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NCI Drug Dictionary

NCI Drug Dictionary

  

V930 vaccine  
A novel cancer vaccine designed to treat HER-2- and/or CEA-expressing cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vaccine-sensitized draining lymph node cells  
Cells isolated from lymph nodes from patients, and activated in vitro to generate tumor-specific effector T cells. Lymph nodes in the lymphatics draining tumors often contain T cells that are immunologically sensitized but functionally deficient. Vaccine-sensitized draining lymph node cells are prepared by isolating these lymphocytes in vitro and stimulating them with cytokines to differentiate into mature effector cells. Vaccine-draining lymph node cells may also be produced by pharmacological activation of lymph node-derived lymphocytes with drugs such as ionomycin or with bacterial toxin; these activated lymphocytes may be expanded in culture with cytokines such as interleukin-2 prior to infusion into the patient. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vaccinia virus (vvDD-CDSR)  
A highly tumor-selective vaccinia virus (vv) with an engineered double deletion (DD) of the thymidine kinase (tk) and vaccinia growth factor genes and additions of both a cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and a somatostatin receptor (SR) gene with potential oncolytic viral activity. The tk and vaccinia growth factor gene deletions in intratumorally administered vaccinia virus (vvDD-CDSR) help to restrict its replication and cytolytic activity to tumor cells with large nucleotide pools and tumor cells with activation of the EGFR-Ras pathway. Addition of the CD gene to the viral genome allows control of oncolytic viral infection through the administration of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), converted by CD to the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in cells infected with this agent. Addition of the SR gene allows anatomical localization of vaccinia virus (vvDD-CDSR) through the use of octreotide scintigraphy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vaccinia-tyrosinase vaccine  
A vaccine consisting of recombinant vaccinia virus, based on the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), that encodes the melanoma-associated antigen tyrosinase. Vaccination with vaccinia-tyrosinase may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells expressing tyrosinase. Tyrosinase is a melanoma-specific differentiation agent that catalyzes the synthesis of the melanin precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Vaccinium myrtillus/Macleaya cordata/Echinacea angustifolia extract granules  
A proprietary suspension formulation prepared from granules of standardized extracts from the fruits of Vaccinium myrtillus, the aerial parts of Macleaya cordata and the roots of Echinacea angustifolia, with potential anti-mucositis, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. The main active ingredients of this formulation include anthocyanosides and procyanidins, benzophenanthridinic alkaloids, and alkylamides from V. myrtillus, M. cordata and E. angustifolia extracts, respectively. Upon administration in the mucosal cavity, the anthocyanosides scavenge free radicals, form a protective barrier on the mucosa, and protect the integrity of the capillary vessels; the benzophenanthridine alkaloids prevent the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting NF-kB and may halt the growth of microorganisms; the alkylamides inhibit cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase thereby blocking productions of prostaglandin and leukotriene. Furthermore, alkylamides modulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and other cytokines involved in inflammation processes through cannabinoid type 2 receptors and as cannabinomimetics they may also exert analgesic activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vadimezan  
A fused tricyclic analogue of flavone acetic acid with potential antineoplastic activity. Vadimezan induces the cytokines tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-alpha), serotonin and nitric oxide, resulting in hemorrhagic necrosis and a decrease in angiogenesis. This agent also stimulates the anti-tumor activity of tumor-associated macrophages. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Vagestrol  
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

valacyclovir  
The hydrochloride salt of the L-valyl ester of the antiviral drug acyclovir. Orally administered, valacyclovir is rapidly converted to acyclovir which inhibits viral DNA replication after further conversion to the nucleotide analog acyclovir triphosphate by viral thymidine kinase, cellular guanyl cyclase, and a number of other cellular enzymes. Acyclovir triphosphate competitively inhibits viral DNA polymerase; incorporates into and terminates the growing viral DNA chain; and inactivates viral DNA polymerase. The greater antiviral activity of acyclovir against herpes simplex virus (HSV) compared with varicellla-zoster virus (VZV) is due to its more efficient phosphorylation by HSV thymidine kinase. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Valcyte  
(Other name for: valganciclovir)

