In English | En español
Questions About Cancer? 1-800-4-CANCER

NCI Drug Dictionary

NCI Drug Dictionary

  

Z-360  
A selective, orally available, 1,5-benzodiazepine-derivative gastrin/cholecystokinin 2 (CCK-2) receptor antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Z-360 binds to the gastrin/CCK-2 receptor, thereby preventing receptor activation by gastrin, a peptide hormone frequently associated with the proliferation of gastrointestinal and pancreatic tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Z-endoxifen hydrochloride  
The hydrochloride salt and the z (cis-) stereoisomer of endoxifen with potential antineoplastic activity. Endoxifen, the active metabolite of tamoxifen, competitively inhibits the binding of estradiol to estrogen receptors, thereby preventing the receptor from binding to the estrogen-response element on DNA and thus reducing DNA synthesis. Unlike tamoxifen, however, which relies on CYP2D6 activity for its conversion to the active metabolite endoxifen, the direct administration of endoxifen bypasses the CYP2D6 route. As CYP2D6 activity can vary widely among individuals due to genetic CYP2D6 polymorphisms, endoxifen is therefore theoretically more potent and more uniform in its bioavailability across patient populations. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Zadaxin™  
(Other name for: recombinant thymosin)

zalcitabine  
A synthetic dideoxynucleoside. After intracellular phosphorylation to its active metabolite, zalcitabine preferentially inhibits the gamma form of DNA polymerase present in tumor cell mitochondria, resulting in the inhibition of tumor cell mitochondrial DNA replication and tumor cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Zaltrap  
(Other name for: ziv-aflibercept)

zalutumumab  
A fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. Zalutumumab selectively binds to the EGFR receptor and blocks receptor binding of EGF and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-a), which results in the disruption of EGFR-mediated cell signaling, cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in EGFR-expressing tumor cells. In addition, this agent triggers antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in EGFR-expressing cells. EGFR is a cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase, overexpressed on many cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Zalypsis  
(Other name for: PM00104)

Zanaflex  
(Other name for: tizanidine hydrochloride)

zanamivir  
A sialic acid-analogue neuraminidase inhibitor with antiviral activity. Administered into the respiratory tract by aerosol inhalation, zanamivir selectively binds to and inhibits influenza A and B virus neuraminidase-mediated cleavage of sialic acid residues in host cell membrane-bound glycoprotein receptors for influenza viruses, preventing the release of progeny viruses from host cell surfaces and, so, further viral replication. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

zanolimumab  
A human IgG1k monoclonal antibody against the CD4 receptor on T lymphocytes, with potential antineoplastic and immunosuppressing activities. Zanolimumab targets and binds to the CD4 receptor on certain T cells thereby preventing the interaction between the CD4 receptor and the major histocompatibility complex class II molecule. This prevents activation of CD4-positive T cells. In addition, zanolimumab is able to induce an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response against CD4-expressing tumor cells. CD4, a receptor located on a subset of T-lymphocytes, is upregulated in T-cell lymphomas. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Zanosar  
(Other name for: streptozocin)

Zarnestra  
(Other name for: tipifarnib)

Zarontin  
(Other name for: ethosuximide)

ZD6126  
A water-soluble phosphate prodrug of N-acetylcolchinol with potential antiangiogenesis and antineoplastic activities. ZD6126 is converted in vivo into N-acetylcolchinol. N-acetylcolchinol binds to and destabilizes the tubulin cytoskeleton of endothelial cells in tumor blood vessels, which may result in tumor endothelial cel apoptosis, the selective occlusion of tumor blood vessels, cessation of tumor blood flow, and tumor necrosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Zelboraf  
(Other name for: vemurafenib)

Zemplar  
(Other name for: paricalcitol)

Zenapax  
(Other name for: daclizumab)

Zenpep  
(Other name for: pancrelipase)

Zerit  
(Other name for: stavudine)

Zestril  
(Other name for: lisinopril)

Zetia  
(Other name for: ezetimibe)

