Questions About Cancer? 1-800-4-CANCER
  • View entire document
  • Print
  • Email
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Google+
  • Pinterest

Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment (PDQ®)

Treatment of Childhood Low-Grade Astrocytomas

To determine and implement optimal management, treatment is often guided by a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists who have experience treating childhood brain tumors.

In infants and young children, low-grade astrocytomas presenting in the hypothalamus make surgery difficult; consequently, biopsies are not always done. This is especially true in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).[1] When associated with NF1, tumors may be of multifocal origin.

For children with low-grade optic pathway astrocytomas, treatment options should be considered not only to improve survival but also to stabilize visual function.[2,3]

Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Childhood Low-Grade Astrocytomas

Standard treatment options for newly diagnosed childhood low-grade astrocytomas include the following:


Observation is an option for patients with NF1 or nonprogressive masses.[4-7] Spontaneous regressions of optic pathway gliomas have been reported in children with and without NF1.[8-10]


Surgical resection is the primary treatment for childhood low-grade astrocytoma [1,4,5,11] and surgical feasibility is determined by tumor location.

  • Cerebellum: Complete or near-complete removal can be obtained in 90% to 95% of patients with pilocytic tumors that occur in the cerebellum.[11]
  • Optic nerve: For children with isolated optic nerve lesions and progressive symptoms, complete surgical resection, while curative, generally results in blindness in the affected eye.
  • Midline structures (hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and spinal cord): Low-grade astrocytomas that occur in midline structures can be aggressively resected, with resultant long-term disease control;[8,9,12]; [13][Level of evidence: 3iiiA] however, such resection may result in significant neurologic sequelae, especially in children younger than 2 years at diagnosis.[8]; [14][Level of evidence: 3iC] Because of the infiltrative nature of some deep-seated lesions, extensive surgical resection may not be appropriate and biopsy only should be considered.[15][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiii]
  • Cerebrum: Circumscribed, grade I hemispheric tumors are often amenable to complete surgical resection.[16]
  • Diffuse: Diffuse astrocytomas may be less amenable to total resection, and this may contribute to the poorer outcome.

Following resection, immediate (within 48 hours of resection per Children’s Oncology Group [COG] criteria) postoperative magnetic resonance imaging is obtained. Surveillance scans are then obtained periodically for completely resected tumors, although the value following the initial 3- to 6-month postoperative period is uncertain.[17]; [18][Level of evidence: 3iiDiii]

Factors related to outcome for children with low-grade gliomas treated with surgery followed by observation were identified in a COG study that included 518 evaluable patients.[11] Overall outcome for the entire group was 78% progression-free survival (PFS) at 8 years and 96% overall survival (OS) at 8 years. The following factors were related to prognosis:[11]

  • Tumor location: Cerebellar and cerebral tumors showed higher PFS at 8 years compared with patients with midline and chiasmatic tumors (84% ± 1.9% versus 51% ± 5.9%).
  • Histology: Approximately three-fourths of patients had pilocytic astrocytoma; PFS and OS were superior for these patients when compared with children with nonpilocytic tumors.
  • Extent of resection: Patients with gross-total resection had 8-year PFS exceeding 90% and OS of 99%. By comparison, approximately one-half of patients with any degree of residual tumor (as assessed by operative report and by postoperative imaging) showed disease progression by 8 years, although OS exceeded 90%.[11]

    The extent of resection necessary for cure is unknown because patients with microscopic and even gross residual tumor after surgery may experience long-term PFS without postoperative therapy.[1,6,11]

  • Age: Younger children (age <5 years) showed higher rates of tumor progression but there was no significant age effect for OS in multivariate analysis. In a retrospective review of a different series of pediatric patients, children younger than 1 year with low-grade glioma demonstrated an inferior PFS compared with children aged 1 year and older.[19]

The long-term functional outcome of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas is relatively favorable. Full-scale mean IQs of patients with low-grade gliomas treated with surgery alone are close to the normative population. However, long-term medical, psychological, and educational deficits may be present in these patients.[20,21][Level of evidence: 3iiiC]

Adjuvant therapy

Adjuvant therapy following complete resection of a low-grade glioma is generally not required unless there is a subsequent recurrence of disease. Treatment options for patients with incompletely resected tumor must be individualized and may include one or more of the following:

A shunt or other cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedure may be needed.


