Busulfan, Cyclophosphamide, and Melphalan or Busulfan and Fludarabine Phosphate before Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplant in Treating Younger Patients with Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

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Basic Trial Information

PhaseTypeAgeTrial IDs
Phase IIBiomarker/Laboratory analysis, Treatment3 to 18ASCT1221
NCI-2013-00738, COG-ASCT1221, NCT01824693

Trial Description

Summary

This randomized phase II trial studies how well giving busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and melphalan or busulfan and fludarabine phosphate before donor hematopoietic cell transplant works in treating younger patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Giving chemotherapy before a donor hematopoietic transplant helps stop the growth of cancer cells. It may also stop the patient's immune system from rejecting the donor's stem cells. When the healthy stem cells from a donor are infused into the patient, they may help the patient's bone marrow make stem cells, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It is not yet known whether giving busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and melphalan or busulfan and fludarabine phosphate before a donor stem cell transplant is more effective in treating juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

Further Study Information

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:

I. To compare – in a randomized fashion – the day 100 treatment related mortality (TRM) incidence for two myeloablative conditioning regimens, busulfan-fludarabine (fludarabine phosphate) (BU-FLU) and busulfan-cyclophosphamide-melphalan (BU-CY-MEL), prior to hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) for children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), in order to determine the preferred regimen for future trials.

II. To compare – in a randomized fashion – the 18-month event-free survival (EFS) following two different myeloablative conditioning regimens (BU-FLU vs. BU-CY-MEL) prior to HCT for children with JMML, in order to determine the preferred regimen for future trials.

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:

I. To determine the 18-month relapse incidence (RI) following two different myeloablative conditioning regimens (BU-FLU vs. BU-CY-MEL) prior to HCT for children with JMML.

II. To determine the graft failure rates following two different myeloablative conditioning regimens (BU-FLU vs. BU-CY-MEL) prior to HCT for children with JMML.

TERTIARY OBJECTIVES:

I. To determine the rates of severe toxicities (grade 3/4) at day 100 post-HCT between the two myeloablative conditioning regimens (BU-FLU vs. BU-CY-MEL).

II. To determine the rates of acute and chronic (at 18 months post-HCT) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following HCT using two different conditioning regimens (BU-FLU vs. BU-CY-MEL) in children with JMML.

III. To create a JMML-specific pre-HCT index to allow better risk-stratification of future patients.

IV. To determine the feasibility of assessing post-transplant disease burden by donor chimerism measurements and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in mononuclear and sorted cell subsets.

V. To validate gene expression and methylation classifiers predictive of relapse in patients with JMML.

VI. To comprehensively assess genetic and biochemical alterations amongst patients with JMML who are treated on this transplant protocol.

OUTLINE: Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms.

ARM I:

CONDITIONING REGIMEN: Patients receive busulfan intravenously (IV) over 2-3 hours once daily (QD), every 12 hours, or every 6 hours on days -8 to -5, cyclophosphamide IV over 60 minutes QD on days -4 and -3, and melphalan IV over 15-30 minutes on day -1.

TRANSPLANT: Patients undergo allogeneic HCT on day 0.

Patients receive tacrolimus IV or orally (PO) on days -1 to 98 (related donor) or 180 (unrelated donor) and mycophenolate mofetil IV over 2 hours or PO every 8 hours on days 1-30 (related donor) or 45 (unrelated donor).

ARM II:

CONDITIONING REGIMEN: Patients receive busulfan as in Arm I and fludarabine phosphate IV over 30-60 minutes on days -5 to -2.

TRANSPLANT: Patients undergo allogeneic HCT as in Arm I.

Patients receive tacrolimus IV or PO on days -1 to 98 (related donor) or 180 (unrelated donor) and mycophenolate mofetil IV over 2 hours or PO every 8 hours on days 1-30 (related donor) or 45 (unrelated donor).

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up for 5 years.

Eligibility Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

All institutional, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and National Cancer Institute (NCI) requirements for human studies must be met

Patients must be previously untreated with HCT

For the 7-10% of patients without splenomegaly, the diagnostic entry criteria must include all other features described above and at least 2 of the following criteria:

Circulating myeloid precursors

White blood cell (WBC) > 10,000/uL

Increased fetal hemoglobin (HgbF) for age

Sargramostim (GM-CSF) hypersensitivity

OR, patients must have been previously diagnosed with JMML

Patients must have a strong clinical suspicion of JMML, based on a modified category 1 of the revised diagnostic criteria; specifically, eligible patients must have all of the following:

Splenomegaly

Absolute monocyte count (AMC) > 1000/uL

Blasts in peripheral blood (PB)/bone marrow (BM) < 20%

All patients and/or their parents or legal guardians must sign a written informed consent

Exclusion Criteria:

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients are not eligible

Patients with a known history of NF1 (Neurofibromatosis Type 1) and either

A history of a tumor of the central nervous system (astrocytoma or optic glioma), or

A malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with a complete remission of < 1 year are not eligible

Patients with a known germline mutation of PTPN11 (Noonan’s Syndrome) are not eligible

Trial Contact Information

Trial Lead Organizations / Sponsors / Collaborators

Children's Oncology Group

  • National Cancer Institute
Christopher C. Dvorak, Principal Investigator

Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.
NLM Identifer NCT01824693

Note: Information about participating sites on pharmaceutical industry trials may be incomplete. Please visit the ClinicalTrials.gov record via the link above for more information about participating sites.