A Snapshot of Myeloma
Incidence and Mortality
Myeloma, also known as multiple myeloma or plasma cell myeloma, is the third most common blood cancer (after lymphoma and leukemia) in the United States and constitutes approximately 1.4 percent of the estimated new cancer cases in 2014. Since 1975, overall myeloma incidence has increased nearly 1 percent annually. Overall mortality rates peaked in the mid-1990s and have fallen in recent years.
Men have a higher incidence of myeloma than women. In addition, African Americans have over twice the incidence and mortality rates of whites.
It is estimated that more than 24,000 individuals will be diagnosed with myeloma in the United States in 2014, and more than 11,000 will die from this disease.
Risk factors for myeloma include being middle aged or older, being black, being male, having been exposed to radiation or certain chemicals, and having a personal history of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or isolated plasmacytoma of the bone. There is no standard or routine screening test for myeloma. Standard treatments for myeloma include chemotherapy, corticosteroid therapy, targeted therapy, high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant, biological therapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and watchful waiting.
Examples of NCI Activities Relevant to Myeloma
- The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network conducts large multi-institutional clinical trials that address important issues in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) to establish optimal treatment strategies for patients with myeloma and other diseases that may be treated with HCT.
- The phase I trial Lenalidomide After Donor Stem Cell Transplant and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With High Risk Multiple Myeloma is investigating dose limits and safety of lenalidomide, which stimulates the immune system, in patients with myeloma.
- NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics conducts population and multidisciplinary research to discover the genetic and environmental causes of cancer, including several studies on myeloma.
- The Lymphoid Malignancies Branch conducts translational research on the regulation of the immune response and disorders of the immune system that underlie immunodeficiencies and diseases such as myeloma, leukemia, and lymphoma.
- The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program supports research and resources focusing on interdisciplinary and translational cancer research, including the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium.
- Two myeloma-specific Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPOREs) are identifying the genes involved in myeloma and developing novel vaccine and targeted therapies to treat this disease.
Selected Advances in Myeloma Research
- In a mouse model of myeloma, a combination of inhibitors that produce epigenetic changes in DNA (that is, structural alterations that affect gene expression) through different mechanisms acted synergistically to reduce tumor burden and prolong survival. Additionally, these results provide evidence that a mouse model may aid in predicting the clinical utility of novel therapies by identifying efficacious and safe combinations and eliminating ineffective drug combinations. Published September 2013. [PubMed Abstract]
- Thalidomide-like drugs such as lenalidamide, which are effective treatments for myeloma, work by binding cereblon, a protein that marks cellular proteins for degradation, triggering the destruction of two B cell transcription factors that are overactive in myeloma cells. This mechanism is distinct from the way that thalidomide-like drugs cause birth defects—by inactivating cereblon—and suggests that these opposing functions may be uncoupled to produce a safer, and potentially more widely applicable, drug. Published November 2013. [PubMed Abstract]
- In the United States, African Americans have a higher prevalence of MGUS and a higher likelihood of progressing from MGUS to myeloma than whites or Hispanics. Published January 2014. [PubMed Abstract]
- A patient with relapsed drug-refractory myeloma experienced a durable complete remission when treated with an engineered measles virus that is selectively destructive to myeloma plasma cells. Published May 2014. [PubMed Abstract]
Trends in NCI Funding for Myeloma Research
NCI’s investment1 in myeloma research was $45.4 million in fiscal year (FY) 2013. In addition to the funding described in the graph, NCI supported $5.6 million in myeloma research in FYs 2009 and 2010 using funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.
Additional Resources for Myeloma
- NCI Multiple Myeloma/Other Plasma Cell Neoplasms Home Page
Information about multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms: treatment, clinical trials, research, and statistics from the National Cancer Institute.
- Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)
Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of plasma cell neoplasms (including multiple myeloma).
- Clinical Trials for Multiple Myeloma and Other Plasma Cell Neoplasms
- 1 The estimated NCI investment is based on funding associated with a broad range of peer-reviewed scientific activities. For additional information on research planning and budgeting at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), see About NIH.