Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma (Waldenström Macroglobulinemia)
Marginal Zone Lymphoma
Monocytoid B cell lymphoma (Nodal marginal zone lymphoma)
Mediterranean abdominal lymphoma
Splenic marginal zone lymphoma
Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma
Indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) includes the following subtypes:
- Follicular lymphoma.
- Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (Waldenström macroglobulinemia).
- Marginal zone lymphoma.
- Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.
- Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Follicular lymphoma comprises 20% of all NHLs and as many as 70% of the indolent lymphomas reported in American and European clinical trials.[1-3] Most patients with follicular lymphoma are age 50 years and older and present with widespread disease at diagnosis. Nodal involvement is most common and is often accompanied by splenic and bone marrow disease. Rearrangement of the bcl-2 gene is present in more than 90% of patients with follicular lymphoma; overexpression of the bcl-2 protein is associated with the inability to eradicate the lymphoma by inhibiting apoptosis.Prognosis
Despite the advanced stage, the median survival ranges from 8 to 15 years, leading to the designation of being indolent.[5-7] Patients with advanced-stage follicular lymphoma are not cured with current therapeutic options. The rate of relapse is fairly consistent over time, even in patients who have achieved complete responses to treatment. Watchful waiting, i.e., the deferring of treatment until the patient becomes symptomatic, is an option for patients with advanced-stage follicular lymphoma. An international index for follicular lymphoma (i.e., the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index [FLIPI]) [11-13] identified five significant risk factors prognostic of overall survival (OS):
- Age (≤60 years vs. >60 years).
- Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (normal vs. elevated).
- Stage (stage I or stage II vs. stage III or stage IV).
- Hemoglobin level (≥120 g/L vs. <120 g/L).
- Number of nodal areas (≤4 vs. >4).
Patients with none or one risk factor have an 85% 10-year survival rate, while three or more risk factors confer a 40% 10-year survival rate. As a revised FLIPI, an elevated beta-2-microglobulin and lymph node size of more than 6 cm are proposed prognostic factors instead of serum LDH and the number of nodal areas. Gene expression profiles of tumor biopsy specimens suggest that follicular lymphoma that is surrounded by infiltrating T-lymphocytes has a much longer median survival (13.6 years) than follicular lymphoma that is surrounded by dendritic and monocytic cells (3.9 years) (P < .001).
Follicular, small-cleaved cell lymphoma and follicular mixed small-cleaved and large cell lymphoma do not have reproducibly different disease-free survival or OS.Therapeutic approaches
Therapeutic options include watchful waiting; rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, alone or with purine nucleoside analogs; oral alkylating agents; and combination chemotherapy. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow or peripheral stem cell transplantation are also under clinical evaluation.[16,17] Currently, no randomized trials have mature results to guide clinicians about the initial choice of rituximab, nucleoside analogs, alkylating agents, combination chemotherapy, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, or combinations of these options. On a comparative basis, it is difficult to prove benefit when relapsing disease is followed with watchful waiting, or when the median survival is more than 10 years. Follicular lymphoma in situ and primary follicular lymphoma of the duodenum are particularly indolent variants that rarely progress and rarely require therapy.[18,19] A so-called pediatric-type nodal follicular lymphoma has indolent behavior and rarely recurs; adult patients with this histologic variant are characterized by a lack of bcl-2 rearrangement in conjunction with a Ki-67 proliferation index greater than 30% and a localized stage I presentation.