In selected patients in whom a portion of the tumor has been resected, the patient may be observed without further disease-directed treatment, particularly if the pace of tumor regrowth is anticipated to be very slow. Approximately 50% of patients with less-than-gross total resection may have disease that remains progression-free at 5 to 8 years, supporting the observation strategy in selected patients.[11]

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is usually reserved until progressive disease is documented [16,22] and may be further delayed through the use of chemotherapy, a strategy that is commonly employed in young children.[23,24] For children with low-grade gliomas for whom radiation therapy is indicated, approaches that contour the radiation to the tumor and avoid normal brain tissue (3-D conformal radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic radiation therapy, and proton radiation therapy [charged-particle radiation therapy]) all appear effective and may potentially reduce the acute and long-term toxicities associated with these modalities.[25,26]; [27][Level of evidence: 3iDiii] Care must be taken in separating radiation-induced imaging changes from disease progression, which usually occurs during the first year after radiation, but may occur even after the first year, especially in patients with pilocytic astrocytomas.[28-31]; [32][Level of evidence: 2A]; [33][Level of evidence: 2C]; [34][Level of evidence: 3iiiDi]; [35][Level of evidence: 3iiiDii]; [15,36][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiii]

Radiation therapy results in long-term disease control for most children with chiasmatic and posterior pathway chiasmatic gliomas, but may also result in substantial intellectual and endocrinologic sequelae, cerebrovascular damage, and possibly an increased risk of secondary tumors.[8,37-39]; [33][Level of evidence: 2C]

Radiation therapy and alkylating agents are used as a last resort for patients with NF1, given the theoretically heightened risk of inducing neurologic toxic effects and second malignancy in this population.[40] Children with NF1 may be at higher risk for radiation-associated secondary tumors and morbidity due to vascular changes.

Second surgery

An alternative to immediate radiation therapy is subtotal surgical resection, but it is unclear how many patients will have stable disease and for how long.[8]


Given the side effects associated with radiation therapy, postoperative chemotherapy may be initially recommended.

Chemotherapy may result in objective tumor shrinkage and delay the need for radiation therapy in most patients.[23,24,41,42] Chemotherapy is also an option that may delay or avoid radiation therapy in adolescents with optic nerve pathway gliomas.[43][Level of evidence: 3iiDii] Chemotherapy has been shown to shrink tumors in children with hypothalamic gliomas and the diencephalic syndrome, resulting in weight gain in those who respond to treatment.[44]

The most widely used regimens to treat tumor progression or symptomatic nonresectable, low-grade gliomas are the following:

The COG reported the results of a randomized phase III trial (COG-A9952) that treated children younger than 10 years with low-grade chiasmatic/hypothalamic gliomas using one of two regimens: carboplatin and vincristine (CV) or TPCV. The 5-year event-free survival rate was 39% ± 4% for the CV regimen and 52% ± 5% for the TPCV regimen.[46]

Other chemotherapy approaches have been employed to treat children with progressive low-grade astrocytomas, including multiagent, platinum-based regimens [24,41,47]; [48][Level of evidence: 2Diii] and temozolomide.[49,50] Reported 5-year PFS rates have ranged from approximately 35% to 60% for children receiving platinum-based chemotherapy for optic pathway gliomas,[24,41] but most patients ultimately require further treatment. This is particularly true for children who initially present with hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas that have neuraxis dissemination.[51][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiii]

Among children receiving chemotherapy for optic pathway gliomas, those without NF1 have higher rates of disease progression than those with NF1, and infants have higher rates of disease progression than do children older than 1 year.[24,41,47] Whether vision is improved with chemotherapy is unclear.[52,53][Level of evidence: 3iiiC]

Targeted therapy

For children with symptomatic subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs), agents that inhibit mTOR (e.g., everolimus and sirolimus) have been shown in small series to cause significant reductions in the size of these tumors, often eliminating the need for surgery.[54]; [55][Level of evidence: 2C]; [56][Level of evidence: 3iiiC] A multicenter, phase III, placebo-controlled trial of 117 patients confirmed these earlier findings; 35% of the patients in the everolimus group had at least a 50% reduction in the size of the SEGA, versus no reduction in the placebo group.[57][Level of evidence: 1iDiv] Whether reduction in size of the mass is durable, obviating the need for future surgery, is unknown.

