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Laetrile/Amygdalin Summary: Reference Numbers and the Corresponding Levels of Evidence

Reference Number  Statistical Strength of Study Design Strength of Endpoints Measured  Combined Score  
[1]3iii ­ Nonconsecutive case seriesDiii ­ Indirect surrogates -- tumor response rate3iiiDiii
[2]3iii ­ Nonconsecutive case seriesDiii ­ Indirect surrogates -- tumor response rate3iiiDiii
[3]3iii ­ Nonconsecutive case seriesDiii ­ Indirect surrogates -- tumor response rate3iiiDiii
[4]4 ­ Best case seriesNot applicable4
[5]4 ­ Best case seriesNot applicable4
[6]4 ­ Best case seriesNot applicable4
[7]3iii ­ Nonconsecutive case seriesDiii ­ Indirect surrogates -- tumor response rate3iiiDiii

References

  1. Moertel CG, Fleming TR, Rubin J, et al.: A clinical trial of amygdalin (Laetrile) in the treatment of human cancer. N Engl J Med 306 (4): 201-6, 1982.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  2. Kochi M, Takeuchi S, Mizutani T, et al.: Antitumor activity of benzaldehyde. Cancer Treat Rep 64 (1): 21-3, 1980.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  3. Kochi M, Isono N, Niwayama M, et al.: Antitumor activity of a benzaldehyde derivative. Cancer Treat Rep 69 (5): 533-7, 1985.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  4. Treatment of cancer with laetriles; a report by the Cancer Commission of the California Medical Association. Calif Med 78 (4): 320-6, 1953.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  5. Navarro MD: Five years experience with laetrile therapy in advanced cancer. Acta Unio Int Contr Cancrum 15(suppl 1): 209-21, 1959. 

  6. Morrone JA: Chemotherapy of inoperable cancer: preliminary report of 10 cases treated with laetrile. Exp Med Surg 20: 299-308, 1962. 

  7. Moertel CG, Ames MM, Kovach JS, et al.: A pharmacologic and toxicological study of amygdalin. JAMA 245 (6): 591-4, 1981.  [PUBMED Abstract]