Patients with indolent lymphoma may experience a relapse with a more aggressive histology. If the clinical pattern of relapse suggests that the disease is behaving in a more aggressive manner, a biopsy should be performed. Documentation of conversion to a more aggressive histology requires an appropriate change to a therapy applicable to that histologic type. Rapid growth or discordant growth between various disease sites may indicate a histologic conversion. The risk of histologic transformation was 30% by 10 years in a retrospective review of 325 patients from diagnosis between 1972 and 1999. In this series, high-risk factors for subsequent histologic transformation were advanced stage, high-risk FLIPI, and expectant management. The 5-year OS rate was more than 50% for 172 patients who had biopsy-proven, aggressive-histology transformation in a multicenter cohort study employing rituximab plus anthracycline or platinum-based chemotherapy, or similar therapy followed by autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation.[23,24]Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma (Waldenström Macroglobulinemia)
Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma is usually associated with a monoclonal serum paraprotein of immunoglobulin M (IgM) type (Waldenström macroglobulinemia).[25-27] Most patients have bone marrow, lymph node, and splenic involvement, and some patients may develop hyperviscosity syndrome. Other lymphomas may also be associated with serum paraproteins.
Prognostic factors associated with symptoms requiring therapy include the following:
- Age 70 or older.
- Beta-2-microglobulin of 3 mg/dL or more.
- Increased serum LDH.
The management of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma is similar to that of other low-grade lymphomas, especially diffuse, small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia.[26-28,30-32] If the viscosity relative to water is greater than four, the patient may have manifestations of hyperviscosity. Plasmapheresis is useful for temporary, acute symptoms (such as retinopathy, congestive heart failure, and central nervous system dysfunction) but should be combined with chemotherapy for prolonged control of the disease. Symptomatic patients with a serum viscosity of not more than four are usually started directly on chemotherapy. Therapy may be required to correct hemolytic anemia in patients with chronic cold agglutinin disease; rituximab, cyclophosphamide, and steroids are often employed. Occasionally, a heated room is required for patients whose cold agglutinins become activated by even minor chilling.
First-line regimens include rituximab, the nucleoside analogs, and alkylating agents, either as single agents or as part of combination chemotherapy.[33-36] Rituximab shows 60% to 80% response rates in previously untreated patients, but close monitoring of the serum IgM is required because of a sudden rise in this paraprotein at the start of therapy.[33,37,38][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv] The rise of IgM after rituximab can be avoided with the concomitant use of an alkylating agent such as cyclophosphamide or the proteosome inhibitor bortezomib.[29,39] The nucleoside analogs 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine and fludarabine have shown similar response rates for previously untreated patients with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma.[36,40,41][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv] Single-agent alkylators, bortezomib, and combination chemotherapy with or without rituximab also show similar response rates.[36,39,42-44][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv] Currently, no randomized trials guide clinicians about the initial choice of rituximab, nucleoside analogs, alkylating agents, combination chemotherapy, or combinations of these options.[26,27,33] A combination of bortezomib, dexamethasone, and rituximab has been proposed for its high response rate, rapidity of action, and avoidance of an IgM rebound.
Interferon-alpha also shows activity in this disease, in contrast to poor responses in patients with multiple myeloma. Myeloablative therapy with autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell support is under clinical evaluation.[47-50] Candidates for this approach should avoid long-term use of alkylating agents or purine nucleoside analogs, which can deplete hematopoietic stem cells or predispose patients to myelodysplasia or acute leukemia.[33,51] After relapse from alkylating-agent therapy, 92 patients with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma were randomly assigned to either fludarabine or cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone. Although relapse-free survival favored fludarabine (median duration of 19 months vs. 3 months, P < .01), no difference was observed in OS.[Level of evidence: 1iiDii] Among patients with concomitant hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, some will attain a complete or partial remission after loss of detectable HCV RNA with treatment using interferon-alpha with or without ribavirin.[Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv]Marginal Zone Lymphoma
Marginal zone lymphomas were previously included among the diffuse, small lymphocytic lymphomas. When marginal zone lymphomas involve the nodes, they are called monocytoid B-cell lymphomas or nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas, and when they involve extranodal sites (e.g., gastrointestinal tract, thyroid, lung, breast, orbit, and skin), they are called mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) lymphomas.[54-62]Gastric MALT
