination and may eventually decrease tumor cell proliferation. Compared to ara-C, T-araC appears to have a longer half-life and has a higher efficacy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Thibenzole  
(Other name for: thiabendazole)

thioguanine  
A synthetic guanosine analogue antimetabolite. Phosphorylated by hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, thioguanine incorporates into DNA and RNA, resulting in inhibition of DNA and RNA syntheses and cell death. This agent also inhibits glutamine-5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase, thereby inhibiting purine synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

thioredoxin-1 inhibitor PX-12  
An orally bioavailable small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. Thioredoxin-1 inhibitor PX-12 irreversibly binds to thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) and inhibits its activity, which may result in growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis. Overexpressed in many cancer cell types, the low molecular weight redox protein Trx-1 regulates transcription factor activity and inhibits apoptosis, promoting cell growth and survival; it also interacts with growth factors extracellularly to stimulate cell growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

thioridazine hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt form of thioridazine, a piperidine phenothiazine derivative and a dopamine antagonist with antipsychotic property. Thioridazine hydrochloride binds to mesolimbic postsynaptic dopamine receptor D2, thereby decreasing dopamine activity leading to decreased psychotic effects, such as hallucinations and delusions. In addition, this agent binds to serotonin 5-HT2 receptors, resulting in decreased serotonin activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

thiotepa  
A polyfunctional, organophosphorus alkylating agent and a stable derivative of N,N',N''-triethylenephosphoramide (TEPA), with antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, thiotepa is converted into highly reactive ethylenimine groups, which covalently bind to nucleophilic groups in DNA and demonstrate a preference for the N7 position of guanine bases. This induces crosslinking of alkylated guanine bases in double-stranded DNA, interferes with both DNA replication and cell division, and results in both the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of cell growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

thioureidobutyronitrile  
A water-soluble, small molecule and activator of the tumor suppressor protein p53, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, thioureidobutyronitrile activates p53 which in turn induces the expressions of p21 and PUMA (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis), thereby inhibiting cancer cell growth and causing tumor cell apoptosis. Thioureidobutyronitrile may be effective in drug-resistant cancers with mutated p53. p53 tumor suppressor, a transcription factor regulating the expression of many stress response genes and mediating various anti-proliferative processes, is often mutated in cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

THL-P  
A proprietary, oral Chinese medicinal herb preparation with potential antioxidant, immunomodulating, and antineoplastic activities. THL-P (Tien-Hsien Liquid-P) contains fourteen Chinese medicinal herbs including: Cordyceps sinensis, Oldenlandia diffusa, Indigo pulverata levis, Polyporus umbellatus, Radix astragali, Panax ginseng, Solanum nigrum L., Pogostemon cablin, Atractylodis macrocephalae rhizoma, Trichosanthes radix, Clematis radix, Margarite, Ligustrum lucidum Ait and Glycyrrhiza radix. Administered as an oral liquid, THL-P may modulate the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and enhance the secretion of interleukins (ILs) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). This agent may also induce G2/M cell cycle arrest and downregulate several important oncogenic signaling pathways. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Thorazine  
(Other name for: chlorpromazine)

Thymectacin  
(Other name for: brivudine phosphoramidate)

thymidine  
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the pyrimidine base thymine attached to the sugar deoxyribose. As a constituent of DNA, thymidine pairs with adenine in the DNA double helix. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

thymidylate synthase inhibitor DFP-11207  
An orally available thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, DFP-11207 binds to and inhibits TS. This reduces thymine nucleotide synthesis, inhibits DNA synthesis and cell division, causes DNA damage and leads to tumor cell apoptosis. TS catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Thymitaq  
(Other name for: nolatrexed dihydrochloride)

Thymoglobulin  
(Other name for: anti-thymocyte globulin)

thymopentin  
A synthetic pentapeptide which is the active site of the naturally occurring hormone thymopoietin with immunomodulating properties. Thymopentin enhances the production of thymic T cells and may help restore immunocompetence in immunosuppressed subjects. This agent also augments the effects of ionizing radiation by arresting cancer cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Thyrogen  
(Other name for: recombinant thyrotropin alfa)

thyroxine  
A hormone synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland containing four iodine atoms and is converted to triiodothyronine (T3) in the body, influencing metabolism and organ function. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Thytropar  
(Other name for: recombinant thyroid-stimulating hormone)

tiazofurin  
A synthetic nucleoside analogue with antineoplastic activity. Tiazofurin (TR) is anabolized intracellularly to an analogue of NAD, tiazole-4-carboxamide adenine dinucleotide (TAD), a potent inhibitor of IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH); IMPDH is the rate-limiting enzyme for de novo purine synthesis. Inhibition of IMPDH results in reduced levels of guanylates, resulting in the inhibition tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tibolone  
A synthetic anabolic steroid with estrogenic, androgenic and progestagenic activities. The 3alpha- and 3beta-hydroxy metabolites of tibilone activate estrogenic receptors (ERs) in bone and vaginal tissue leading to a decrease in bone turnover, and decreased vaginal dryness, respectively; derived from the 3beta-hydroxy metabolite, its delta4-isomer activates androgenic receptors (ARs) in the brain and liver and progestogenic receptors (PRs) in endometrial tissue, affecting sexual function, lipid metabolism, and endometrial function, respectively. In breast and endometrial tissue, tibolone metabolites inhibit sulfatase, preventing the conversion of circulating estrone sulfate and estradiol sulfate to estrone and estradiol, respectively; estrogen-mediated effects in the breast and uterus are thus reduced. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