Treatment options under clinical evaluation

The following is an example of a national and/or institutional clinical trial that is currently being conducted. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

  • PBTC-029 (NCT01089101) (Selumetinib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Low-Grade Glioma): This is a clinical trial to determine the side effects and the best dose of the MEK inhibitor selumetinib in children with low-grade astrocytoma (phase I component). Based on activity observed in the phase I component (now completed), the study has been modified to include phase II expansion cohorts for patients with pilocytic astrocytoma and other low-grade astrocytomas with BRAF genomic alterations and for NF1 patients with recurrent low-grade astrocytomas.
Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood low-grade untreated astrocytoma or other tumor of glial origin. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

Treatment of Recurrent Childhood Low-Grade Astrocytomas

Childhood low-grade astrocytomas may recur many years after initial treatment.

An individual plan needs to be tailored based on the following:

  • Patient age.
  • Tumor location.
  • Prior treatment.

Recurrent disease is usually at the primary tumor site, although multifocal or widely disseminated disease to other intracranial sites and to the spinal leptomeninges has been documented.[58,59] Most children whose low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas recur will harbor low-grade lesions; however, transformation into a higher grade tumor is possible.[60] Surveillance imaging will frequently identify asymptomatic recurrences.[61]

At the time of recurrence, a complete evaluation to determine the extent of the relapse is indicated. Biopsy or surgical resection may be necessary for confirmation of relapse because other entities, such as secondary tumor and treatment-related brain necrosis, may be clinically indistinguishable from tumor recurrence. The need for surgical intervention must be individualized on the basis of the following:

  • Initial tumor type.
  • Length of time between initial treatment and the reappearance of the mass lesion.
  • Clinical picture.

Standard treatment options for recurrent childhood low-grade astrocytomas include the following:

Second surgery

Patients with low-grade astrocytomas who relapse after being treated with surgery alone should be considered for another surgical resection.[62]

Radiation therapy

The rationale for the use of radiation therapy is essentially the same when utilized as first-line therapy or at the time of recurrence (refer to the Radiation therapy subsection of the Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Childhood Low-Grade Astrocytomas section of this summary). If the child has never received radiation therapy, local radiation therapy may be a treatment option, although chemotherapy in lieu of radiation may be considered, depending on the child's age and the extent and location of the tumor.[63][Level of evidence: 3iA]; [64][Level of evidence: 3iiiDi]

For children with low-grade gliomas for whom radiation therapy is indicated, conformal radiation therapy approaches appear effective and offer the potential for reducing the acute and long-term toxicities associated with this modality.[29,33]


If there is recurrence at an unresectable site that has been previously irradiated, chemotherapy should be considered.[65]

In patients previously treated with surgery and radiation therapy, chemotherapy should be considered. Chemotherapy may result in relatively long-term disease control.[24,66] Vinblastine alone, temozolomide alone, or temozolomide in combination with carboplatin and vincristine may be useful at the time of recurrence for children with low-grade gliomas.[24,49,66]

Antitumor activity has also been observed for bevacizumab given in combination with irinotecan, which, in some cases, also results in clinical or visual improvement.[67] In a phase II study of bevacizumab plus irinotecan for children with recurrent low-grade gliomas, sustained partial response was observed in only two patients (5.7%), but the 6-month PFS was 85.4% (standard error [SE] ± 5.96%) and the 2-year PFS was 47.8% (SE ± 9.27%).[68] A pilot study of 14 patients with recurrent low-grade gliomas also evaluated bevacizumab plus irinotecan and observed 12 patients (86%) with objective responses.[69][Level of evidence: 3iiDi]; [70][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv] No patients progressed on therapy (median treatment duration, 12 months), but 13 of 14 progressed after stopping bevacizumab at a median of 5 months. Bevacizumab has also been employed for children with low-grade gliomas and symptomatic radiation-induced tumor enlargement; it produced radiographic improvement (five of five patients) and allowed weaning off steroids (four of four patients).[71]

