NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms

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The NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms features 7,791 terms related to cancer and medicine.

Browse the dictionary by selecting a letter of the alphabet or by entering a cancer-related word or phrase in the search box.

mediastinoscope
(MEE-dee-uh-STY-noh-skope)
A thin, tube-like instrument used to examine the tissues and lymph nodes in the area between the lungs. These tissues include the heart and its large blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, and bronchi. The mediastinoscope has a light and a lens for viewing and may also have a tool to remove tissue. It is inserted into the chest through a cut above the breastbone.

EnlargeMediastinoscopy; shows mediastinoscope with light and lens inserted into
the chest through an incision above the breastbone. Drawing shows right
and left lungs, trachea, and lymph nodes. Inset shows anterior
mediastinotomy (Chamberlain procedure) with incision beside the
breastbone.

Mediastinoscopy. A mediastinoscope is inserted into the chest through an incision above the breastbone to look for abnormal areas between the lungs. A mediastinoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a cutting tool. Tissue samples may be taken from lymph nodes on the right side of the chest and checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. In an anterior mediastinotomy (Chamberlain procedure), the incision is made beside the breastbone to remove tissue samples from the lymph nodes on the left side of the chest.