Zevalin  
(Other name for: yttrium Y 90 ibritumomab tiuxetan)

Zevalin  
(Other name for: ibritumomab tiuxetan)

Zeven  
(Other name for: Hsp90 inhibitor debio 0932)

zibotentan  
An orally available selective antagonist of the endothelin-A (ET-A) receptor with potential antineoplastic activity. Zibotentan binds selectively to the ET-A receptor, thereby inhibiting endothelin-mediated mechanisms that promote tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ziconotide  
A synthetic, nonopiod, twenty-five amino acid polybasic peptide analogue of an omega-conotoxin derived from the marine snail Conus magus with analgesic activity. Ziconotide appears to block neuronal N-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (NCCB), inhibiting transmission from pain-sensing primary nociceptors. This agent may exhibit significant analgesic activity in refractory pain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

zidovudine  
A synthetic dideoxynucleoside. After intracellular phosphorylation to its active metabolite, zidovudine inhibits DNA polymerase, resulting in the inhibition of DNA replication and cell death. This agent also decreases levels of available pyrimidines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

zileuton  
A synthetic derivative of hydroxyurea with antiasthmatic properties. The leukotriene inhibitor zileuton blocks 5-lipoxygenase, which catalyzes the formation of leukotrienes from arachidonic acid; causes bronchodilation; decreases bronchial mucous secretion and edema; and may prevent or decrease the symptoms of asthma. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

zinc gluconate  
A nutritional supplement containing the zinc salt form of gluconic acid for the purpose of providing zinc. As an essential trace element, zinc is of key importance in many biological processes, acts as an antioxidant and strengthens the immune system. Although the mechanism of action is not completely known, zinc supplementation may be used to increase immunity against viruses or may interfere with the replication of certain viruses, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

zinc oxide/aluminum starch octenylsuccinate/glycyrrhetinic phytosome/vitamin E/botanical extracts-based skin protectant paste  
A paste containing multiple skin protectants with anti-oxidant, skin protecting, moisturizing, anti-erythema and anti-inflammatory activities. The paste includes zinc oxide, aluminum starch octenylsuccinate, lanolin, allantoin, chamomile and sweet almond oil, rice bran oil, shea butter, dimethicone (polymerized siloxane), petrolatum, vitamin E, phytosome of glycyrrhetinic acid and botanical extracts derived from Calendula officinalis, Malva sylvestris and Tilia tomentosa. Upon application, this paste provides a physical barrier on the skin and may help protect, soothe and moisturize the skin as well as restore skin softness, integrity and elasticity. When this paste is applied to the perineum area, it may help prevent radiation-induced dermatitis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

zinc sulfate  
A salt of the essential trace metal zinc. Zinc is involved in tissue repair and is an important constituent of some proteins, including those involved in taste and smell. Zinc sulfate supplementation may prevent radiation-induced aguesia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Zinecard  
(Other name for: dexrazoxane hydrochloride)

zinostatin  
An enediyne antineoplastic antibiotic hybrid containing an aminoglycoside chromophore. Zinostatin is isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces carzinostaticus. The aminoglycoside component of zinostatin intercalates into DNA and the benzene diradical intermediate of the enediyne core binds to the minor groove of DNA, resulting in single- and double-strand breaks in DNA and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Zipan  
(Other name for: promethazine hydrochloride)

zirconium Zr 89 bevacizumab  
A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody bevacizumab labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89 (Zr 89) with radioisotopic activity and potential imaging use. The antibody moiety of zirconium Zr 89 bevacizumab targets and binds to the extracellular domain of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using positron emission tomography (PET), allowing the imaging and quantification of VEGFR-expressing tumor cells. VEGFR, a tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

zirconium Zr 89 cetuximab  
A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the recombinant chimeric monoclonal antibody cetuximab labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Z 89 (Zr 89) with radioisotopic activity and potential imaging use. The antibody moiety of zirconium Zr 89 cetuximab binds to the extracellular domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using positron emission tomography (PET), allowing the imaging and quantification of EGFR-expressing tumor cells. EGFR is a tyrosine kinase that may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

