Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1
Parathyroid Tumors and PHPT
Other MEN1-associated Tumors
Making the Diagnosis of MEN1
Molecular Genetics of MEN1
Genetic Testing and Differential Diagnosis
Other pancreatic NETs
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) (OMIM) is an autosomal dominant syndrome, with an estimated incidence in the general population of 1 to 2 cases per 100,000. The major endocrine features of MEN1 include the following:
- Parathyroid tumors and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).
- Duodenopancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).
- Pituitary tumors.
A diagnosis of MEN1 is made when an individual has two of these three major endocrine tumors. Familial MEN1 is defined as at least one MEN1 case plus at least one first-degree relative with one of these three tumors.[2-4] The age-related penetrance of MEN1 is 45% at age 30 years, 82% at age 50 years, and 96% at age 70 years.[2,5]Parathyroid Tumors and PHPT
The most common features and often the first presenting signs of MEN1 are parathyroid tumors, which result in PHPT. These tumors occur in 80% to 100% of patients by age 50 years.[2,6-8] Unlike the solitary adenoma seen in sporadic cases, MEN1-associated parathyroid tumors are typically multiglandular and often hyperplastic. The average age at onset of PHPT in MEN1 is 20 to 25 years, in contrast to that in the general population, which is typically age 50 to 59 years. Parathyroid carcinoma in MEN1 is rare but has been described.[9-12]
Individuals with MEN1-associated PHPT will have elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels in the blood. The clinical manifestations of PHPT are mainly the result of hypercalcemia. Mild hypercalcemia may go undetected and have few or no symptoms. More severe hypercalcemia can result in the following:
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Decreased appetite and abdominal pain.
- Kidney stones.
- Increased bone resorption with resultant increased risk of bone fracture.
- Shortened QT interval.
Since MEN1-associated hypercalcemia is directly related to the presence of parathyroid tumors, surgical removal of these tumors may result in normalization of calcium and PTH levels and relief of symptoms; however, high recurrence rates following surgery have been reported in some series.[13-15] (Refer to the Interventions section of this summary for more information.)Duodenopancreatic NETs
Duodenopancreatic NETs are the second most common endocrine manifestation in MEN1, occurring in 30% to 80% of patients by age 40 years.[2,8] Gastrinomas represent 50% of the gastrointestinal NETs in MEN1 and are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in MEN1 patients.[2,13] Gastrinomas are usually multicentric, with small (<0.5 cm) foci throughout the duodenum. Most result in peptic ulcer disease (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), and half are malignant at the time of diagnosis.[13,16,17]
Other functioning pancreatic NETs seen in MEN1 include the following:
- Insulinomas (10%–20% penetrance).
- Vasoactive intestinal peptide tumors (VIPomas) (~1% penetrance).
- Glucagonomas (1%–5% penetrance).
- Somatostatinomas (~1% penetrance).
Nonfunctioning pancreatic NETs were originally thought to be relatively uncommon tumors in individuals with MEN1, with early penetrance estimates of 20%.[18,19] With the advent of genetic testing and improved imaging techniques, however, their prevalence in MEN1 has increased, with one study showing a frequency as high as 55% by age 39 years in MEN1 mutation carriers undergoing prospective endoscopic ultrasound of the pancreas.[20,21] These tumors can be metastatic. One study of 108 MEN1 mutation carriers with nonfunctioning pancreatic NETs showed a positive correlation between tumor size and rate of metastasis and death, with tumors larger than 2 cm having significantly higher rates of metastasis than those smaller than 2 cm. (Refer to the Molecular Genetics of MEN1 section of this summary for more information about MEN1 gene mutations.)Pituitary Tumors
Approximately 15% to 50% of MEN1 patients will develop a pituitary tumor.[2,8] Two-thirds are microadenomas (<1.0 cm in diameter), and the majority are prolactin-secreting. Other functioning pituitary tumors can include somatotropinomas and corticotropinomas.Other MEN1-associated Tumors
Other manifestations of MEN1 include carcinoids of the foregut (5%–10% of MEN1 patients). These are typically bronchial or thymic and are sometimes gastric. Skin lesions are also common and can include facial angiofibromas (up to 80% of MEN1 patients) and collagenomas (~75% of MEN1 patients). Lipomas (~30% of MEN1 patients) and adrenal cortical lesions (up to 50% of MEN1 patients), including cortical adenomas, diffuse or nodular hyperplasia, or rarely, carcinoma are also common.[25-27] The following manifestations have also been reported:[28-30]
- Thyroid adenomas.