Many patients have a history of autoimmune disease, such as Hashimoto thyroiditis or Sjögren syndrome, or of Helicobacter gastritis. Most patients present with stage I or stage II extranodal disease, which is most often in the stomach. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection may resolve most cases of localized gastric involvement.[63,64] After standard antibiotic regimens, 50% of patients show resolution of gastric MALT by endoscopy after 3 months. Other patients may show resolution after 12 to 18 months of observation. Of the patients who attain complete remission, 30% demonstrate monoclonality by immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement on stomach biopsies with a 5-year median follow-up. The clinical implication of this finding is unknown. Translocation t(11;18) in patients with gastric MALT predicts for poor response to antibiotic therapy, for H. pylori–negative testing, and for poor response to oral alkylator chemotherapy.[66-68] Stable asymptomatic patients with persistently positive biopsies have been successfully followed on a watchful waiting approach until disease progression. Patients who progress are treated with radiation therapy,[69-72] rituximab, surgery (total gastrectomy or partial gastrectomy plus radiation therapy), chemotherapy, or combined–modality therapy. The use of endoscopic ultrasonography may help clinicians to follow responses in these patients. Four case series (encompassing more than 100 patients with stage IE or IIE diffuse, large, B-cell lymphoma with or without associated MALT (but H. pylori-positive) reported durable complete remissions in more than 50% of the patients after treatment of H. pylori.[77-80]Extragastric MALT
Localized involvement of other sites can be treated with radiation or surgery.[70-72,81-83] Patients with extragastric MALT lymphoma have a higher relapse rate than patients with gastric MALT lymphoma in some series, with relapses many years and even decades later. Many of these recurrences involve different MALT sites than the original location. When disseminated to lymph nodes, bone marrow, or blood, this entity behaves like other low-grade lymphomas.[61,86] A prospective, randomized trial of 252 patients with nongastric, extranodal MALT compared chlorambucil with rituximab plus chlorambucil. With a median follow-up of 62 months, the event-free survival was better for the rituximab arm (68% vs. 50%, P = .002), however, the 5-year OS was 89% in both arms.[Level of evidence: 1iiDi] This trial was extended with a third arm using rituximab alone, the results of which are not yet available. For patients with ocular adnexal MALT, antibiotic therapy using doxycycline targeting Chlamydia psittaci resulted in durable remissions for half of the patients in a small series of 27 patients.[Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv] Large B-cell lymphomas of MALT sites are classified and treated as diffuse large cell lymphomas.Monocytoid B cell lymphoma (Nodal marginal zone lymphoma)
Patients with nodal marginal zone lymphoma (monocytoid B-cell lymphoma) are treated with the same paradigm of watchful waiting or therapies as described for follicular lymphoma. Among patients with concomitant HCV infection, the majority attain a complete or partial remission after loss of detectable HCV RNA with treatment using interferon-alpha with or without ribavirin.[Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv]Mediterranean abdominal lymphoma
The disease variously known as Mediterranean abdominal lymphoma, heavy–chain disease, or immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID), which occurs in young adults in eastern Mediterranean countries, is another version of MALT lymphoma, which responds to antibiotics in its early stages. Campylobacter jejuni has been identified as one of the bacterial species associated with IPSID, and antibiotic therapy may result in remission of the disease.Splenic marginal zone lymphoma
Splenic marginal zone lymphoma is an indolent lymphoma that is marked by massive splenomegaly and peripheral blood and bone marrow involvement, usually without adenopathy.[92-94] This type of lymphoma is otherwise known as splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes. Splenectomy may result in prolonged remission.[62,95]
Management is similar to that of other low-grade lymphomas and usually involves rituximab alone or rituximab in combination with purine analogs or alkylating agent chemotherapy. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma responds less well to chemotherapy, which would ordinarily be effective for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.[93,94,96] Among small numbers of patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes) and infection with HCV, the majority attained a complete or partial remission after loss of detectable HCV RNA with treatment using interferon-alpha with or without ribavirin.[53,97]; [Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv] In contrast, no responses to interferon were seen in six HCV-negative patients.Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma
Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma presents in the skin only with no pre-existing lymphoproliferative disease and no extracutaneous sites of involvement.[99-101] Patients with this type of lymphoma encompass a spectrum ranging from clinically benign lymphomatoid papulosis, marked by localized nodules that may regress spontaneously, to a progressive and systemic disease requiring aggressive doxorubicin-based combination chemotherapy. This spectrum has been called the primary cutaneous CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder.