valdecoxib  
A sulfonamide derivative and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. Valdecoxib selectively binds to and inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, thereby preventing the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins, which are involved in the regulation of pain, inflammation, and fever. This NSAID does not inhibit COX-1 at therapeutic concentrations and therefore does not interfere with blood coagulation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Valeriana officinalis extract  
An herbal extract isolated from the root of the plant Valeriana officinalis with sedative and anxiolytic activities. Valeriana officinalis extract contains four distinct classes of phytochemical constituents: volatile oils; sesquiterpenoids, including valerenic acid and its hydroxyl and acetoxyl derivative; valepotriates; and volatile pyridine alkaloids. Although the exact mechanism of action has not been established, the sequiterpenoids in Valeriana officinalis extract, particularly valerenic acid, appear to account for its sedative and anxiolytic effects. Valerenic acid is both a subtype-selective GABA-A receptor agonist and a 5HT-5A receptor partial agonist. The sedative-hypnotic benzodiazepines are GABA-A receptor agonists. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

valganciclovir  
A synthetic prodrug of ganciclovir, a nucleoside analogue of 2'-deoxyguanosine, with antiviral activity. After phosphorylation, valganciclovir is incorporated into DNA, resulting in inhibition of viral DNA polymerase, viral DNA synthesis, and viral replication. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

valproic acid  
A synthetic derivative of propylpentanoic acid with antiepileptic properties and potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenesis activities. In epilepsy, valproic acid appears to act by increasing the concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. This agent's antitumor and antiangiogenesis activities may be related to the inhibition of histone deacetylases and nitric oxide synthase, which results in the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

valrubicin  
A semisynthetic derivative of the antineoplastic anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin. With a mechanism of action that appears to differ from doxorubicin, valrubicin is converted intracytoplasmically into N-trifluoroacetyladriamycin, which interacts with topoisomerase II, stabilizing the complex between the enzyme and DNA; consequently, DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis are inhibited and the cell cycle is arrested in the G2 phase. In addition, this agent accumulates in the cell cytoplasm where it inhibits protein kinase C (PKC). Valrubicin is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin when administered systemically; applied topically, this agent shows excellent tissue penetration. Structurally, the trifluoro-acetyl moiety on the amino group of the glycoside and the valerate moiety appear to result in a lipophilicity that is greater than of doxorubicin, resulting in increased intracytoplasmic concentrations. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

valsartan  
An orally active nonpeptide triazole-derived antagonist of angiotensin (AT) II with antihypertensive properties. Valsartan selectively and competitively blocks the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 subtype receptor in vascular smooth muscle and the adrenal gland, preventing AT II-mediated vasoconstriction, aldosterone synthesis and secretion, and renal reabsorption of sodium, and resulting in vasodilation, increased excretion of sodium and water, a reduction in plasma volume, and a reduction in blood pressure. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

valspodar  
An analogue of cyclosporin-A. Valspodar inhibits p-glycoprotein, the multidrug resistance efflux pump, thereby restoring the retention and activity of some drugs in some drug-resistant tumor cells. This agent also induces caspase-mediated apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Valstar  
(Other name for: valrubicin)

Valtrex  
(Other name for: valacyclovir)

VAMP Regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of vincristine, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), methotrexate and prednisone used in combination with radiation therapy for the treatment of low-risk childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

Vancenase  
(Other name for: beclomethasone dipropionate)

Vanceril  
(Other name for: beclomethasone dipropionate)

vandetanib  
An orally bioavailable 4-anilinoquinazoline. Vandetanib selectively inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), thereby blocking VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation and migration and reducing tumor vessel permeability. This agent also blocks the tyrosine kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a receptor tyrosine kinase that mediates tumor cell proliferation and migration and angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Vanicream Sunscreen SPF 60  
(Other name for: titanium dioxide/zinc oxide sunscreen cream SPF 60)

Vanos  
(Other name for: fluocinonide cream)

Vantas  
(Other name for: histrelin acetate)

vantictumab  
A monoclonal antibody directed against the Wnt signaling pathway with potential antineoplastic activity. Vantictumab binds to certain receptors in the Wnt signaling pathway thereby preventing the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. This may result in an inhibition of cancer stem cell (CSC) activity and a subsequent inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. The Wnt signaling pathway is dysregulated in many cancer cell types and appears to play a major role in CSC regulation and activity; CSC are tumor initiating cells that are able to self-renew and are responsible for tumor growth and resistance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Vantin  
(Other name for: cefpodoxime proxetil)

