Late Effects of Treatment for Adult NHL
Late effects of treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have been observed. Pelvic radiation therapy and large cumulative doses of cyclophosphamide have been associated with a high risk of permanent sterility. For as many as three decades after diagnosis, patients are at a significantly elevated risk for second primary cancers, especially the following:[1-3]
- Lung cancer.
- Brain cancer.
- Kidney cancer.
- Bladder cancer.
- Hodgkin lymphoma.
- Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.
Myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia are late complications of myeloablative therapy with autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell support, as well as conventional chemotherapy-containing alkylating agents.[1,6-13] Most of these patients show clonal hematopoiesis even before the transplantation, suggesting that the hematologic injury usually occurs during induction or reinduction chemotherapy.[8,14,15] With a median 10-year follow-up after autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with conditioning using cyclophosphamide and total-body radiation therapy, in a series of 605 patients, the incidence of a second malignancy was 21%, and 10% of those were solid tumors.
Successful pregnancies with children born free of congenital abnormalities have been reported in young women after autologous BMT.
Some patients have osteopenia or osteoporosis at the start of therapy; bone density may worsen after therapy for lymphoma.
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