(Refer to the PDQ summaries on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment; Mycosis Fungoides/Sézary Syndrome Treatment; Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment; and Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment for more information.)References
- Armitage JO, Weisenburger DD: New approach to classifying non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: clinical features of the major histologic subtypes. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Classification Project. J Clin Oncol 16 (8): 2780-95, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
- A clinical evaluation of the International Lymphoma Study Group classification of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Classification Project. Blood 89 (11): 3909-18, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Society for Hematopathology Program.: Society for Hematopathology Program. Am J Surg Pathol 21(1): 114-121, 1997.
- López-Guillermo A, Cabanillas F, McDonnell TI, et al.: Correlation of bcl-2 rearrangement with clinical characteristics and outcome in indolent follicular lymphoma. Blood 93 (9): 3081-7, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Peterson BA, Petroni GR, Frizzera G, et al.: Prolonged single-agent versus combination chemotherapy in indolent follicular lymphomas: a study of the cancer and leukemia group B. J Clin Oncol 21 (1): 5-15, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Swenson WT, Wooldridge JE, Lynch CF, et al.: Improved survival of follicular lymphoma patients in the United States. J Clin Oncol 23 (22): 5019-26, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Liu Q, Fayad L, Cabanillas F, et al.: Improvement of overall and failure-free survival in stage IV follicular lymphoma: 25 years of treatment experience at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. J Clin Oncol 24 (10): 1582-9, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Hiddemann W, Buske C, Dreyling M, et al.: Treatment strategies in follicular lymphomas: current status and future perspectives. J Clin Oncol 23 (26): 6394-9, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Fisher RI, LeBlanc M, Press OW, et al.: New treatment options have changed the survival of patients with follicular lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 23 (33): 8447-52, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Ardeshna KM, Smith P, Norton A, et al.: Long-term effect of a watch and wait policy versus immediate systemic treatment for asymptomatic advanced-stage non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 362 (9383): 516-22, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Solal-Céligny P, Roy P, Colombat P, et al.: Follicular lymphoma international prognostic index. Blood 104 (5): 1258-65, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Perea G, Altés A, Montoto S, et al.: Prognostic indexes in follicular lymphoma: a comparison of different prognostic systems. Ann Oncol 16 (9): 1508-13, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Buske C, Hoster E, Dreyling M, et al.: The Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) separates high-risk from intermediate- or low-risk patients with advanced-stage follicular lymphoma treated front-line with rituximab and the combination of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) with respect to treatment outcome. Blood 108 (5): 1504-8, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Federico M, Bellei M, Marcheselli L, et al.: Follicular lymphoma international prognostic index 2: a new prognostic index for follicular lymphoma developed by the international follicular lymphoma prognostic factor project. J Clin Oncol 27 (27): 4555-62, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Dave SS, Wright G, Tan B, et al.: Prediction of survival in follicular lymphoma based on molecular features of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. N Engl J Med 351 (21): 2159-69, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Peterson BA: Current treatment of follicular low-grade lymphomas. Semin Oncol 26 (5 Suppl 14): 2-11, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Schaaf M, Reiser M, Borchmann P, et al.: High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation versus chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for follicular lymphoma in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1: CD007678, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Schmatz AI, Streubel B, Kretschmer-Chott E, et al.: Primary follicular lymphoma of the duodenum is a distinct mucosal/submucosal variant of follicular lymphoma: a retrospective study of 63 cases. J Clin Oncol 29 (11): 1445-51, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Jegalian AG, Eberle FC, Pack SD, et al.: Follicular lymphoma in situ: clinical implications and comparisons with partial involvement by follicular lymphoma. Blood 118 (11): 