Treatment for Indolent, Stage I and Contiguous Stage II Adult NHL
Although localized presentations are uncommon in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the goal of treatment should be to cure the disease in patients who are shown to have truly localized occurrence after undergoing appropriate staging procedures.
Standard Treatment Options for Indolent, Stage I and Contiguous Stage II Adult NHL
Standard treatment options for indolent, stage I and contiguous stage II adult NHL include the following:
The National Lymphocare Study identified 471 patients with stage I follicular lymphoma. Of those patients, 206 were rigorously staged with a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy, and computed tomography (CT) scans or positive-emission tomography (PET-CT) scans. Nonrandomized treatments included radiation therapy (27%), rituximab-chemotherapy (R-chemotherapy) (28%), watchful waiting (17%), R-chemotherapy plus radiation therapy (13%), and rituximab alone (12%), although more than one-third of the patients started with expectant therapy. With a median follow-up of 57 months, progression-free survival favored R-chemotherapy or R-chemotherapy plus radiation therapy, but overall survival was nearly identical, all over 90%.[Level of evidence: 3iiiD] Clinical trials are required to answer questions such as:
- If the PET-CT scan is clear after excisional biopsy, is watchful waiting or radiation therapy preferred?
- Should rituximab be added to radiation therapy for stage I follicular lymphoma?
- Is there any role for R-chemotherapy plus radiation therapy?
Long-term disease control within radiation fields can be achieved in a significant number of patients with indolent stage I or stage II NHL by using dosages of radiation that usually range from 25 Gy to 40 Gy to involved sites or to extended fields that cover adjacent nodal sites.[3-7] Almost half of all patients treated with radiation therapy alone will relapse out-of-field within 10 years.
Rituximab with or without chemotherapy
For symptomatic patients who require therapy, when radiation therapy is contraindicated or when an alternative treatment is preferred, rituximab with or without chemotherapy can be employed (as outlined below for more advanced-stage patients). The value of adjuvant treatment with radiation to decrease relapse, plus rituximab (an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, has been extrapolated from trials of patients with advanced-stage disease and has not been confirmed.[9,10]
Watchful waiting can be considered for asymptomatic patients. Watchful waiting has never been compared with upfront radiation therapy in a prospective randomized trial; a retrospective analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) database over 30 years showed improved outcomes for upfront radiation therapy.
Other therapies as designated for patients with advanced-stage disease
Patients with involvement not encompassable by radiation therapy are treated as outlined for patients with stage III or stage IV low-grade lymphoma.
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with indolent, stage I adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma and indolent, contiguous stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
- Friedberg JW, Byrtek M, Link BK, et al.: Effectiveness of first-line management strategies for stage I follicular lymphoma: analysis of the National LymphoCare Study. J Clin Oncol 30 (27): 3368-75, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Montoto S: Management of localized-stage follicular lymphoma: changing the paradigm? J Clin Oncol 30 (27): 3328-9, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Mac Manus MP, Hoppe RT: Is radiotherapy curative for stage I and II low-grade follicular lymphoma? Results of a long-term follow-up study of patients treated at Stanford University. J Clin Oncol 14 (4): 1282-90, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Vaughan Hudson B, Vaughan Hudson G, MacLennan KA, et al.: Clinical stage 1 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: long-term follow-up of patients treated by the British National Lymphoma Investigation with radiotherapy alone as initial therapy. Br J Cancer 69 (6): 1088-93, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Denham JW, Denham E, Dear KB, et al.: The follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphomas--I. The possibility of cure. Eur J Cancer 32A (3): 470-9, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Haas RL, Poortmans P, de Jong D, et al.: High response rates and lasting remissions after low-dose involved field radiotherapy in indolent lymphomas. J Clin Oncol 21 (13): 2474-80, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Guckenberger M, Alexandrow N, Flentje M: Radiotherapy alone for stage I-III low grade follicular lymphoma: long-term outcome and comparison of extended field and total nodal irradiation. Radiat Oncol 7: 103, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Guadagnolo BA, Li S, Neuberg D, et al.: Long-term outcome and mortality trends in early-stage, Grade 1-2 follicular lymphoma treated with radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 64 (3): 928-34, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kelsey SM, Newland AC, Hudson GV, et al.: A British National Lymphoma Investigation randomised trial of single agent chlorambucil plus radiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone in low grade, localised non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Med Oncol 11 (1): 19-25, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Seymour JF, Pro B, Fuller LM, et al.: Long-term follow-up of a prospective study of combined modality therapy for stage I-II indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 21 (11): 2115-22, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Advani R, Rosenberg SA, Horning SJ: Stage I and II follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: long-term follow-up of no initial therapy. J Clin Oncol 22 (8): 1454-9, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Pugh TJ, Ballonoff A, Newman F, et al.: Improved survival in patients with early stage low-grade follicular lymphoma treated with radiation: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database analysis. Cancer 116 (16): 3843-51, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]