zirconium Zr 89 desferrioxamine B monoclonal antibody huJ591  
A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody J591 against prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) conjugated to chelator desferrioxamine B (DFO-B) and labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89 with potential imaging property used in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89 desferrioxamine B monoclonal antibody huJ591, the antibody moiety binds to the extracellular domain of PSMA, and the radioisotope moiety may be detected using PET, thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of PSMA-expressing tumor cells. PSMA, or folate hydrolase is a cell surface peptidase highly expressed by malignant prostate epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells of numerous solid tumor malignancies. In addition, upon PET imaging this agent provides high tumor:background tissue ratios. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

zirconium Zr 89 Df-IAB2M  
A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of an antibody fragment (IAB2M) against prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), conjugated to the chelator desferrioxamine (Df) and labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89, with potential positron emission tomography (PET) imaging activity. Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89 Df-IAB2M, the antibody moiety binds to the extracellular domain of PSMA expressed on cancer cells. This may enable PET detection of the radioisotope moiety, and allows the imaging and quantification of PSMA-expressing tumor cells. PSMA is a cell surface peptidase highly expressed by malignant prostate epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells in various solid tumor malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

zirconium Zr 89 trastuzumab  
A radioimmunoconjugate containing the recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89 with radioisotopic activity and potential use as an imaging agent. The trastuzumab moiety of zirconium Zr 89 trastuzumab binds with high affinity to the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using positron emission tomography (PET), thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of HER2-expressing tumor cells. HER2, a tyrosine kinase client protein of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

zirconium Zr 89-labeled anti-PIGF monoclonal antibody RO5323441  
A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against placental growth factor (PlGF) and labeled with zirconium Zr 89 (Zr 89), with potential radiotracer activity upon positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The monoclonal antibody moiety of RO5323441 binds to both PlGF-1 and -2, thereby preventing the binding of PlGF-1 and -2 to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) and the subsequent activation of VEGFR-1. The radioisotope moiety of RO5323441 may be detected using PET, thereby allowing for visualization of the antibody’s distribution and PlGF expression. PlGF, a member of the VEGF sub-family and a key molecule in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, is upregulated in many cancers. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

zirconium Zr 89-labeled monoclonal antibody MMOT0530A  
A radioimmunoconjugate composed of a monoclonal antibody that targets an antigen overexpressed in pancreatic and ovarian cancer and labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89, with potential use for assessing tumor antigen expression using positron emission tomography (PET). Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89-labeled monoclonal antibody MMOT0530A, this agent targets an antigen expressed on certain tumor cells and is internalized. Following tumor cell uptake, the radioisotope moiety can be visualized using PET imaging. This may result in both the quantification of tumor antigen expression and an assessment of the response to treatment with therapeutics targeting the antigen. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

zirconium Zr 89-labeled RO5479599  
A radioimmunoconjugate containing a glycoengineered, humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor HER3 (ErbB3) and labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89, with radioisotopic activity and potential use as an imaging agent as well as potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the RO5479599 moiety of zirconium Zr 89-labeled RO5479599 binds to the extracellular domain of HER3 and inhibits HER3 dimerization, thereby preventing EGFR-dependent signaling. In addition, RO5479599 elicits enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using positron emission tomography (PET), thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of HER3-expressing tumor cells. HER3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in tumors; it has no active kinase domain but is activated through heterodimerization with other members of the EGFR receptor family, such as HER2. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Zithromax  
(Other name for: azithromycin)

ziv-aflibercept  
A protein comprised of segments of the extracellular domains of human vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 (VEGFR1) and 2 (VEGFR2) fused to the constant region (Fc) of human IgG1 with potential antiangiogenic activity. Afilbercept, functioning as a soluble decoy receptor, binds to pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), thereby preventing VEGFs from binding to their cell receptors. Disruption of the binding of VEGFs to their cell receptors may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, metastasis, and ultimately tumor regression. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Zocor  
(Other name for: simvastatin)