Vaqta  
(Other name for: hepatitis A vaccine)

vardenafil hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt form of vardenafil, a benzenesulfonamide derivative and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor with vasodilatory activity. Vardenafil selectively inhibits PDE5, thus inhibiting the degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) found in the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosa and corpus spongiosum of the penis. The inhibition of cGMP degradation results in prolonged muscle relaxation, vasodilation, and blood engorgement of the corpus cavernosa, thereby prolonging penile erection. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

varenicline  
A partial agonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype alpha4beta2. Nicotine stimulation of central alpha4beta2 nAChRs located at presynaptic terminals in the nucleus accumbens causes the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which may be associated with the experience of pleasure; nicotine addiction constitutes a physiologic dependence related to this dopaminergic reward system. As an AChR partial agonist, varenicline attenuates the craving and withdrawal symptoms that occur with abstinence from nicotine but is not habit-forming itself. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Vargatef  
(Other name for: nintedanib)

varicella vaccine  
A live attenuated virus vaccine used to prevent chickenpox and shingles, which is caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Varivax  
(Other name for: varicella vaccine)

varlitinib  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor family with potential antineoplastic activity. Varlitinib selectively and reversibly binds to both EGFR (ErbB-1) and Her-2/neu (ErbB-2) and prevents their phosphorylation and activation, which may result in inhibition of the associated signal transduction pathways, inhibition of cellular proliferation and cell death. EGFR and Her-2 play important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation and are upregulated in various human tumor cell types. Due to the dual inhibition of both EGFR and Her-2, this agent may be therapeutically more effective than agents that inhibit EGFR or Her-2 alone. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vascular disrupting agent BNC105P  
A benzofuran-based vascular disrupting agent (VDA) prodrug with potential anti-vascular and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration vascular disrupting agent BNC105P, the disodium phosphate ester of BNC105, is rapidly converted to BNC105; in activated endothelial cells, BNC105 binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, which may result in a blockage of mitotic spindle formation, cell cycle arrest, and disruption of the tumor vasculature. Hypoxic conditions ensue, depriving tumor cells of nutrients and resulting in tumor cell apoptosis. In addition to its VDA activity, this agent has a direct cytotoxic effect on tumor cells by inhibiting tubulin polymerization. BNC105 is not a substrate for the multidrug-resistance P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vascular endothelial growth factor antisense oligonucleotide  
An antisense oligonucleotide with potential antiangiogenesis activity. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antisense oligonucleotide binds directly to binds VEGF A/C/D mRNA, leading to mRNA degradation and the inhibition of VEGF A-mediated angiogenesis and VEGF C/D-mediated lymphangiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Vasomax  
(Other name for: phentolamine mesylate)

Vasotec  
(Other name for: enalapril maleate)

Vasovist  
(Other name for: gadofosveset trisodium)

vatalanib  
An orally bioavailable anilinophthalazine with potential antineoplastic activity. Vatalanib binds to and inhibits the protein kinase domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2; both receptor tyrosine kinases are involved in angiogenesis. This agent also binds to and inhibits related receptor tyrosine kinases, including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor, c-Kit, and c-Fms. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

VCL-CB01 vaccine  
A vaccine consisting of two plasmids encoding the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) tegument phosphoprotein 65 (pp65), a major internal matrix protein, and glycoprotein B (gB), an important CMV component responsible for attachment and entry into cells, with immunostimulatory properties. Vaccination with VCL-CB01 may stimulate the host immune system to mount cellular and humoral immune responses against CMV positive cells, resulting in cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Vectibix  
(Other name for: panitumumab)

Vectrin  
(Other name for: minocycline hydrochloride)

vecuronium bromide  
The bromide salt form of vecuronium, a synthetic steroid derivative of the naturally occurring alkaloids of curare with a muscle relaxant property. Vecuronium bromide competes with acetylcholine for the nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscles, thereby inhibiting the action of acetylcholine and blocking the neural transmission without depolarizing the postsynaptic membrane. This leads to skeletal muscle relaxation and paralysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

VEGF inhibitor PTC299  
An orally bioavailable, small molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) synthesis with potential antiangiogenesis and antineoplastic activities. VEGF inhibitor PTC299 targets post-transcriptionally by selectively binding the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (UTR) of VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA), thereby preventing translation of VEGF. This inhibits VEGF protein production and decreases its levels in the tumor and bloodstream. In turn, this may result in the inhibition of migration, proliferation and survival of endothelial cells, microvessel formation, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and eventually the induction of tumor cell death. VEGFs are upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types and play key roles during angiogenesis. In addition, PTC299 may enhance the antitumor activity of other chemotherapeutic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