- Spinal ependymoma.
- Leiomyoma (e.g., esophageal, lung, and uterine).
MEN1 is often difficult to diagnose in the absence of a significant family history or a positive genetic test for a mutation in the MEN1 gene. One study of 560 individuals with MEN1 showed a significant delay between the time of the first presenting symptom and the diagnosis of MEN1. This may be because some presenting symptoms of MEN1-associated tumors, such as amenorrhea, peptic ulcers, hypoglycemia, and nephrolithiasis, are not specific to MEN1.
Furthermore, identification of an MEN1-associated tumor is not sufficient to make the clinical diagnosis of MEN1 and may not trigger a referral to an endocrinologist. Other studies have shown similar findings, with median time between the first presenting symptom and diagnosis of MEN1 ranging from 7.6 years to 12 years.[5,26] Genetic testing alleviates some of this delay. Several studies have shown statistically significant differences in the age at MEN1 diagnosis between probands and their family members. In one study, clinically symptomatic probands were diagnosed with MEN1 at a mean age of 47.5 years (standard deviation [SD] +/- 13.5 years), while family members were diagnosed at a mean age of 38.5 years (SD +/- 15.4 years; P < .001). In another study of 154 individuals with MEN1, probands were diagnosed at a mean age of 39.5 years (range: 18–74 years), compared with a mean age 27 years (range: 14–56 years; P < .05) in family members diagnosed by predictive genetic testing. These findings underscore the importance of increased awareness of the signs and symptoms of MEN1-related tumors and the constellation of findings necessary to suspect the diagnosis. It also highlights the importance of genetic counseling and testing and communication among family members once a diagnosis of MEN1 is made. Figure 1 illustrates some of the challenges in identifying MEN1 in a family.
Since many of the tumors in MEN1 are underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, identifying an MEN1 gene mutation in the proband early in the disease process can allow for early detection and treatment of tumors and earlier identification of at-risk family members. Many studies have been performed to determine the prevalence of MEN1 gene mutations among patients with apparently sporadic MEN1-related tumors. For example, approximately one-third of patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome will carry an MEN1 mutation.[33,34] In individuals with apparently isolated PHPT or pituitary adenomas, the mutation prevalence is lower, on the order of 2% to 5%,[23,35,36] but the prevalence is higher in individuals diagnosed with these tumors before age 30 years. Some authors suggest genetic testing for mutations in MEN1 if one of the following conditions is present:[37,38]
- Gastrinoma at any age.
- Multifocal duodenopancreatic NETs at any age.
- Parathyroid hyperplasia/adenomas before age 30 or 40 years.
- Multiglandular parathyroid adenomas/hyperplasia or recurrent PHPT.
- Presence of one of the three main MEN1 tumors plus one of the less common tumors/findings.
- Presence of two or more features (e.g., adrenal adenomas and carcinoid tumor).
The MEN1 gene is located on chromosome 11q13 and encodes the protein menin.[3,39,40] Over 1,300 mutations have been identified in the MEN1 gene to date, and these are scattered across the entire coding region. The majority (~65%) of these are nonsense or frameshift mutations. The remainder are missense mutations (20%), which lead to expression of an altered protein, splice-site mutations (9%), or partial- or whole-gene deletions (1%–4%). There is currently no evidence of genotype-phenotype correlations, and inter- and intra-familial variability is common.[42,43]Genetic Testing and Differential Diagnosis
Genetic testing for MEN1 mutations is recommended for individuals meeting clinical diagnostic criteria and may be considered in a subset of the less common tumors. (Refer to the bulleted list in the Making the diagnosis of MEN1 section of this summary for more information.) For individuals meeting diagnostic criteria, the mutation detection rate is approximately 75% to 90% [42,44] but may be lower in simplex cases. Individuals with isolated parathyroid and/or pituitary tumors are less likely to have an identifiable mutation than those with pancreatic tumors. The majority of commercial laboratories currently offering MEN1 testing use DNA sequencing as their primary method. Several offer additional analysis for partial- or whole-gene deletion and/or duplication, although such mutations are rare and deletion/duplication testing is often reserved for individuals or families in which there is a very high clinical suspicion.