2976-84, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Louissaint A Jr, Ackerman AM, Dias-Santagata D, et al.: Pediatric-type nodal follicular lymphoma: an indolent clonal proliferation in children and adults with high proliferation index and no BCL2 rearrangement. Blood 120 (12): 2395-404, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Tsimberidou AM, O'Brien S, Khouri I, et al.: Clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with Richter's syndrome treated with chemotherapy or chemoimmunotherapy with or without stem-cell transplantation. J Clin Oncol 24 (15): 2343-51, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Montoto S, Davies AJ, Matthews J, et al.: Risk and clinical implications of transformation of follicular lymphoma to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 25 (17): 2426-33, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Villa D, Crump M, Panzarella T, et al.: Autologous and allogeneic stem-cell transplantation for transformed follicular lymphoma: a report of the Canadian blood and marrow transplant group. J Clin Oncol 31 (9): 1164-71, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Williams CD, Harrison CN, Lister TA, et al.: High-dose therapy and autologous stem-cell support for chemosensitive transformed low-grade follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case-matched study from the European Bone Marrow Transplant Registry. J Clin Oncol 19 (3): 727-35, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Facon T, Brouillard M, Duhamel A, et al.: Prognostic factors in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia: a report of 167 cases. J Clin Oncol 11 (8): 1553-8, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Vijay A, Gertz MA: Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Blood 109 (12): 5096-103, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Dimopoulos MA, Kyle RA, Anagnostopoulos A, et al.: Diagnosis and management of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. J Clin Oncol 23 (7): 1564-77, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Dhodapkar MV, Hoering A, Gertz MA, et al.: Long-term survival in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia: 10-year follow-up of Southwest Oncology Group-directed intergroup trial S9003. Blood 113 (4): 793-6, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Ansell SM, Kyle RA, Reeder CB, et al.: Diagnosis and management of Waldenström macroglobulinemia: Mayo stratification of macroglobulinemia and risk-adapted therapy (mSMART) guidelines. Mayo Clin Proc 85 (9): 824-33, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Leblond V, Ben-Othman T, Deconinck E, et al.: Activity of fludarabine in previously treated Waldenström's macroglobulinemia: a report of 71 cases. Groupe Coopératif Macroglobulinémie. J Clin Oncol 16 (6): 2060-4, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Foran JM, Rohatiner AZ, Coiffier B, et al.: Multicenter phase II study of fludarabine phosphate for patients with newly diagnosed lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, and mantle-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 17 (2): 546-53, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Baldini L, Goldaniga M, Guffanti A, et al.: Immunoglobulin M monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance and indolent Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia recognize the same determinants of evolution into symptomatic lymphoid disorders: proposal for a common prognostic scoring system. J Clin Oncol 23 (21): 4662-8, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Gertz MA, Anagnostopoulos A, Anderson K, et al.: Treatment recommendations in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia: consensus panel recommendations from the Second International Workshop on Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia. Semin Oncol 30 (2): 121-6, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Dimopoulos MA, Anagnostopoulos A, Kyrtsonis MC, et al.: Primary treatment of Waldenström macroglobulinemia with dexamethasone, rituximab, and cyclophosphamide. J Clin Oncol 25 (22): 3344-9, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Treon SP, Branagan AR, Ioakimidis L, et al.: Long-term outcomes to fludarabine and rituximab in Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Blood 113 (16): 3673-8, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Leblond V, Johnson S, Chevret S, et al.: Results of a randomized trial of chlorambucil versus fludarabine for patients with untreated Waldenström macroglobulinemia, marginal zone lymphoma, or lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 31 (3): 301-7, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Dimopoulos MA, Zervas C, Zomas A, et al.: Treatment of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia with rituximab. J Clin Oncol 20 (9): 2327-33, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Treon SP, Branagan AR, Hunter