VEGF/HGF-targeting DARPin MP0250  
A designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPin)-based agent targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Compared to antibodies, DARPins are small in size, have favorable pharmacokinetics and allow for both high affinity binding and efficacy. Upon administration, the VEGF/HGF-targeting DARPin MP0250 binds to and inhibits both HGF and VEGF. This prevents HGF- and VEGF-mediated signaling, and inhibits the growth of HGF/VEGF-overexpressing tumor cells. This agent also prevents osteolysis, due to the inhibitory effect on HGF signaling. HGF and VEGF are overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types and are associated with increased cell proliferation, migration and adhesion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

VEGFR inhibitor KRN951  
An orally bioavailable quinoline-urea derivative inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) 1 and 2 with potential antiangiogenesis and antineoplastic activities. VEGFR inhibitor KRN951 inhibits VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFRs 1 and 2, which may result in inhibition of migration, proliferation and survival of endothelial cells, microvessel formation, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and tumor cell death. Expression of VEGFRs may be upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

VEGFR-2 DNA vaccine VXM01  
An orally available DNA cancer vaccine containing an attenuated strain of the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium encoding murine vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) (VXM01), with potential immunomodulating, anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration and successful transduction, VEGFR-2 DNA vaccine VXM01 expresses VEGFR-2 in addition to inducing the expression of T-cell activation markers, such as CD25, interleukin-2, the early T-cell activation antigen CD69 and the lymphocyte function-associated antigen LFA-2. The immune response targets the fast growing VEGFR-2 expressing endothelial cells found in the tumor vasculature, thereby blocking angiogenesis which may ultimately inhibit tumor cell proliferation. VEGFR-2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed on proliferating endothelial cells in the tumor vasculature. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

VEGFR/PDGFR dual kinase inhibitor TAK-593  
An oral formulation containing a small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of both vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. TAK-593 selectively binds to and inhibits VEGFR and PDGFR, which may result in the inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

VEGFR/PDGFR dual kinase inhibitor X-82  
An orally available small molecule dual inhibitor targeting human vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) and platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) with antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. VEGFR/PDGFR dual kinase inhibitor X-82 inhibits all isoforms of VEGFR and PDGFR, which may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation, and the induction of tumor cell death. Both VEGFRs and PDGFRs are receptor tyrosine kinases that may be upregulated in various tumor cell types. VEGFR/PDGFR dual kinase inhibitor X-82 has been shown to reduce tissue toxicity by 95 percent compared with first-generation kinase inhibitors. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

VEGFR1-1084 peptide vaccine  
A peptide vaccine containing an HLA-A*2402-restricted epitope of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1 or Flt-1) with potential immunostimulating, antiangiogenic, and antineoplastic activities. Upon vaccination, VEGFR1-1084 peptide vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against VEGFR1-expressing endothelial cells of the tumor microvasculature, which may inhibit tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. VEGFR1, a receptor tyrosine kinase, may be overexpressed on endothelial cells of the tumor microvasculature and is associated with tumor cell proliferation, invasion and tumor angiogenesis. HLA-A*2402 is an MHC class I molecule that presents antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells; epitope design restricted to epitopes that bind most efficiently to HLA-A*2402 may improve antigenicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor PF-00337210  
An orally available ATP-competitive inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2), with potential anti-angiogenesis and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor PF-00337210 selectively binds to VEGFR2 and prevents its phosphorylation which may result in an inhibition of migration, proliferation and survival of endothelial cells, microvessel formation, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and may eventually cause tumor cell death. VEGFR2, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is frequently overexpressed by a variety of tumor types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

VEGFR2-169 peptide vaccine  
A peptide vaccine containing an HLA-A*2402-restricted epitope of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2 with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, VEGFR2-169 peptide vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against VEGFR2-expressing tumor cells. VEGFR2, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed by a variety of tumor types; overexpression is associated with tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. HLA-A*2402 is an MHC class I molecule that presents antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells; epitope design restricted to epitopes that bind most efficiently to HLA-A*2402 may improve antigenic peptide immunogenicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

VEGFR2-targeted contrast agent BR55  
A lipopeptide-based, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGRF2) -targeted contrast agent with the property of molecular imaging of angiogenesis. BR55 is prepared by incorporation of a biospecific heterodimer peptide into the perfluorobutane-containing lipid-shelled microbubble membrane; the peptide specifically binds to VEGFR2 expressed on tumoral vascular endothelium allowing ultrasound imaging of the sites of active angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Veglin  
(Other name for: vascular endothelial growth factor antisense oligonucleotide)