Genetic testing for MEN1 mutations can be used to distinguish between MEN1 and other forms of hereditary hyperparathyroidism, such as familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) (OMIM), hyperparathyroidism–jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT), and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH). [Note: The hyperparathyroidism in FHH is not primary hyperparathyroidism, which is seen in MEN1, HPT-JT and FIHP.] HPT-JT, which is caused by germline mutations in the HRPT2 gene, is associated with PHPT, ossifying lesions of the maxilla and mandible, and renal lesions, usually bilateral renal cysts, hamartomas, and in some cases, Wilms tumor.[47,48] Unlike MEN1, HPT-JT is associated with an increased risk of parathyroid carcinoma. FIHP, as its name suggests, is characterized by isolated PHPT with no additional endocrine features; in some families, FIHP is the initial diagnosis of what later develops into MEN1, HPT-JT, or FHH.[50-52] Approximately 20% of families with a clinical diagnosis of FIHP carry germline MEN1 mutations.[51,53,54] Mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene cause FHH, which can closely mimic the hyperparathyroidism in MEN1. Distinguishing between MEN1 and FHH can be critical in terms of management, as removal of the parathyroid glands in FHH does not correct the patient’s hyperparathyroidism and results in unnecessary surgery without relief of symptoms. Given the differential risks and management of these conditions and the increased risk of parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT, genetic diagnosis in a patient presenting with early-onset hyperparathyroidism may play an important role in the management of these patients and their families. Refer to Table 1 for a summary of the clinical features of MEN1 and other forms of hereditary hyperparathyroidism.Table 1. Major Clinical Features of MEN1, FIHP, HPT-JT, and FHH
|Condition||Gene(s)||Major Clinical Features|
|CaSR = calcium-sensing receptor gene; FHH = familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia; FIHP = familial isolated hyperparathyroidism; HPT-JT = hyperparathyroidism–jaw tumor syndrome; HRPT2 = hyperparathyroidism 2 gene; MEN1 = multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (gene is italicized); NETs = neuroendocrine tumors; PHPT = primary hyperparathyroidism.|
|MEN1||MEN1||PHPT, pituitary adenomas, pancreatic NETs |
|FIHP||MEN1, HRPT2||PHPT [50-54]|
|HPT-JT||HRPT2||PHPT; osteomas of maxilla and mandible; renal cysts or hamartomas; and rarely, Wilms tumor and parathyroid carcinoma [47-49]|
|FHH||CaSR||Hyperparathyroidism (not primary) [55,56]|
Surveillance Table 2. Practice Guidelines for Surveillance of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1)a
|Biochemical Test or Procedure||Condition Screened For||Age Screening Initiated (y)||Frequency|
|Serum prolactin and/or insulin-like growth factor 1||Pituitary tumors||5||Every 1 y|
|Fasting total serum calcium and/or ionized calcium and PTH||Parathyroid tumors and PHPT||8||Every 1 y|
|Fasting serum gastrin||Duodenopancreatic gastrinoma||20||Every 1 y|
|Chromogranin A, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon, and vasointestinal polypeptide||Pancreatic NETs||<10||Every 1 y|
|Fasting glucose and insulin||Insulinoma||5||Every 1 y|
|Brain MRI||Pituitary tumors||5||Every 3–5 y based on biochemical results|
|Abdominal CT or MRIb ||Pancreatic NETs||20||Every 3–5 y based on biochemical results|
|Abdominal CT, MRI, or endoscopic USb ||Pancreatic NETs||<10||Every 1 y|
|CT = computed tomography; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; NETs = neuroendocrine tumors; PHPT = primary hyperparathyroidism; PTH = parathyroid hormone; US = ultrasound.|
|aAdapted from Brandi et al.  and Thakker et al. .|
|bThe recommendations for abdominal imaging differ between two published guidelines for the diagnosis and management of MEN1.[4,37] There is weak evidence at this time to support annual imaging before age 10 years. Imaging before age 10 years does identify disease in a high proportion of patients, but it is not clear whether this impacts prognosis.[20,57]|
Surgical management of MEN1 is complex and controversial, given the multifocal and multiglandular nature of the disease and the high risk of tumor recurrence even after surgery. Establishing the diagnosis of MEN1 prior to making surgical decisions and referring affected individuals to a surgeon with experience in treating MEN1 can be critical in preventing unnecessary surgeries or inappropriate surgical approaches.Parathyroid tumors