TICE BCG solution  
(Other name for: BCG solution)

tigapotide  
A synthetic 15-mer peptide corresponding to amino acids 31-45 of the 94-amino acid isoform of human prostate secretory protein (PSP-94) with potential anti-metastasis and anti-angiogenesis activities. Tigapotide may inhibit the secretion of the metastasis-related protein matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its potential binding to its cell surface receptor CD44; may interfere with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway, resulting in an anti-angiogenesis effect; and may reduce the levels of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), decreasing plasma calcium levels. PSP-94, one of three predominant proteins found in seminal fluid, may be down-regulated in prostate cancer, representing a potential survival mechanism for prostate cancer cells. MMP-9 is implicated in the invasion and metastasis of cancer. PTHrP may be expressed by various tumor cell types, resulting in the hypercalcemia of malignancy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tigatuzumab  
A humanized agonistic monoclonal antibody directed against human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) with potential antitumor activity. Mimicking the natural receptor ligand TRAIL, tigatuzumab binds to TRAIL-R2, activating signal transduction pathways that may result in tumor cell apoptosis and a reduction in tumor growth. A member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, TRAIL-R2, also known as DR5 (death receptor 5), is expressed on the surfaces of many types of malignant cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tigecycline  
A broad-spectrum glycylcycline antibiotic derived from tetracycline. Tigecycline binds to the 30S ribosomal subunit, thereby interfering with the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex. This prevents the incorporation of amino acid residues into the elongating peptide chain, inhibiting protein synthesis and eventually bacterial cell growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

TIL 1383I T cell receptor-transduced autologous T cells  
Autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes-derived T cells transduced with a retroviral encoding TIL 1383I, a T cell receptor (TCR) specific for melanoma antigen tyrosinase, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activity. After transduction, expansion in culture, and reintroduction into the patient, TIL 1383I TCR-transduced autologous T cells bind to tumor cells expressing tyrosinase, which may induce cytokine expression, activation and proliferation of T-cells, and a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tyrosinase-expressing tumor cells. TIL 1383I TCR originated from a melanoma patient’s CD4+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and is reactive against a class I MHC (HLA-A2)-restricted epitope (368-376) of tyrosinase. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

timolol maleate gel forming solution  
A gel forming solution containing the maleate salt of timolol, a propanolamine derivative and a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist, with intraocular pressure-reducing activity. Although the precise mechanism of action of timolol's ocular hypotensive action is not clearly established at this time, studies suggest that it may be the result of decreased aqueous humor production (possibly by reduction of blood flow to the ciliary processes and cAMP synthesis) as well as a slight increase in outflow facility. Timolol gel-forming solution can potentially be used topically as well, in the prevention of the neoangiogenesis that may occur following pulsed dye laser treatment of port wine stains. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

timonacic  
A cyclic sulfur amino acid derivative with potential antineoplastic and antioxidant activities. Acting on cellular membranes of malignant cells through an unknown mechanism, timonacic may induce malignant cells to revert back to an untransformed state. This agent may also restore contact inhibition, a phenomenon characterized by the paracrine inhibition of mitosis following the formation of a critical cell mass, presumably the result of cell-to-cell signal transfer. Timonacic may also produce antioxidant effects secondary to its release of cysteine and restoration of glutathione concentrations. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Timoptic-XE  
(Other name for: timolol maleate gel forming solution)

Tindamax  
(Other name for: tinidazole)

tinidazole  
A 5-nitroimidazole derivative with antiprotozoal property. Although the mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated, it has been suggested that tinidazole is metabolized and yields nitrite anions and metronidazole. Metronidazole's nitro group in turn is reduced via the parasite ferredoxin, thereby generating a series of free nitro radicals including nitro anions. Toxicity is achieved via depletion of sulfhydryl groups and DNA strand breaks with multiple hits having an additive effect and ultimately leading to cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tinzaparin sodium  
The sodium salt of a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) obtained by controlled enzymatic depolymerization of heparin from porcine intestinal mucosa with antithrombotic properties. Tinzaparin is a potent inhibitor of several activated coagulation factors, especially Factors Xa and IIa (thrombin); its primary activity is mediated through the plasma protease inhibitor antithrombin. In addition, this agent may inhibit angiogenesis through: 1) competitive binding of the heparin-binding sites on endothelial cells for the proangiogenic cytokines vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and beta-fibroblast growth factor (beta-FGF) and 2) increasing the release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), a negative regulator of angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Tioguanine  
(Other name for: thioguanine)

tiomolibdate diammonium  
An ammonium salt with potential antiangiogenic and antitumor activities. ammonium Tiomolibdate diammonium has been found to deplete systemic copper reserves through an unknown mechanism. This agent has been shown to inhibit the activities of cuproenzymes, including superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which may contribute to its antiangiogenic and antitumor effects. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tiotropium bromide monohydrate  
The monohydrate bromide salt form of tiotropium, a quaternary ammonium derivative of atropine and a long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist, with bronchodilating activity. Upon inhalation, tiotropium binds to and blocks mainly muscarinic M3 receptors located on smooth muscle cells, thereby preventing smooth muscle contraction Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tipifarnib  
A nonpeptidomimetic quinolinone with potential antineoplastic activity. Tipifarnib binds to and inhibits the enzyme farnesyl protein transferase, an enzyme involved in protein processing (farnesylation) for signal transduction. By inhibiting the farnesylation of proteins, this agent prevents the activation of Ras oncogenes, inhibits cell growth, induces apoptosis, and inhibits angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

tirapazamine  
A benzotriazine di-N-oxide with potential antineoplastic activity. Tirapazamine is selectively activated by multiple reductases to form free radicals in hypoxic cells, thereby inducing single-and double-strand breaks in DNA, base damage, and cell death. This agent also sensitizes hypoxic cells to ionizing radiation and inhibits the repair of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks via inhibition of topoisomerase II. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

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