VeIP regimen  
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of vinblastine (Velban), ifosfamide, mesna and cisplatin (Platinol-AQ) used for the treatment of advanced-stage extracranial germ cell tumors. (NCI Thesaurus)

velafermin  
A recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-20 (rhFGF-20) protein with pro-proliferative activity. Velafermin stimulates DNA synthesis and cell proliferation, specifically promoting epithelial and mesenchymal cell proliferation, and may prevent radiation or chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Velban  
(Other name for: vinblastine)

Velban  
(Other name for: vinblastine sulfate)

VELCADE  
(Other name for: bortezomib)

veliparib  
A poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) -1 and -2 inhibitor with chemosensitizing and antitumor activities. With no antiproliferative effects as a single agent at therapeutic concentrations, ABT-888 inhibits PARPs, thereby inhibiting DNA repair and potentiating the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents. PARP nuclear enzymes are activated by DNA single or double strand breaks, resulting in the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of other nuclear DNA binding proteins involved in DNA repair; poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation contributes to efficient DNA repair and to survival of proliferating cells exposed to mild genotoxic stresses as induced by as oxidants, alkylating agents or ionizing radiation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Velsar  
(Other name for: vinblastine sulfate)

Velsar  
(Other name for: vinblastine)

veltuzumab  
A fully humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen with potential antineoplastic activity. Following binding, veltuzumab triggers complement-dependent cell lysis (CDCL) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in cells that overexpress CD20. CD20 antigen is a hydrophobic transmembrane protein located on pre-B and mature B lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vemurafenib  
An orally bioavailable, ATP-competitive, small-molecule inhibitor of BRAF(V600E) kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. Vemurafenib selectively binds to the ATP-binding site of BRAF(V600E) kinase and inhibits its activity, which may result in an inhibition of an over-activated MAPK signaling pathway downstream in BRAF(V600E) kinase-expressing tumor cells and a reduction in tumor cell proliferation. Approximately 90% of BRAF gene mutations involve a valine-to-glutamic acid mutation at residue 600 (V600E); the oncogene protein product, BRAF(V600E) kinase, exhibits a markedly elevated activity that over-activates the MAPK signaling pathway. The BRAF(V600E) gene mutation has been found to occur in approximately 60% of melanomas, and in about 8% of all solid tumors, including melanoma, colorectal, thyroid and other cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

venlafaxine  
A synthetic phenethylamine bicyclic derivative with antidepressant activity. Venlafaxine and its active metabolite, O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV), are potent inhibitors of neuronal serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake and weak dopamine reuptake inhibitors. This agent may reduce hormone-related vasomotor symptoms. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Venofer  
(Other name for: iron sucrose injection)

Venoglobulin-I  
(Other name for: therapeutic immune globulin)

Venoglobulin-S  
(Other name for: therapeutic immune globulin)

Ventavis  
(Other name for: iloprost)

Ventolin  
(Other name for: albuterol sulfate)

VePesid  
(Other name for: etoposide)

verapamil  
A phenylalkylamine calcium channel blocking agent. Verapamil inhibits the transmembrane influx of extracellular calcium ions into myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cells, causing dilatation of the main coronary and systemic arteries and decreasing myocardial contractility. This agent also inhibits the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein which is overexpressed in some multi-drug resistant tumors and may improve the efficacy of some antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Verapamil SR  
(Other name for: verapamil)

Veregen  
(Other name for: kunecatechins ointment)

Vermox  
(Other name for: mebendazole)

Versed  
(Other name for: midazolam hydrochloride)

verteporfin  
A synthetic light-activated agent with photodynamic activity. Upon systemic administration, verteporfin accumulates in neovessels in the eye and, once stimulated by nonthermal red light in the presence of oxygen, produces highly reactive short-lived singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen radicals, resulting in local damage to neovascular endothelium and blood vessel occlusion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

verubulin hydrochloride  
A quinazoline derivative with potential dual antineoplastic activities. Verubulin hydrochloride binds to and inhibits tubulin polymerization and interrupts microtubule formation, resulting in disruption of mitotic spindle assembly, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and cell death. This agent is not a substrate for several subtypes of multidrug resistance ABC transporters, such as P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), and breast cancer resistance protein 1 (BCRP1); therefore, it may be useful for treating multidrug resistant (MDR) tumors that express these transporters. In addition, as a vascular disrupting agent (VDA), MPC-6827 appears to disrupt tumor microvasculature specifically, which may result in acute ischemia and massive tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Vesanoid  
(Other name for: tretinoin)

Vfend  
(Other name for: voriconazole)

Viadur  
(Other name for: leuprolide acetate)

Viagmox  
(Other name for: moxifloxacin hydrochloride)