Treatment options under clinical evaluation

The following is an example of a national and/or institutional clinical trial that is currently being conducted. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

  • ACNS1022 (NCT01553149) (Low-Dose or High-Dose Lenalidomide in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Refractory, or Progressive Pilocytic Astrocytoma or Optic Pathway Glioma): This is a randomized phase II clinical trial comparing low-dose to high-dose lenalidomide to see how well each works in treating children with recurrent, refractory, or progressive juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas or optic nerve pathway gliomas. This clinical trial is based on results of a phase I study that observed tumor responses and long-term stable clinical disease for lenalidomide across a range of dose levels for children with recurrent low-grade gliomas.[72]
Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent childhood astrocytoma or other tumor of glial origin. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.


  1. Due-Tønnessen BJ, Helseth E, Scheie D, et al.: Long-term outcome after resection of benign cerebellar astrocytomas in children and young adults (0-19 years): report of 110 consecutive cases. Pediatr Neurosurg 37 (2): 71-80, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  2. Nicolin G, Parkin P, Mabbott D, et al.: Natural history and outcome of optic pathway gliomas in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer 53 (7): 1231-7, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  3. Kramm CM, Butenhoff S, Rausche U, et al.: Thalamic high-grade gliomas in children: a distinct clinical subset? Neuro Oncol 13 (6): 680-9, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  4. Campbell JW, Pollack IF: Cerebellar astrocytomas in children. J Neurooncol 28 (2-3): 223-31, 1996 May-Jun. [PUBMED Abstract]
  5. Schneider JH Jr, Raffel C, McComb JG: Benign cerebellar astrocytomas of childhood. Neurosurgery 30 (1): 58-62; discussion 62-3, 1992. [PUBMED Abstract]
  6. Hayostek CJ, Shaw EG, Scheithauer B, et al.: Astrocytomas of the cerebellum. A comparative clinicopathologic study of pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas. Cancer 72 (3): 856-69, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
  7. Listernick R, Ferner RE, Liu GT, et al.: Optic pathway gliomas in neurofibromatosis-1: controversies and recommendations. Ann Neurol 61 (3): 189-98, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  8. Wisoff JH, Abbott R, Epstein F: Surgical management of exophytic chiasmatic-hypothalamic tumors of childhood. J Neurosurg 73 (5): 661-7, 1990. [PUBMED Abstract]
  9. Albright AL: Feasibility and advisability of resections of thalamic tumors in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg 100 (5 Suppl Pediatrics): 468-72, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  10. Piccirilli M, Lenzi J, Delfinis C, et al.: Spontaneous regression of optic pathways gliomas in three patients with neurofibromatosis type I and critical review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst 22 (10): 1332-7, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  11. Wisoff JH, Sanford RA, Heier LA, et al.: Primary neurosurgery for pediatric low-grade gliomas: a prospective multi-institutional study from the Children's Oncology Group. Neurosurgery 68 (6): 1548-54; discussion 1554-5, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  12. Tseng JH, Tseng MY: Survival analysis of 81 children with primary spinal gliomas: a population-based study. Pediatr Neurosurg 42 (6): 347-53, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  13. Milano MT, Johnson MD, Sul J, et al.: Primary spinal cord glioma: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database study. J Neurooncol 98 (1): 83-92, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  14. Scheinemann K, Bartels U, Huang A, et al.: Survival and functional outcome of childhood spinal cord low-grade gliomas. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr 4 (3): 254-61, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  15. Sawamura Y, Kamada K, Kamoshima Y, et al.: Role of surgery for optic pathway/hypothalamic astrocytomas in children. Neuro Oncol 10 (5): 725-33, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  16. Pollack IF, Claassen D, al-Shboul Q, et al.: Low-grade gliomas of the cerebral hemispheres in children: an analysis of 71 cases. J Neurosurg 82 (4): 536-47, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
  17. Sutton LN, Cnaan A, Klatt L, et al.: Postoperative surveillance imaging in children with cerebellar astrocytomas. J Neurosurg 84 (5): 721-5, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