Zofran  
(Other name for: ondansetron hydrochloride)

Zofran  
(Other name for: ondansetron)

Zoladex  
(Other name for: goserelin acetate)

zoledronic acid  
A synthetic imidazole bisphosphonate analog of pyrophosphate with anti-bone-resorption activity. A third-generation bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid binds to hydroxyapatite crystals in the bone matrix, slowing their dissolution and inhibiting the formation and aggregation of these crystals. This agent also inhibits farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, an enzyme involved in terpenoid biosynthesis. Inhibition of this enzyme prevents the biosynthesis of isoprenoid lipids, donor substrates of farnesylation and geranylgeranylation during the post-translational modification of small GTPase signalling proteins, which are important in the process of osteoclast turnover. Decreased bone turnover and stabilization of the bone matrix contribute to the analgesic effect of zoledronic acid with respect to painful osteoblastic lesions. The agent also reduces serum calcium concentrations associated with hypercalcemia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Zolinza  
(Other name for: vorinostat)

Zoloft  
(Other name for: sertraline hydrochloride)

zolpidem tartrate  
The tartrate salt of an imidazopyridine with non-benzodiazepine benzodiazepine-receptor agonist and sedative-hypnotic activities. Zolpidem binds selectively to the alpha 1 subunit of the omega-1 (BZ1) receptor of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA-A ) receptor-chloride ionophore complex, thereby opening neuronal chloride channels, hyperpolarizing neuronal cell membranes, and inhibiting neuronal firing. In contrast, benzodiazepines non-selectively bind to and activate all omega receptor subtypes, exhibiting anticonvulsant and myorelaxant activities in addition to a sedative-hypnotic activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Zometa  
(Other name for: zoledronic acid)

zoptarelin doxorubicin  
A peptide agonist of the gonadotropin releasing hormone-1 receptor (GnRH-1R) that is conjugated to the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin with potential antineoplastic activity. Zoptarelin doxorubicin binds to GnRH-1Rs, which may be highly expressed on endometrial and ovarian tumor cell membrane surfaces, and is internalized. Once inside the cell, the doxorubicin moiety of this agent intercalates into DNA and inhibits the topoisomerase II activity, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell DNA replication and tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

zorubicin hydrochloride  
A benzoyl-hydrazone derivative of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic daunorubicin. Zorubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

zosuquidar trihydrochloride  
A difluorocyclopropyl quinoline. Zosuquidar trihydrochloride binds with high affinity to P-glycoprotein and inhibits P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). P-glycoprotein, encoded by the MDR-1 gene, is a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of transmembrane transporters and prevents the intracellular accumulation of many natural product-derived cytotoxic agents. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Zovirax  
(Other name for: acyclovir)

Zovirax  
(Other name for: acyclovir sodium)

Zyban  
(Other name for: bupropion hydrochloride)

ZYBRESTAT  
(Other name for: fosbretabulin disodium)

Zybrestat  
(Other name for: fosbretabulin tromethamine)

ZYC300  
A plasmid DNA encoding an inactivated form of the carcinogen activator cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) encapsulated in biodegradable poly-DL-lactide-coglycolide microparticles with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with ZYC300 may stimulate the immune system to elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CYP1B1, which may result in the lysis of tumor cells expressing CYP1B1. CYP1B1, an extrahepatic monooxygenase of the cytochrome P450 family, is overexpressed in many cancers with only restricted expression in normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Zydelig  
(Other name for: idelalisib)

Zyflo  
(Other name for: zileuton)

Zykadia  
(Other name for: ceritinib)

Zyloprim  
(Other name for: allopurinol)

Zyprexa  
(Other name for: olanzapine)

Zytiga  
(Other name for: abiraterone acetate)

Zyvox  
(Other name for: linezolid)

Back to TopBack to Top