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Fact Sheets: Risk Factors and Possible Causes

"Light" Cigarettes and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 10/28/2010) - A fact sheet that answers questions about the health effects of smoking "low-tar," "mild," or "light" cigarettes.

Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 01/12/2010) - A fact sheet that discusses research on abortion, miscarriage, and a woman's chances of developing breast cancer later in life.

Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 04/19/2011) - A fact sheet about cancer risks associated with accidents at nuclear power plants. Includes information for cancer patients who live in an area that may be affected by a nuclear power plant accident. Also contains links to information about NCI-supported research on ionizing radiation and cancer risk.

Acrylamide in Food and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 07/29/2008) - A fact sheet that reviews research about a possible connection between acrylamide in food and cancer risk. Acrylamide is a chemical that has been found in certain foods, with especially high levels in potato chips, French fries, and other foods produced by high-temperature cooking.

Agricultural Health Study
(Reviewed: 06/16/2011) - A fact sheet about the Agricultural Heath Study, begun In 1993 by scientists from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Alcohol and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 06/24/2013) - A fact sheet that summarizes the evidence linking alcohol consumption to the risk of various cancers. Includes information about factors that affect the risk of alcohol-associated cancers, such as a person’s genes and tobacco use.

Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer
(Reviewed: 01/04/2008) - A fact sheet describing studies on whether there is a link between underarm antiperspirants or deodorants and breast cancer.

Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer
(Reviewed: 08/05/2009) - A fact sheet that reviews research studies on the possible connection between artificial sweeteners and cancer.

Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 05/01/2009) - A fact sheet about asbestos, asbestos-related diseases, and who to contact for more information.

Ataxia Telangiectasia
(Reviewed: 01/26/2006) - A fact sheet about ataxia telangiectasia (A-T), a rare, recessive genetic disorder of childhood that occurs in between one out of 40,000 and one out of 100,000 persons worldwide.

BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testing
(Reviewed: 01/22/2014) - A fact sheet about the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, how BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations (changes) affect a person's risk of cancer, genetic testing for cancer risk, interpreting test results, and the benefits and risks of genetic testing.

Breast Cancer Risk in American Women
(Reviewed: 09/24/2012) - A fact sheet that provides statistics about a woman’s risk of developing breast cancer and information about breast cancer risk factors.

Cancer Clusters
(Reviewed: 03/18/2014) - A fact sheet that describes what constitutes a cancer cluster, the process for reporting and investigating suspected clusters, and the challenges in investigating suspected clusters.

Cell Phones and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 06/24/2013) - A fact sheet that outlines the available evidence regarding use of cellular/mobile telephones and cancer risk.

Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 10/15/2010) - A fact sheet that explains how certain chemicals are formed in meat that is cooked using high-temperature methods, such as pan frying or grilling, and describes the results of research on the relationship between consumption of these chemicals and cancer risk.

Cigar Smoking and Cancer
(Reviewed: 10/27/2010) - A fact sheet about the health risks associated with cigar smoking.

Common Moles, Dysplastic Nevi, and Risk of Melanoma
(Reviewed: 11/01/2011) - A fact sheet about moles and how some moles may be related to melanoma, which is the most serious type of skin cancer. The fact sheet includes photos of differences between moles and cancer, and discusses risk factors for melanoma.

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer
(Reviewed: 10/05/2011) - A fact sheet about DES (a synthetic form of estrogen) and the health problems of children who were exposed to DES while in the womb.

Fluoridated Water
(Reviewed: 02/21/2012) - A fact sheet that reviews research about the possibility of a connection between fluoridated water and cancer.

Formaldehyde and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 06/10/2011) - A fact sheet that discusses formaldehyde and its possible association with cancer. Includes resources for more information.

Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer Syndromes
(Reviewed: 04/11/2013) - A fact sheet about genetic testing for inherited cancer risk, including types of tests, who should consider testing, how to understand test results, and who has access to a person’s test results. Also contains information about at-home or direct-to-consumer genetic tests.

Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 08/10/2011) - A fact sheet that reviews research about the possibility of a connection between personal hair dye use and cancer.

Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting
(Reviewed: 01/12/2011) - A fact sheet that lists some of the cancer-causing chemicals in tobacco smoke and describes the health problems caused by smoking and the benefits of quitting.

Helicobacter pylori and Cancer
(Reviewed: 09/05/2013) - A fact sheet about the relationship between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and other cancers.

HIV Infection and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 05/16/2011) - A fact sheet that describes the increased risk of certain types of cancer by people infected with HIV. These cancers include Kaposi sarcoma, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cancers of the anus, cervix, liver, and lung. Also describes what people with HIV infection can do to lower their risk of cancer or find cancer early.

HPV and Cancer
(Reviewed: 03/15/2012) - A fact sheet about the link between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cancer.

Magnetic Field Exposure and Cancer: Questions and Answers
(Reviewed: 04/21/2005) - A fact sheet about research on electric and magnetic fields and their relationship to certain cancers.

Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cancer
(Reviewed: 12/05/2011) - A fact sheet about the results of research on menopausal hormone therapy. Includes information about the effect of menopausal hormone therapy on the body. Also outlines the benefits and risks of using menopausal hormones.

Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation (NRI) and Cancer: Fact Sheet
(Reviewed: 01/10/2003) - A fact sheet about nasopharyngeal radium irradiation, widely used from 1940 through 1970 to treat ear dysfunctions in children and military personnel.

No Excess Mortality Risk Found in Counties with Nuclear Facilities
(Reviewed: 04/19/2011) - A fact sheet about an NCI survey that showed no general increased risk of death from cancer for people living in 107 U.S. counties containing or closely adjacent to 62 nuclear facilities.

Obesity and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 01/03/2012) - A fact sheet that summarizes research on the potential link between obesity and cancer risk.

Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 03/21/2012) - A fact sheet about research on the association of oral contraceptive use with risk of various cancers.

Psychological Stress and Cancer
(Reviewed: 12/10/2012) - A fact sheet that describes the effects of stress on the body, the results of research on the relationship between stress and cancer, and information about coping with stress.

Radon and Cancer
(Reviewed: 12/06/2011) - A fact sheet about radon, an odorless radioactive gas, and its possible association with cancer, and how to test for radon in the home.

Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 05/10/2011) - A fact sheet that describes what is known about the relationship between pregnancy, miscarriage, abortion, and the risk of breast cancer. It also briefly describes what is known about reproductive history and the risk of other cancer types.

Secondhand Smoke and Cancer
(Reviewed: 01/12/2011) - A fact sheet that summarizes the studies on the health effects of exposure to environmental (secondhand) tobacco smoke.

Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer
(Reviewed: 10/25/2010) - A fact sheet about the health risks associated with the use of smokeless tobacco.