Viagra  
(Other name for: sildenafil citrate)

Vibativ  
(Other name for: telavancin hydrochloride)

Vibramycin  
(Other name for: doxycycline)

Vicodin  
(Other name for: hydrocodone/acetaminophen)

vidarabine  
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces antibioticus with antineoplastic activity. Vidarabine inhibits DNA polymerase, resulting in the inhibition of DNA replication in tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Vidaza  
(Other name for: azacitidine)

Videne  
(Other name for: povidone-iodine)

Videx  
(Other name for: didanosine)

Videx EC  
(Other name for: didanosine)

vildagliptin  
A cyanopyrrolidine-based, orally bioavailable inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), with hypoglycemic activity. Vildagliptin's cyano moiety undergoes hydrolysis and this inactive metabolite is excreted mainly via the urine. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vinblastine  
A natural alkaloid isolated from the plant Vinca rosea Linn. Vinblastine binds to tubulin and inhibits microtubule formation, resulting in disruption of mitotic spindle assembly and arrest of tumor cells in the M phase of the cell cycle. This agent may also interfere with amino acid, cyclic AMP, and glutathione metabolism; calmodulin-dependent Ca++ -transport ATPase activity; cellular respiration; and nucleic acid and lipid biosynthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vinblastine sulfate  
The sulfate salt of vinblastine, a natural alkaloid isolated from the plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) with antineoplastic properties. Vinblastine disrupts microtubule formation and function during mitosis and interferes with glutamic acid metabolism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Vincasar PFS  
(Other name for: vincristine sulfate)

vincristine sulfate  
The sulfate salt of a natural alkaloid isolated from the plant Vinca rosea Linn with antimitotic and antineoplastic activities. Vincristine binds irreversibly to microtubules and spindle proteins in S phase of the cell cycle and interferes with the formation of the mitotic spindle, thereby arresting tumor cells in metaphase. This agent also depolymerizes microtubules and may also interfere with amino acid, cyclic AMP, and glutathione metabolism; calmodulin-dependent Ca++ -transport ATPase activity; cellular respiration; and nucleic acid and lipid biosynthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vindesine  
A synthetic derivative of vinblastine, a naturally occurring vinca alkaloid. Vindesine binds to and stabilizes tubulin, thereby interrupting tubulin polymerization and preventing the formation of the mitotic spindle and cell division; treated cells are unable to undergo mitosis and are arrested in metaphase. This agent also disrupts macromolecular synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Vinetra  
(Other name for: muscadine grape skin extract)

vinflunine  
A bi-fluorinated derivative of the semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid vinorelbine with antitubulin, antineoplastic, and antiangiogenic activities. Vinflunine inhibits tubulin assembly without any stablization of assembled microtubules at concentrations comparable to those of other vinca alkaloids such as vincristine, vinblastine and vinorelbine; this effect on microtubule dynamics results in cell cycle arrest in mitosis and apoptosis. Compared to other vinca alkaloids, this agent binds weakly to the vinca-binding site, indicating that vinflunine may exhibit reduced neurotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vinorelbine tartrate  
The ditartrate salt of a semisynthetic vinca alkaloid derived from the leaves of the periwinkle plant (Vinca rosea) with antineoplastic activity. Vinorelbine binds to tubulin, thereby inhibiting tubulin polymerization into microtubules and spindle formation and resulting in apoptosis of susceptible cancer cells. Inhibition of mitotic microtubules correlates with antitumor activity, whereas inhibition of axonal microtubules seems to correlate with vinorelbine's neurotoxicity. Compared to related vinca alkaloids, vinorelbine is more selective against mitotic than axonal microtubules in vitro, which may account for its decreased neurotoxicity. This agent is also a radiation-sensitizing agent. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vinorelbine tartrate emulsion  
An emulsion containing the tartrate salt of the semisynthetic vinca alkaloid vinorelbine with antineoplastic activity. Vinorelbine binds to tubulin, inhibiting tubulin polymerization into microtubules; cell division is prevented, the cell cycle is arrested metaphase and cell death ensues. In this formulation vinorelbine is emulsified in a homogeneous suspension of nanoparticles, which protects the venous endothelium from coming into direct contact with the active ingredient, potentially reducing vinorelbine-associated venous toxicity at the venous injection site. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vinorelbine tartrate oral  
An orally bioavailable tartrate salt of vinorelbine, a semisynthetic vinca alkaloid with potential antineoplastic activity. Vinorelbine binds to tubulin, thereby inhibiting tubulin polymerization into microtubules and spindle formation and resulting in apoptosis of susceptible cancer cells. Inhibition of mitotic microtubules correlates with antitumor activity, whereas inhibition of axonal microtubules seems to correlate with vinorelbine's neurotoxicity. Compared to related vinca alkaloids, vinorelbine is more selective against mitotic than axonal microtubules in vitro, which may account for its decreased neurotoxicity. This agent is also a radiation-sensitizing agent. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vintafolide  
A water-soluble, folate-receptor-targeted conjugate of folate and the vinca alkaloid desacetylvinblastine monohydrazide (DAVLBH) with potential antineoplastic activity. The folate moiety of vintafolide binds to folic acid receptors on the tumor cell surface and the agent is internalized via folate receptor-mediated endocytosis, delivering the tubulin-binding DAVLBH moiety directly into the tumor cell; DAVLBH binding to tubulin results in the disruption of microtubule assembly-disassembly dynamics, cell cycle arrest, and tumor cell apoptosis. Folic acid receptors are frequently upregulated on the surfaces of many tumor cell types. DAVLBH is a derivative of the natural product vinblastine. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Viokace  
(Other name for: pancrelipase)