Once evidence of parathyroid disease is established biochemically, the recommended course of action is surgical removal of the parathyroid glands. The timing and the extent of surgery, however, remain controversial. Some groups reserve surgical intervention for symptomatic patients, with continued annual biochemical screening for those who are asymptomatic. Once surgery is necessary, subtotal parathyroidectomy (removal of 3–3.5 glands) is often suggested as the initial treatment. However, the rate of recurrence is quite high (55%–66%), and reoperation is often necessary.[13-15] Another study has shown that bilateral thymectomy reduces the likelihood of recurrence. Total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation of parathyroid tissue to the forearm is also an option. A benefit of this approach is the easier removal of recurrent disease from the forearm than from the neck. Although the likelihood of recurrence is lowered by more extensive surgery, this must be weighed against the risk of rendering the patient hypoparathyroid. Management of persistent hypoparathyroidism with oral calcitriol is necessary.Duodenopancreatic NETs
The role of surgery for pancreatic NETs in MEN1 is controversial, given postoperative morbidity, long-term complications, and low cure rates. The timing and extent of surgery depend on many factors, including severity of symptoms, extent of disease, type and location of tumor, risk of metastasis, and patient preference. The primary goal of surgery is to improve long-term survival by reducing symptoms associated with hormone excess and lowering the risk of distant metastasis. While more extensive surgical approaches (e.g., pancreatoduodenectomy) have been associated with higher cure rates and improved overall survival,[60-62] they also have higher rates of postoperative complications and long-term morbidity. Therefore, the risks and benefits should be carefully considered, and surgical decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis.
Individuals with MEN1 who are diagnosed with NETs often have multiple tumors of various types throughout the pancreas and duodenum, some of which can be identified using magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Many tumors, however, are too small to be detected using standard imaging techniques, and intra-arterial secretin stimulation testing and/or intraoperative ultrasound may be useful.[64,65] Preoperative assessment using various biochemical and imaging modalities, intraoperative assessment of tumor burden, and resolution of hormonal hyper-secretion are critical and, in some series, have been associated with higher cure rates and longer disease-free intervals.[64-66]
In the current era of effective treatment for hyperfunctional hormone excess states, most MEN1-related deaths are due to the malignant nature of pancreatic NETs. A less common but important risk of death is from malignant thymic carcinoid tumors. Indicators of a poor MEN1 prognosis include elevated fasting serum gastrin, the presence of functional hormonal syndromes, liver or distant metastases, aggressive pancreatic NET growth, large pancreatic NET size, or the need for multiple parathyroidectomies. The most common cause of non-MEN1–related death in this patient cohort is from cardiovascular disease.Insulinomas
Medical management of insulinoma using diet and medication is often unsuccessful; the mainstay of treatment for this tumor is surgery. Insulinomas in MEN1 patients can be located throughout the pancreas, with a preponderance found in the distal gland,[68-70] and have a higher rate of metastasis than sporadic insulinoma. Surgery can range from enucleation of single or multiple large tumors to partial pancreatic resection, or both, to subtotal or total pancreatectomy.[68,69] More extensive surgical approaches are associated with a lower rate of recurrence [60,61,69] but a higher rate of postoperative morbidity. Because insulinoma often occurs in conjunction with nonfunctioning pancreatic tumors, the selective intra-arterial calcium-injection test (SAS test) may be necessary to determine the source of insulin excess. Intraoperative monitoring of insulin/glucose can help determine whether insulin-secreting tumors have been successfully excised.[65,73]Gastrinomas
The majority of MEN1-associated gastrinomas originate in the duodenum. These tumors are typically multifocal and cause hyper-secretion of gastrin, with resultant peptic ulcer disease (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome). The multifocal nature makes complete surgical resection difficult. It is critical to manage symptoms prior to considering any type of surgical intervention. Historically, some groups have recommended close observation of individuals with smaller tumors (<2.0 cm on imaging) who have relief of symptoms using medications (e.g., proton pump inhibitors or histamine-2 agonists); however, this approach may not be optimal for all patients.
