General Information About Adrenocortical Carcinoma
Incidence and Mortality
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor that affects only 0.72 persons per one million population. Although it mainly occurs in adults, children can be affected, too. The median age at diagnosis is 46 years. Historically, only about 30% of these malignancies are confined to the adrenal gland at the time of diagnosis. However, recently, more ACCs have been diagnosed at early states, most likely due to the widespread use of high-quality imaging techniques.Prognostic Factors
Retrospective studies have identified the following three important prognostic factors:
- Completeness of resection.
- Stage of disease.
- Pathological grade.
Patients who have low-grade tumors without evidence of invasion into local tissues or spread to lymph nodes have an improved prognosis. The role of other prognostic indicators is controversial.Clinical Features
In approximately 60% of patients, symptoms related to excessive hormone secretion are the main reasons for seeking medical attention. Biochemical hormone testing reveals that up to 80% of tumors are functioning. The second most common symptoms at time of initial presentation are unspecific abdominal symptoms, such as abdominal pain or fullness. A small percentage of ACCs is incidentally discovered by imaging studies conducted for reasons other than potential adrenal disease.Diagnosis
Initial evaluation should include careful endocrine studies to reveal any excessive hormone production by the tumor, which can serve as a tumor marker during therapy. Staging should include imaging of the primary site by computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen. In addition, a CT of the chest is necessary to assess potential lung metastasis. Although the use of positron emission tomography may be effective in identifying unsuspected sites of metastases, its role as a staging tool is unclear. The detection of metastatic lesions may allow effective palliation of both functioning and nonfunctioning lesions.Prognosis and Survival
The most common sites of metastases are the lung, liver, peritoneum, and less commonly, the bones and major veins. Palliation of metastatic functioning tumors may be achieved by resection of both the primary tumor and metastatic lesions. Unresectable or widely disseminated tumors may be palliated by adrenolytic therapy with mitotane antihormonal drugs (i.e., ketoconazole and metyrapone), systemic chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy. However, 5-year survival for patients with stage IV tumors is usually less than 20%.
Although several studies have shown partial or even complete remission, there is no convincing evidence to date that systemic therapy will improve the survival duration of patients with adrenal cancer. Radical open surgical excision is the treatment of choice for patients with localized malignancies and remains the only method by which long-term disease-free survival may be achieved. Overall 5-year survival is approximately 38% to 46%.[1,2]References
- Bilimoria KY, Shen WT, Elaraj D, et al.: Adrenocortical carcinoma in the United States: treatment utilization and prognostic factors. Cancer 113 (11): 3130-6, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Fassnacht M, Allolio B: Epidemiology of adrenocortical carcinoma. In: Hammer GD, Else T, eds.: Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Basic Science and Clinical Concepts. New York, Springer, 2010, pp 23-9.
- Miller BS, Gauger PG, Hammer GD, et al.: Proposal for modification of the ENSAT staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma using tumor grade. Langenbecks Arch Surg 395 (7): 955-61, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Clinical review: Adrenocortical carcinoma: clinical update. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91 (6): 2027-37, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]