Z, et al.: Paradoxical increases in serum IgM and viscosity levels following rituximab in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. Ann Oncol 15 (10): 1481-3, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Dimopoulos MA, Chen C, Kastritis E, et al.: Bortezomib as a treatment option in patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 10 (2): 110-7, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Dimopoulos MA, Alexanian R: Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. Blood 83 (6): 1452-9, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Laszlo D, Andreola G, Rigacci L, et al.: Rituximab and subcutaneous 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine combination treatment for patients with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia: clinical and biologic results of a phase II multicenter study. J Clin Oncol 28 (13): 2233-8, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
- García-Sanz R, Montoto S, Torrequebrada A, et al.: Waldenström macroglobulinaemia: presenting features and outcome in a series with 217 cases. Br J Haematol 115 (3): 575-82, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Buske C, Hoster E, Dreyling M, et al.: The addition of rituximab to front-line therapy with CHOP (R-CHOP) results in a higher response rate and longer time to treatment failure in patients with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma: results of a randomized trial of the German Low-Grade Lymphoma Study Group (GLSG). Leukemia 23 (1): 153-61, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Ghobrial IM, Hong F, Padmanabhan S, et al.: Phase II trial of weekly bortezomib in combination with rituximab in relapsed or relapsed and refractory Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. J Clin Oncol 28 (8): 1422-8, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Treon SP, Ioakimidis L, Soumerai JD, et al.: Primary therapy of Waldenström macroglobulinemia with bortezomib, dexamethasone, and rituximab: WMCTG clinical trial 05-180. J Clin Oncol 27 (23): 3830-5, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Rotoli B, De Renzo A, Frigeri F, et al.: A phase II trial on alpha-interferon (alpha IFN) effect in patients with monoclonal IgM gammopathy. Leuk Lymphoma 13 (5-6): 463-9, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Dreger P, Glass B, Kuse R, et al.: Myeloablative radiochemotherapy followed by reinfusion of purged autologous stem cells for Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. Br J Haematol 106 (1): 115-8, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Desikan R, Dhodapkar M, Siegel D, et al.: High-dose therapy with autologous haemopoietic stem cell support for Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. Br J Haematol 105 (4): 993-6, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Martin P, Chadburn A, Christos P, et al.: Intensive treatment strategies may not provide superior outcomes in mantle cell lymphoma: overall survival exceeding 7 years with standard therapies. Ann Oncol 19 (7): 1327-30, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kyriakou C, Canals C, Cornelissen JJ, et al.: Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia: report from the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. J Clin Oncol 28 (33): 4926-34, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Leleu X, Soumerai J, Roccaro A, et al.: Increased incidence of transformation and myelodysplasia/acute leukemia in patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia treated with nucleoside analogs. J Clin Oncol 27 (2): 250-5, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Leblond V, Lévy V, Maloisel F, et al.: Multicenter, randomized comparative trial of fludarabine and the combination of cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-prednisone in 92 patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia in first relapse or with primary refractory disease. Blood 98 (9): 2640-4, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Vallisa D, Bernuzzi P, Arcaini L, et al.: Role of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in HCV-related, low-grade, B-cell, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a multicenter Italian experience. J Clin Oncol 23 (3): 468-73, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Pugh WC: Is the working formulation adequate for the classification of the low grade lymphomas? Leuk Lymphoma 10 (Suppl 1): 1-8, 1993.
- Fisher RI, Dahlberg S, Nathwani BN, et al.: A clinical analysis of two indolent lymphoma entities: mantle cell lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma (including the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and monocytoid B-cell subcategories): a Southwest Oncology Group study. Blood 85 (4): 1075-82, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Isaacson PG: Lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Histopathology 16: 617-619, 1990.
