Treatment for Newly Diagnosed Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor
There is no established standard treatment for children with central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT). Given the highly aggressive nature of the tumor, most patients have been treated with intensive multimodal therapy. The young age of the majority of patients does, however, put some limitations on the extent of treatment, particularly radiation. Surgery is necessary to obtain tissue and make the diagnosis of AT/RT. Data from the AT/RT Registry suggest that patients who have had a complete resection may have a longer median survival, although complete surgical resection is often difficult given the invasive nature of the tumor. Chemotherapy has been the main adjuvant therapy for very young children with AT/RT. Cooperative group studies that included children younger than 36 months, demonstrated poor survival when treated with standard chemotherapeutic regimens alone. The Children’s Cancer Group reported a 2-year event-free survival (EFS) of 14% for 28 children younger than 36 months treated with multiagent chemotherapy.
Intensive regimens that utilize varying combinations of high-dose chemotherapy,[Level of evidence: 3iA]; [5,6][Level of evidence: 3iiiDi] intrathecal chemotherapy, and radiation therapy have led to prolonged survival for some patients. Thirteen patients in the AT/RT Registry were treated with high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell rescue as part of initial therapy. Four of these patients, two of whom also received radiation, were alive without progressive disease 21.5 to 90 months following diagnosis at last report. Radiation therapy appears to have an impact on survival for AT/RT patients. Of the 42 patients in the AT/RT Registry, 13 patients (31%) received radiation therapy in addition to chemotherapy as part of their primary therapy. The radiation field was to the primary tumor bed in nine children, and the tumor bed and the craniospinal axis in four children. Their median survival was 48 months, while the median survival of all patients on the registry was 16.75 months. Supporting the value of radiation therapy was a retrospective series of 31 patients with AT/RT from St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in which the 2-year EFS for patients older than 3 years was 78%, considerably better than 11% for patients younger than 3 years. All but one of the surviving patients (seven of eight) in the older group received craniospinal irradiation and intensive chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplant; only 3 of 22 of the younger patients received any form of radiation therapy, two of whom are disease free. In a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry review, radiation therapy was associated with improved survival in children younger than 3 years.
Another therapeutic approach to treating patients with AT/RT is based on the Third Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma (IRS-III) Study. It utilized radiation therapy, intrathecal methotrexate, cytarabine, hydrocortisone, and systemic multiagent chemotherapy. The results of small retrospective series were encouraging,[9,10] leading to the first prospective study of multimodality treatment in this group of patients. Results of the prospective study demonstrated a 2-year progression-free survival of 53% ± 13% and an overall survival of 70% ± 10%, with results most favorable in children who were older, had a gross total resection, and had no metastatic disease at presentation. Prospective cooperative group clinical trials for AT/RT are greatly needed to better understand how age and extent of therapy affect survival.Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation
The following is an example of a national and/or institutional clinical trial that is currently being conducted. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
- COG-ACNS0333 (Combination Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and an Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Young Patients With AT/RT of the CNS): The Children’s Oncology Group has developed a phase III study for patients aged 0 to 21 years with AT/RT. The study uses multiagent chemotherapy, radiation, and high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell rescue.
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