Late Effects of Treatment for Adult NHL
Late effects of treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have been observed. Pelvic radiation therapy and large cumulative doses of cyclophosphamide have been associated with a high risk of permanent sterility. For as many as three decades after diagnosis, patients are at a significantly elevated risk for second primary cancers, especially the following:[1-3]
- Lung cancer.
- Brain cancer.
- Kidney cancer.
- Bladder cancer.
- Hodgkin lymphoma.
- Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.
Myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia are late complications of myeloablative therapy with autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell support, as well as conventional chemotherapy-containing alkylating agents.[1,6-13] Most of these patients show clonal hematopoiesis even before the transplantation, suggesting that the hematologic injury usually occurs during induction or reinduction chemotherapy.[8,14,15] With a median 10-year follow-up after autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with conditioning using cyclophosphamide and total-body radiation therapy, in a series of 605 patients, the incidence of a second malignancy was 21%, and 10% of those were solid tumors. Successful pregnancies with children born free of congenital abnormalities have been reported in young women after autologous BMT.References
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