Several published series have shown a positive correlation between primary tumor size and rate of distant metastasis. One retrospective study showed that 61% of patients with tumors larger than 3 cm had liver metastases. In another series, 40% of patients with tumors larger than 3 cm had liver metastases. In contrast, both of these series showed significantly lower rates of liver metastases in individuals with tumors smaller than 3 cm (32% and 4.8%, respectively). On the basis of these and other data, many groups recommend surgery in individuals with nonmetastatic gastrinoma who have tumors larger than 2 cm.[37,62]
The type of surgery for gastrinoma depends on many factors. A Whipple procedure is typically discouraged as an initial surgery, given the high postoperative morbidity and long-term complications, such as diabetes mellitus and malabsorption. Less extensive surgeries have been described with varying results. At a minimum, duodenectomy with intraoperative palpation and/or ultrasound to locate and excise duodenal tumors and peri-pancreatic lymph node dissection are performed.[64,76] Because most patients with gastrinoma will have concomitant NETs throughout the pancreas, some of which may be nonfunctional, some groups recommend resection of the distal pancreas and enucleation of tumors in the pancreatic head in addition to duodenal tumor excision.[64,76,77]Nonfunctioning NETs
Approximately 50% of individuals with MEN1 will develop nonfunctioning NETs.[20,22] These are often identified incidentally during assessment and exploration for functioning tumors. As with gastrinomas, the metastatic rate is correlated with larger tumor size; the presence of metastatic disease has been associated with earlier age at death than in those without pancreatic NETs.[22,78]Other pancreatic NETs Pituitary tumors
Medical therapy to suppress hypersecretion is often the first line of therapy for MEN1-associated pituitary tumors. In one series of 136 patients, medical therapy was successful in approximately one-half of patients with secreting tumors (49 of 116, 42%), and successful suppression was correlated with smaller tumor size. Surgery is often necessary for patients who are resistant to this treatment. Radiation therapy is reserved for patients with incomplete surgical resection.[37,81]References
- Chandrasekharappa SC, Teh BT: Clinical and molecular aspects of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Front Horm Res 28: 50-80, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Trump D, Farren B, Wooding C, et al.: Clinical studies of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) QJM 89 (9): 653-69, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Chandrasekharappa SC, Guru SC, Manickam P, et al.: Positional cloning of the gene for multiple endocrine neoplasia-type 1. Science 276 (5311): 404-7, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Brandi ML, Gagel RF, Angeli A, et al.: Guidelines for diagnosis and therapy of MEN type 1 and type 2. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86 (12): 5658-71, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Carty SE, Helm AK, Amico JA, et al.: The variable penetrance and spectrum of manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Surgery 124 (6): 1106-13; discussion 1113-4, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Benson L, Ljunghall S, Akerström G, et al.: Hyperparathyroidism presenting as the first lesion in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Am J Med 82 (4): 731-7, 1987. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Brandi ML, Marx SJ, Aurbach GD, et al.: Familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type I: a new look at pathophysiology. Endocr Rev 8 (4): 391-405, 1987. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Thakker RV: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. In: DeGroot LJ, Besser M, Burger HG, eds.: Endocrinology. Volume 3. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co, 1995, pp 2815-31.
