[Note: Many of the medical and scientific terms used in this summary are found in the NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms. When a linked term is clicked, the definition will appear in a separate window.]
[Note: Many of the genes described in this summary are found in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. When OMIM appears after a gene name or the name of a condition, click on OMIM for a link to more information.]
There are several hereditary syndromes that involve endocrine or neuroendocrine glands, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma (PGL), and von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. This summary currently focuses on MEN1, MEN2, and familial PGL syndrome. Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is discussed in the PDQ summary on Genetics of Kidney Cancer.
The term multiple endocrine neoplasia is used to describe a group of heritable tumors of endocrine tissues that may be benign or malignant. They are typically classified into two main categories: MEN1 and MEN2. The tumors usually manifest themselves by overproduction of hormones, tumor growth, or both.
Comprising varying combinations of more than 20 endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, MEN1 may be a difficult syndrome to define clinically. In general, however, MEN1 is characterized by tumors of the parathyroids, pancreas, and pituitary gland. This syndrome may also include carcinoid tumors, adrenocortical tumors, and nonendocrine tumors, such as facial angiofibromas, collagenomas, lipomas, meningiomas, ependymomas, and leiomyomas.
MEN2 syndromes are caused by a mutation in the RET proto-oncogene. Historically, MEN2 has been further stratified into the following three subtypes based on the presence or absence of certain endocrine tumors in the individual or family:
All three subtypes of MEN2 (MEN2A, FMTC, and MEN2B) impart a high risk of developing medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). MEN2A has an increased risk of pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma and/or hyperplasia. MEN2B has an increased risk of pheochromocytoma and includes additional clinical features, such as mucosal neuromas of the lips and tongue, distinctive faces with enlarged lips, ganglioneuromatosis of the gastrointestinal tract, and an asthenic Marfanoid body habitus. FMTC has been defined as the presence of at least four individuals with MTC without any other signs or symptoms of pheochromocytoma or hyperparathyroidism in the proband or other family members.
Some families previously classified as having FMTC will go on to develop one or more of the MEN2A-related tumors, suggesting that FMTC is simply a milder variant of MEN2A. Offspring of affected individuals have a 50% chance of inheriting the RET gene mutation.
The age at onset of MTC is different for each subtype of MEN2. MTC typically occurs during early childhood in patients with MEN2B, predominantly during early adulthood in patients with MEN2A, and during middle-age in patients with FMTC.
Germline DNA–based testing of the RET gene (chromosomal region 10q11.2) identifies disease-causing mutations in more than 95% of individuals with MEN2A and MEN2B and in about 88% of individuals with FMTC.
The prevalence of MEN2 has been estimated to be between 1 in 30,000 [4,5] and 1 in 35,000 individuals. The vast majority of MEN2 cases are MEN2A. In the United States, an estimated 468 cases of MEN2-related MTC are diagnosed per year.
PGLs and pheochromocytomas are rare tumors arising from chromaffin cells, which have the ability to synthesize, store, and secrete catecholamines and neuropeptides. In 2004, the World Health Organization characterized pheochromocytomas as tumors arising in the adrenal gland. PGLs may occur sporadically, as a manifestations of a hereditary syndrome, or as the sole tumor in hereditary PGL/pheochromocytoma syndrome.
- Agarwal SK, Ozawa A, Mateo CM, et al.: The MEN1 gene and pituitary tumours. Horm Res 71 (Suppl 2): 131-8, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Eng C: Seminars in medicine of the Beth Israel Hospital, Boston. The RET proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and Hirschsprung's disease. N Engl J Med 335 (13): 943-51, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Brandi ML, Gagel RF, Angeli A, et al.: Guidelines for diagnosis and therapy of MEN type 1 and type 2. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86 (12): 5658-71, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Mulligan LM, Kwok JB, Healey CS, et al.: Germ-line mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. Nature 363 (6428): 458-60, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Donis-Keller H, Dou S, Chi D, et al.: Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene are associated with MEN 2A and FMTC. Hum Mol Genet 2 (7): 851-6, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
- DeLellis RA, Lloyd RV, Heitz PU, et al., eds.: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Endocrine Organs. Lyon, France: IARC Press, 2004. World Health Organization classification of tumours, vol. 8.
- American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2015. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, 2015. Available online. Last accessed April 1, 2015.