- Nizze H, Cogliatti SB, von Schilling C, et al.: Monocytoid B-cell lymphoma: morphological variants and relationship to low-grade B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Histopathology 18 (5): 403-14, 1991. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Pimpinelli N, Santucci M, Mori M, et al.: Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma: a clinically homogeneous entity? J Am Acad Dermatol 37 (6): 1012-6, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Li G, Hansmann ML, Zwingers T, et al.: Primary lymphomas of the lung: morphological, immunohistochemical and clinical features. Histopathology 16 (6): 519-31, 1990. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Zinzani PL, Magagnoli M, Galieni P, et al.: Nongastrointestinal low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: analysis of 75 patients. J Clin Oncol 17 (4): 1254, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Nathwani BN, Drachenberg MR, Hernandez AM, et al.: Nodal monocytoid B-cell lymphoma (nodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma). Semin Hematol 36 (2): 128-38, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Bertoni F, Zucca E: State-of-the-art therapeutics: marginal-zone lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 23 (26): 6415-20, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Zullo A, Hassan C, Andriani A, et al.: Eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma: a pooled data analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 104 (8): 1932-7; quiz 1938, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Nakamura S, Sugiyama T, Matsumoto T, et al.: Long-term clinical outcome of gastric MALT lymphoma after eradication of Helicobacter pylori: a multicentre cohort follow-up study of 420 patients in Japan. Gut 61 (4): 507-13, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Wündisch T, Thiede C, Morgner A, et al.: Long-term follow-up of gastric MALT lymphoma after Helicobacter pylori eradication. J Clin Oncol 23 (31): 8018-24, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Ye H, Liu H, Raderer M, et al.: High incidence of t(11;18)(q21;q21) in Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma. Blood 101 (7): 2547-50, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Lévy M, Copie-Bergman C, Gameiro C, et al.: Prognostic value of translocation t(11;18) in tumoral response of low-grade gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type to oral chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 23 (22): 5061-6, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Nakamura S, Ye H, Bacon CM, et al.: Clinical impact of genetic aberrations in gastric MALT lymphoma: a comprehensive analysis using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Gut 56 (10): 1358-63, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Schechter NR, Yahalom J: Low-grade MALT lymphoma of the stomach: a review of treatment options. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46 (5): 1093-103, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Tsang RW, Gospodarowicz MK, Pintilie M, et al.: Stage I and II MALT lymphoma: results of treatment with radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 50 (5): 1258-64, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Tsang RW, Gospodarowicz MK, Pintilie M, et al.: Localized mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma treated with radiation therapy has excellent clinical outcome. J Clin Oncol 21 (22): 4157-64, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Tsai HK, Li S, Ng AK, et al.: Role of radiation therapy in the treatment of stage I/II mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Ann Oncol 18 (4): 672-8, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Martinelli G, Laszlo D, Ferreri AJ, et al.: Clinical activity of rituximab in gastric marginal zone non-Hodgkin's lymphoma resistant to or not eligible for anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy. J Clin Oncol 23 (9): 1979-83, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Cogliatti SB, Schmid U, Schumacher U, et al.: Primary B-cell gastric lymphoma: a clinicopathological study of 145 patients. Gastroenterology 101 (5): 1159-70, 1991. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Thieblemont C, Bastion Y, Berger F, et al.: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal lymphoma behavior: analysis of 108 patients. J Clin Oncol 15 (4): 1624-30, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Pavlick AC, Gerdes H, Portlock CS: Endoscopic ultrasound in the evaluation of gastric small lymphocytic mucosa-associated lymphoid tumors. J Clin Oncol 15 (5): 1761-6, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Morgner A, Miehlke S, Fischbach W, et al.: Complete remission of primary high-grade B-cell gastric lymphoma after cure of Helicobacter pylori infection. J Clin Oncol 19 (7): 2041-8, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Chen LT, Lin JT, Shyu RY, et al.: Prospective study of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in stage I(E) high-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the stomach. J Clin Oncol 19 (22): 4245-51, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Chen LT, Lin JT, Tai JJ, et al.: Long-term results of anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy in early-stage gastric high-grade transformed MALT lymphoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 97 (18): 1345-53, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kuo