Vioxx  
(Other name for: rofecoxib)

VIP regimen  
A regimen consisting of vinblastine, ifosfamide, mesna and cisplatin used for the treatment of advanced-stage germ cell testicular and ovarian cancers. (NCI Thesaurus)

Vira-A  
(Other name for: vidarabine)

Viracept  
(Other name for: nelfinavir mesylate)

Viramune  
(Other name for: nevirapine)

Virazid  
(Other name for: ribavirin)

Virazole  
(Other name for: ribavirin)

Virilon  
(Other name for: testosterone cypionate)

Virulizin  
A natural biological response modifier (BRM) isolated from bovine reticuloendothelial tissue. Viruzlin may enhance cell-mediated immune response to tumor cells by direct macrophage activation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

visilizumab  
A humanized, non-Fc receptor (FcR)-binding IgG2 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) directed against CD3 with potential immunosuppressive activity. Visilizumab binds to invariant CD3 epsilon, one of the non-covalently-associated subunits of T-cell receptors (TCRs) on activated T-cells. Upon binding to the TCR/CD3 complex, visilizumab induces apoptosis, which may result in the selective clonal deletion of activated pathogenic T-cells. This MoAb is engineered with a substitution at amino acid residues 234 and 237 (Val3Ala) within the IgG2 Fc arm, rendering it unable to bind to type II FcRs; accordingly, this agent is less likely to activate type II FcR-expressing resting T-cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vismodegib  
An orally bioavailable small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. Vismodegib targets the Hedgehog signaling pathway, blocking the activities of the Hedgehog-ligand cell surface receptors PTCH and/or SMO and suppressing Hedgehog signaling. The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays an important role in tissue growth and repair; aberrant constitutive activation of Hedgehog pathway signaling and uncontrolled cellular proliferation may be associated with mutations in the Hedgehog-ligand cell surface receptors PTCH and SMO. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Vistide  
(Other name for: cidofovir)

Visudyne  
(Other name for: verteporfin)

VitaBlue tablet formation  
(Other name for: blueberry powder supplement)

vitamin B12  
An essential nutrient and natural water-soluble vitamin of the B-complex family that must combine with an intrinsic factor for absorption by the intestine, Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) is necessary for hematopoiesis, neural metabolism, DNA and RNA production, and carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. B12 improves iron functions in the metabolic cycle and assists folic acid in choline synthesis. B12 metabolism is interconnected with that of folic acid. Vitamin B12 deficiency causes pernicious anemia, megaloblastic anemia, and neurologic lesions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vitamin D  
A family of lipo-soluble steroids important to the absorption, metabolism, and function of calcium and phosphorus and the growth and development of bone and tooth enamel. Found naturally in animal tissues, cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is formed in the skin when ultraviolet light activates cholesterol conversion into vitamin D3. Ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol (plant vitamin D) forms ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vitamin E  
A natural fat-soluble antioxidant with potential chemopreventive activity. Vitamin E ameliorates free-radical damage to biological membranes, protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) within membrane phospholipids and within circulating lipoproteins. Peroxyl radicals react 1000-fold faster with vitamin E than with PUFA. In the case of oxygen free radical-mediated tumorigenesis, vitamin E may be chemopreventive. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vitamin K1-containing urea skin cream  
A topical cream containing urea and 0.1% vitamin K1 (phytomenadione) with topical epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-activating activity. Upon application of vitamin K1-containing urea skin cream, vitamin K1 may locally activate EGFR, thereby abrogating EGFR inhibition in the skin caused by systemic EGFR inhibiting agents. This may help inhibit the acne-like skin rash induced by EGFR antagonists. EGFR, a tyrosine kinase, plays a key role in maintaining epidermal integrity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

