General Information About Childhood Liver Cancer
Key Points for This Section
- Childhood liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the liver.
- Certain diseases and disorders can increase the risk of developing childhood liver cancer.
- Signs and symptoms of childhood liver cancer include a lump or pain in the abdomen.
- Tests that examine the liver and the blood are used to detect (find) and diagnose childhood liver cancer.
- Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.
- To filter harmful substances from the blood so they can be passed from the body in stools and urine.
- To make bile to help digest fats from food.
- To store glycogen (sugar), which the body uses for energy.
Liver cancer is rare in children and adolescents (teenagers). There are two main types of childhood liver cancer:
- Hepatoblastoma: A type of liver cancer that usually does not spread outside the liver. This type usually affects children younger than 3 years of age.
- Hepatocellular carcinoma: A type of liver cancer that often spreads to other places in the body. This type usually affects older children and teenagers.
The treatment of two less common types of childhood liver cancer is also discussed in this summary:
- Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) is the third most common liver cancer in children and adolescents. The tumor often spreads all through the liver and/or to the lungs. It usually occurs in children between 5 and 10 years of age.
- Infantile choriocarcinoma of the liver is a very rare tumor that starts in the placenta and spreads to the fetus. The tumor is usually found during the first few months of life. Also, the mother of the child may be diagnosed with choriocarcinoma, which is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease and requires treatment. See the Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment summary for information on the treatment of choriocarcinoma in women.
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare cancer of the blood vessels that occurs in the liver and other organs. See the Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma section in the PDQ summary on Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment for more information.
This summary is about the treatment of primary liver cancer (cancer that begins in the liver). Treatment of metastatic liver cancer, which is cancer that begins in other parts of the body and spreads to the liver, is not discussed in this summary. Primary liver cancer can occur in both adults and children. However, treatment for children is different than treatment for adults. See the PDQ summary on Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment for more information.
Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. Talk with your child’s doctor if you think your child may be at risk.
Risk factors for hepatoblastoma include the following:
- Having familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).
- Having Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
- Having hemihyperplasia (a condition in which one side of the body or a part of one side grows faster than the other).
- Having a very low weight at birth.
Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma include the following:
- Being male.
- Having the hepatitis B virus that was passed from mother to child at birth.
- Certain genetic changes linked with childhood hepatocellular carcinoma.
- Having one of the following conditions:
- Biliary cirrhosis.
- Alagille syndrome.
- Glycogen storage disease.
- Progressive familial intrahepatic disease.
Signs and symptoms are more common after the tumor gets big. Other conditions can cause the same signs and symptoms. Check with your child’s doctor if your child has any of the following:
- A painless lump in the abdomen.
- Swelling or pain in the abdomen.
- Weight loss for no known reason.
- Loss of appetite.
- Nausea and vomiting.
The following tests and procedures may be used:
- Physical exam and history : An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
- Serum tumor marker test : A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by organs, tissues, or tumor cells in the body. Certain substances are linked to specific types of cancer when found in increased levels in the blood. These are called tumor markers. The blood of children who have liver cancer may have increased amounts of a hormone called beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) or a protein called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Other cancers and certain noncancerous conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis, may also increase AFP levels.
- Complete blood count (CBC): A procedure in which a sample of blood is drawn and checked for the following:
- The number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
- The amount of hemoglobin (the protein that carries oxygen) in the red blood cells.
- The portion of the blood sample made up of red blood cells.
- Liver function tests : A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by the liver. A higher than normal amount of a substance can be a sign of liver damage or cancer.
- Blood chemistry studies : A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances, such as bilirubin or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease in the organ or tissue that makes it.
- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) test: A blood test to check for antibodies to the EBV and DNA markers of the EBV. These are found in the blood of patients who have been infected with EBV.
- Hepatitis assay : A procedure in which a blood sample is checked for pieces of the hepatitis virus.
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
- Ultrasound exam: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. The picture can be printed to be looked at later. In childhood liver cancer, an ultrasound exam of the abdomen is usually done.
- CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography. In childhood liver cancer, a CT scan of the chest and abdomen is usually done.
- Abdominal x-ray : An x-ray of the organs in the abdomen. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.
- Biopsy : The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer. The sample may be taken during surgery to remove or view the tumor. A pathologist looks at the sample under a microscope to find out the type of liver cancer.
The following test may be done on the sample of tissue that is removed:
- Immunohistochemistry : A test that uses antibodies to check for certain antigens in a sample of tissue. The antibody is usually linked to a radioactive substance or a dye that causes the tissue to light up under a microscope. This type of test is used to check for a certain gene mutation.
- The stage of the cancer (the size of the tumor, whether it affects part or all of the liver, and whether it has spread to other places in the body, such as the lungs).
- Whether the cancer can be removed completely by surgery.
- The type of liver cancer.
- Whether the cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred.
Prognosis may also depend on:
- How the cancer cells look under a microscope.
- Whether the AFP blood levels go down after chemotherapy begins.
For childhood liver cancer that recurs (comes back) after initial treatment, the prognosis and treatment options depend on:
- Where in the body the tumor recurred.
- The type of treatment used to treat the initial cancer.
Childhood liver cancer may be cured if the tumor is small and can be completely removed by surgery. Complete removal is possible more often for hepatoblastoma than for hepatocellular carcinoma.