SH, Yeh KH, Wu MS, et al.: Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is effective in the treatment of early-stage H pylori-positive gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Blood 119 (21): 4838-44; quiz 5057, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Uno T, Isobe K, Shikama N, et al.: Radiotherapy for extranodal, marginal zone, B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue originating in the ocular adnexa: a multiinstitutional, retrospective review of 50 patients. Cancer 98 (4): 865-71, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Bayraktar S, Bayraktar UD, Stefanovic A, et al.: Primary ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT): single institution experience in a large cohort of patients. Br J Haematol 152 (1): 72-80, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Stefanovic A, Lossos IS: Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the ocular adnexa. Blood 114 (3): 501-10, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Raderer M, Streubel B, Woehrer S, et al.: High relapse rate in patients with MALT lymphoma warrants lifelong follow-up. Clin Cancer Res 11 (9): 3349-52, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Sretenovic M, Colovic M, Jankovic G, et al.: More than a third of non-gastric malt lymphomas are disseminated at diagnosis: a single center survey. Eur J Haematol 82 (5): 373-80, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Raderer M, Wöhrer S, Streubel B, et al.: Assessment of disease dissemination in gastric compared with extragastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma using extensive staging: a single-center experience. J Clin Oncol 24 (19): 3136-41, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Zucca E, Conconi A, Laszlo D, et al.: Addition of rituximab to chlorambucil produces superior event-free survival in the treatment of patients with extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma: 5-year analysis of the IELSG-19 Randomized Study. J Clin Oncol 31 (5): 565-72, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Ferreri AJ, Ponzoni M, Guidoboni M, et al.: Bacteria-eradicating therapy with doxycycline in ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma: a multicenter prospective trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 98 (19): 1375-82, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kuo SH, Chen LT, Yeh KH, et al.: Nuclear expression of BCL10 or nuclear factor kappa B predicts Helicobacter pylori-independent status of early-stage, high-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. J Clin Oncol 22 (17): 3491-7, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Isaacson PG: Gastrointestinal lymphoma. Hum Pathol 25 (10): 1020-9, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Lecuit M, Abachin E, Martin A, et al.: Immunoproliferative small intestinal disease associated with Campylobacter jejuni. N Engl J Med 350 (3): 239-48, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Franco V, Florena AM, Iannitto E: Splenic marginal zone lymphoma. Blood 101 (7): 2464-72, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Iannitto E, Ambrosetti A, Ammatuna E, et al.: Splenic marginal zone lymphoma with or without villous lymphocytes. Hematologic findings and outcomes in a series of 57 patients. Cancer 101 (9): 2050-7, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Arcaini L, Paulli M, Boveri E, et al.: Splenic and nodal marginal zone lymphomas are indolent disorders at high hepatitis C virus seroprevalence with distinct presenting features but similar morphologic and phenotypic profiles. Cancer 100 (1): 107-15, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Parry-Jones N, Matutes E, Gruszka-Westwood AM, et al.: Prognostic features of splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes: a report on 129 patients. Br J Haematol 120 (5): 759-64, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Arcaini L, Lazzarino M, Colombo N, et al.: Splenic marginal zone lymphoma: a prognostic model for clinical use. Blood 107 (12): 4643-9, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Hermine O, Lefrère F, Bronowicki JP, et al.: Regression of splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes after treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 347 (2): 89-94, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kelaidi C, Rollot F, Park S, et al.: Response to antiviral treatment in hepatitis C virus-associated marginal zone lymphomas. Leukemia 18 (10): 1711-6, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- de Bruin PC, Beljaards RC, van Heerde P, et al.: Differences in clinical behaviour and immunophenotype between primary cutaneous and primary nodal anaplastic large cell lymphoma of T-cell or null cell phenotype. Histopathology 23 (2): 127-35, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Willemze R, Beljaards RC: Spectrum of primary cutaneous CD30 (Ki-1)-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. A proposal for classification and guidelines for management and treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol 28 (6): 973-80, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kempf W, Pfaltz K, Vermeer MH, et al.: EORTC, ISCL, and USCLC consensus recommendations for the treatment of primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders: lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Blood 118 (15): 4024-35, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]