NCI Drug Dictionary

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The NCI Drug Dictionary contains technical definitions and synonyms for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to cancer. Each drug entry includes links to check for clinical trials listed in NCI's List of Cancer Clinical Trials.

gemcitabine hydrochloride emulsion
An orally available nanoparticle-based formulation containing the hydrochloride salt form of gemcitabine, a broad-spectrum antimetabolite and deoxycytidine analogue, with antineoplastic activity. The formulation consists of an oil-in-water emulsion in which gemicitabine is solubilized in the excipient matrix containing a mixture of oil and (co)surfactants. Upon oral administration, gemcitabine is converted into the active metabolites difluorodeoxycytidine diphosphate (dFdCDP) and difluorodeoxycytidine triphosphate (dFdCTP) by deoxycytidine kinase. dFdCTP competes with deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) and is incorporated into DNA, resulting in premature termination of DNA replication and the induction of apoptosis. Further, dFdCDP inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and reduces the deoxynucleotide pool available for DNA synthesis. Compared to gemcitabine alone, the emulsion allows for increased oral bioavailability and decreases its susceptibility to deamination and deactivation by cytidine deaminase. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Synonym:gemcitabine HCl oral
Code name:D07001-F4