vitespen  
An autologous cancer vaccine derived from tumor-specific gp96 heat shock proteins. Heat shock proteins chaperone peptides through the endoplasmic reticulum, are key regulators of dendritic cell maturation, migration and antigen processing, and are involved in T-cell activation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Vivelle  
(Other name for: therapeutic estradiol)

volasertib  
A dihydropteridinone Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Volasertib selectively inhibits Plk1, inducing selective G2/M arrest followed by apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells while causing reversible cell arrest at the G1 and G2 stage without apoptosis in normal cells. Plk1, named after the polo gene of Drosophila melanogaster, is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in regulating mitotic spindle function in a non-ATP competitive manner. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

volitinib  
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. Volitinib selectively binds to and inhibits the activation of c-Met in an ATP-competitive manner, and disrupts c-Met signal transduction pathways. This may result in cell growth inhibition in tumors that overexpress the c-Met protein. C-Met encodes the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase and plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis; this protein is overexpressed or mutated in a variety of cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

volociximab  
A chimeric monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Volociximab binds to and inhibits the activity of alpha(5)beta(1) integrin, thereby inhibiting endothelial cell-cell interactions, endothelial cell-matrix interactions, and angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Voluven  
(Other name for: hetastarch)

von Hippel-Lindau peptide vaccine  
A cancer vaccine composed of peptides derived from a tumor-associated protein encoded by a mutated Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) oncogene. VHL peptide vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell response against tumor cells expressing the VHL tumor-associated protein. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Voraxaze  
(Other name for: glucarpidase)

voriconazole  
A synthetic triazole with antifungal activity. Voriconazole selectively inhibits 14-alpha-lanosterol demethylation in fungi, preventing the production of ergosterol, an essential constituent of the fungal cell membrane, and resulting in fungal cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vorinostat  
A synthetic hydroxamic acid derivative with antineoplastic activity. Vorinostat, a second generation polar-planar compound, binds to the catalytic domain of the histone deacetylases (HDACs). This allows the hydroxamic moiety to chelate zinc ion located in the catalytic pockets of HDAC, thereby inhibiting deacetylation and leading to an accumulation of both hyperacetylated histones and transcription factors. Hyperacetylation of histone proteins results in the upregulation of the cyclin-dependant kinase p21, followed by G1 arrest. Hyperacetylation of non-histone proteins such as tumor suppressor p53, alpha tubulin, and heat-shock protein 90 produces additional anti-proliferative effects. This agent also induces apoptosis and sensitizes tumor cells to cell death processes. Vorinostat crosses the blood-brain barrier. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vorsetuzumab-mafodotin  
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of a humanized monoclonal antibody, directed against the extracellular domain of the human CD70 molecule, conjugated to the auristatin analogue monomethyl auristatin phenylalanine (MMAF), with potential antineoplastic activity. The anti-CD70 antibody moiety of anti-CD70 antibody-drug conjugate SGN-75 selectively binds to the extracellular domain of CD70 on tumor cell surfaces. Upon internalization, the MMAF moiety is released, binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, which may result in G2/M phase arrest, tumor cell apoptosis and inhibition of cellular proliferation in tumor cells that overexpress CD70. CD70, the ligand for the costimulatory receptor CD27 and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, is found on the surfaces of various types of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vosaroxin  
A small molecule and a naphthyridine analogue with antineoplastic activity. Vosaroxin intercalates into DNA in a site-specific manner and blocks the re-ligation process carried out by topoisomerase II during DNA replication. As a result, inhibition of DNA replication, RNA and protein synthesis occurs, followed by cell cycle arrest at G2 phase and induced p53-independent apoptosis. This agent shows a favorable toxicity profile in several aspects: it does not generate reactive oxygen species, as do anthracyclines, hence reducing the risk of cardiotoxicity; it is not a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, and thereby evades the common mechanism for multidrug resistance; and it has limited distribution to normal tissues and a more chemically stable molecular structure. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Votrient  
(Other name for: pazopanib hydrochloride)

VSL#3  
(Other name for: live freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria probiotic)

Vumon  
(Other name for: teniposide)

Vyvanse  
(Other name for: lisdexamfetamine dimesylate)

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