- del Pozo C, García-Pascual L, Balsells M, et al.: Parathyroid carcinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Case report and review of the literature. Hormones (Athens) 10 (4): 326-31, 2011 Oct-Dec. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Agha A, Carpenter R, Bhattacharya S, et al.: Parathyroid carcinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome: two case reports of an unrecognised entity. J Endocrinol Invest 30 (2): 145-9, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Shih RY, Fackler S, Maturo S, et al.: Parathyroid carcinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 with a classic germline mutation. Endocr Pract 15 (6): 567-72, 2009 Sep-Oct. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Sato M, Miyauchi A, Namihira H, et al.: A newly recognized germline mutation of MEN1 gene identified in a patient with parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma. Endocrine 12 (3): 223-6, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Norton JA, Venzon DJ, Berna MJ, et al.: Prospective study of surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in multiple endocrine neoplasia-type 1 and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: long-term outcome of a more virulent form of HPT. Ann Surg 247 (3): 501-10, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Hellman P, Skogseid B, Oberg K, et al.: Primary and reoperative parathyroid operations in hyperparathyroidism of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Surgery 124 (6): 993-9, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Schreinemakers JM, Pieterman CR, Scholten A, et al.: The optimal surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism in MEN1 patients: a systematic review. World J Surg 35 (9): 1993-2005, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Pipeleers-Marichal M, Somers G, Willems G, et al.: Gastrinomas in the duodenums of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. N Engl J Med 322 (11): 723-7, 1990. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Weber HC, Venzon DJ, Lin JT, et al.: Determinants of metastatic rate and survival in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: a prospective long-term study. Gastroenterology 108 (6): 1637-49, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Marx SJ: Hyperparathyroid and hypoparathyroid disorders. N Engl J Med 343 (25): 1863-75, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Skogseid B, Rastad J, Oberg K: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Clinical features and screening. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 23 (1): 1-18, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Thomas-Marques L, Murat A, Delemer B, et al.: Prospective endoscopic ultrasonographic evaluation of the frequency of nonfunctioning pancreaticoduodenal endocrine tumors in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Am J Gastroenterol 101 (2): 266-73, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Tonelli F, Giudici F, Fratini G, et al.: Pancreatic endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome: review of literature. Endocr Pract 17 (Suppl 3): 33-40, 2011 Jul-Aug. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Triponez F, Dosseh D, Goudet P, et al.: Epidemiology data on 108 MEN 1 patients from the GTE with isolated nonfunctioning tumors of the pancreas. Ann Surg 243 (2): 265-72, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Corbetta S, Pizzocaro A, Peracchi M, et al.: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 in patients with recognized pituitary tumours of different types. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 47 (5): 507-12, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Darling TN, Skarulis MC, Steinberg SM, et al.: Multiple facial angiofibromas and collagenomas in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Arch Dermatol 133 (7): 853-7, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Machens A, Schaaf L, Karges W, et al.: Age-related penetrance of endocrine tumours in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1): a multicentre study of 258 gene carriers. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 67 (4): 613-22, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Pieterman CR, Schreinemakers JM, Koppeschaar HP, et al.: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1): its manifestations and effect of genetic screening on clinical outcome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 70 (4): 575-81, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Waldmann J, Bartsch DK, Kann PH, et al.: Adrenal involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: results of 7 years prospective screening. Langenbecks Arch Surg 392 (4): 437-43, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Gibril F, Schumann M, Pace A, et al.: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: a prospective study of 107 cases and comparison with 1009 cases from the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 83 (1): 43-83, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- McKeeby JL, Li X, Zhuang Z, et al.: Multiple leiomyomas of the esophagus, lung, and uterus in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Am J Pathol 159 (3): 1121-7, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Vortmeyer AO, Lubensky IA, Skarulis M, et al.: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: atypical presentation, clinical course, and genetic analysis of multiple tumors. Mod Pathol 12 (9): 919-24, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Yamazaki M, Suzuki S, Kosugi S, et al.: Delay in the diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: typical symptoms are frequently overlooked. Endocr J 59 (9): 797-807, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Lourenço DM Jr, Toledo RA, Coutinho FL, et al.: The impact of clinical and genetic screenings on the management of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 62 (4): 465-76, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Roy PK, Venzon DJ, Shojamanesh H, et al.: Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Clinical presentation in 261 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 79 (6): 379-411, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Bardram L, Stage JG: Frequency of endocrine disorders in patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Scand J Gastroenterol 20 (2): 233-8, 1985. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Uchino S, Noguchi S, Sato M, et al.: Screening of the Men1 gene and discovery of germ-line and somatic mutations in apparently sporadic parathyroid tumors. Cancer Res 60 (19): 5553-7, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Scheithauer BW, Laws ER Jr, Kovacs K, et al.: Pituitary adenomas of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I syndrome. Semin Diagn Pathol 4 (3): 205-11, 1987. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Thakker RV, Newey PJ, Walls GV, et al.: Clinical practice guidelines for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97 (9): 2990-3011, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Newey PJ, Thakker RV: Role of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 mutational analysis in clinical practice. Endocr Pract 17 (Suppl 3): 8-17, 2011 Jul-Aug. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Larsson C, Skogseid B, Oberg K, et al.: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 gene maps to chromosome 11 and is lost in insulinoma. Nature 332 (6159): 85-7, 1988. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Bassett JH, Forbes SA, Pannett AA, et al.: Characterization of mutations in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Am J Hum Genet 62 (2): 232-44, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Lemos MC, Thakker RV: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1): analysis of 1336 mutations reported in the first decade following identification of the gene. Hum Mutat 29 (1): 22-32, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Giraud S, Zhang CX, Serova-Sinilnikova O, et al.: Germ-line mutation analysis in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and related disorders. Am J Hum Genet 63 (2): 455-67, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Wautot V, Vercherat C, Lespinasse J, et al.: Germline mutation profile of MEN1 in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: search for correlation between phenotype and the functional domains of the MEN1 protein. Hum Mutat 20 (1): 35-47, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Agarwal SK, Kester MB, Debelenko LV, et al.: Germline mutations of the MEN1 gene in familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and related states. Hum Mol Genet 6 (7): 1169-75, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Klein RD, Salih S, Bessoni J, et al.: Clinical testing for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 in a DNA diagnostic laboratory. Genet Med 7 (2): 131-8, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- GeneTests: Medical Genetics Information Resource [Database]. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, 2010. Available online. Last accessed October 16, 2013.
- Teh BT, Farnebo F, Kristoffersson U, et al.: Autosomal dominant primary hyperparathyroidism and jaw tumor syndrome associated with renal hamartomas and cystic kidney disease: linkage to 1q21-q32 and loss of the wild type allele in renal hamartomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81 (12): 4204-11, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Carpten JD, Robbins CM, Villablanca A, et al.: HRPT2, encoding parafibromin, is mutated in hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Nat Genet 32 (4): 676-80, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Marx SJ: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, eds.: The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1998, pp 489-506.
- Warner J, Epstein M, Sweet A, et al.: Genetic testing in familial isolated hyperparathyroidism: unexpected results and their implications. J Med Genet 41 (3): 155-60, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Mizusawa N, Uchino S, Iwata T, et al.: Genetic analyses in patients with familial isolated hyperparathyroidism and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 65 (1): 9-16, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Cetani F, Pardi E, Borsari S, et al.: Molecular pathogenesis of primary hyperparathyroidism. J Endocrinol Invest 34 (7 Suppl): 35-9, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Miedlich S, Lohmann T, Schneyer U, et al.: Familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism--a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 variant? Eur J Endocrinol 145 (2): 155-60, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Cetani F, Pardi E, Ambrogini E, et al.: Genetic analyses in familial isolated hyperparathyroidism: implication for clinical assessment and surgical management. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 64 (2): 146-52, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Raue F, Frank-Raue K: Primary hyperparathyroidism--what the nephrologist should know--an update. Nephrol Dial Transplant 22 (3): 696-9, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Christensen SE, Nissen PH, Vestergaard P, et al.: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia: a review. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 18 (6): 359-70, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Langer P, Kann PH, Fendrich V, et al.: Prospective evaluation of imaging procedures for the detection of pancreaticoduodenal endocrine tumors in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. World J Surg 28 (12): 1317-22, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Hubbard JG, Sebag F, Maweja S, et al.: Primary hyperparathyroidism in MEN 1--how radical should surgery be? Langenbecks Arch Surg 386 (8): 553-7, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Pieterman CR, van Hulsteijn LT, den Heijer M, et al.: Primary hyperparathyroidism in MEN1 patients: a cohort study with longterm follow-up on preferred surgical procedure and the relation with genotype. Ann Surg 255 (6): 1171-8, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Bartsch DK, Langer P, Wild A, et al.: Pancreaticoduodenal endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: surgery or surveillance? Surgery 128 (6): 958-66, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Bartsch DK, Fendrich V, Langer P, et al.: Outcome of duodenopancreatic resections in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Ann Surg 242 (6): 757-64, discussion 764-6, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Norton JA, Jensen RT: Role of surgery in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. J Am Coll Surg 205 (4 Suppl): S34-7, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Lopez CL, Waldmann J, Fendrich V, et al.: Long-term results of surgery for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms in patients with MEN1. Langenbecks Arch Surg 396 (8): 1187-96, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Imamura M, Komoto I, Ota S, et al.: Biochemically curative surgery for gastrinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients. World J Gastroenterol 17 (10): 1343-53, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Tonelli F, Fratini G, Nesi G, et al.: Pancreatectomy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-related gastrinomas and pancreatic endocrine neoplasias. Ann Surg 244 (1): 61-70, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Lewis MA, Thompson GB, Young WF Jr: Preoperative assessment of the pancreas in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. World J Surg 36 (6): 1375-81, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Ito T, Igarashi H, Uehara H, et al.: Causes of death and prognostic factors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: a prospective study: comparison of 106 MEN1/Zollinger-Ellison syndrome patients with 1613 literature MEN1 patients with or without pancreatic endocrine tumors. Medicine (Baltimore) 92 (3): 135-81, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
- O'Riordain DS, O'Brien T, van Heerden JA, et al.: Surgical management of insulinoma associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I. World J Surg 18 (4): 488-93; discussion 493-4, 1994 Jul-Aug. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Crippa S, Zerbi A, Boninsegna L, et al.: Surgical management of insulinomas: short- and long-term outcomes after enucleations and pancreatic resections. Arch Surg 147 (3): 261-6, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Sakurai A, Yamazaki M, Suzuki S, et al.: Clinical features of insulinoma in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: analysis of the database of the MEN Consortium of Japan. Endocr J 59 (10): 859-66, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Akerström G, Stålberg P: Surgical management of MEN-1 and -2: state of the art. Surg Clin North Am 89 (5): 1047-68, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Grant CS: Insulinoma. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 19 (5): 783-98, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Giudici F, Nesi G, Brandi ML, et al.: Surgical management of insulinomas in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Pancreas 41 (4): 547-53, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Mignon M, Cadiot G: Diagnostic and therapeutic criteria in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. J Intern Med 243 (6): 489-94, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Cadiot G, Vuagnat A, Doukhan I, et al.: Prognostic factors in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Groupe d'Etude des Néoplasies Endocriniennes Multiples (GENEM and groupe de Recherche et d'Etude du Syndrome de Zollinger-Ellison (GRESZE). Gastroenterology 116 (2): 286-93, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Dickson PV, Rich TA, Xing Y, et al.: Achieving eugastrinemia in MEN1 patients: both duodenal inspection and formal lymph node dissection are important. Surgery 150 (6): 1143-52, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Akerström G, Stålberg P, Hellman P: Surgical management of pancreatico-duodenal tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 67 (Suppl 1): 173-8, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Goudet P, Murat A, Binquet C, et al.: Risk factors and causes of death in MEN1 disease. A GTE (Groupe d'Etude des Tumeurs Endocrines) cohort study among 758 patients. World J Surg 34 (2): 249-55, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Lévy-Bohbot N, Merle C, Goudet P, et al.: Prevalence, characteristics and prognosis of MEN 1-associated glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas: study from the GTE (Groupe des Tumeurs Endocrines) registry. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 28 (11): 1075-81, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Vergès B, Boureille F, Goudet P, et al.: Pituitary disease in MEN type 1 (MEN1): data from the France-Belgium MEN1 multicenter study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87 (2): 457-65, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Pieterman CR, Vriens MR, Dreijerink KM, et al.: Care for patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: the current evidence base. Fam Cancer 10 (1): 157-71, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]