  18. Dorward IG, Luo J, Perry A, et al.: Postoperative imaging surveillance in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas. J Neurosurg Pediatr 6 (4): 346-52, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  19. Mirow C, Pietsch T, Berkefeld S, et al.: Children <1 year show an inferior outcome when treated according to the traditional LGG treatment strategy: a report from the German multicenter trial HIT-LGG 1996 for children with low grade glioma (LGG). Pediatr Blood Cancer 61 (3): 457-63, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  20. Turner CD, Chordas CA, Liptak CC, et al.: Medical, psychological, cognitive and educational late-effects in pediatric low-grade glioma survivors treated with surgery only. Pediatr Blood Cancer 53 (3): 417-23, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  21. Daszkiewicz P, Maryniak A, Roszkowski M, et al.: Long-term functional outcome of surgical treatment of juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma of the cerebellum in children. Childs Nerv Syst 25 (7): 855-60, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  22. Fisher BJ, Leighton CC, Vujovic O, et al.: Results of a policy of surveillance alone after surgical management of pediatric low grade gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51 (3): 704-10, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
  23. Packer RJ, Ater J, Allen J, et al.: Carboplatin and vincristine chemotherapy for children with newly diagnosed progressive low-grade gliomas. J Neurosurg 86 (5): 747-54, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  24. Gnekow AK, Falkenstein F, von Hornstein S, et al.: Long-term follow-up of the multicenter, multidisciplinary treatment study HIT-LGG-1996 for low-grade glioma in children and adolescents of the German Speaking Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology. Neuro Oncol 14 (10): 1265-84, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  25. Greenberger BA, Pulsifer MB, Ebb DH, et al.: Clinical outcomes and late endocrine, neurocognitive, and visual profiles of proton radiation for pediatric low-grade gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 89 (5): 1060-8, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  26. Paulino AC, Mazloom A, Terashima K, et al.: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in pediatric low-grade glioma. Cancer 119 (14): 2654-9, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  27. Müller K, Gnekow A, Falkenstein F, et al.: Radiotherapy in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas. A subgroup analysis within the prospective multicenter study HIT-LGG 1996 by the German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH). Strahlenther Onkol 189 (8): 647-55, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  28. Chawla S, Korones DN, Milano MT, et al.: Spurious progression in pediatric brain tumors. J Neurooncol 107 (3): 651-7, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  29. Marcus KJ, Goumnerova L, Billett AL, et al.: Stereotactic radiotherapy for localized low-grade gliomas in children: final results of a prospective trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 61 (2): 374-9, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  30. Combs SE, Schulz-Ertner D, Moschos D, et al.: Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of optic pathway gliomas: tolerance and long-term outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 62 (3): 814-9, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  31. Naftel RP, Pollack IF, Zuccoli G, et al.: Pseudoprogression of low-grade gliomas after radiotherapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 62 (1): 35-9, 2015. [PUBMED Abstract]
  32. Merchant TE, Kun LE, Wu S, et al.: Phase II trial of conformal radiation therapy for pediatric low-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol 27 (22): 3598-604, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  33. Merchant TE, Conklin HM, Wu S, et al.: Late effects of conformal radiation therapy for pediatric patients with low-grade glioma: prospective evaluation of cognitive, endocrine, and hearing deficits. J Clin Oncol 27 (22): 3691-7, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  34. Kano H, Niranjan A, Kondziolka D, et al.: Stereotactic radiosurgery for pilocytic astrocytomas part 2: outcomes in pediatric patients. J Neurooncol 95 (2): 219-29, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  35. Hallemeier CL, Pollock BE, Schomberg PJ, et al.: Stereotactic radiosurgery for recurrent or unresectable pilocytic astrocytoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 83 (1): 107-12, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  36. Mansur DB, Rubin JB, Kidd EA, et al.: Radiation therapy for pilocytic astrocytomas of childhood. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 79 (3): 829-34, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  37. Jenkin D, Angyalfi S, Becker L, et al.: Optic glioma in children: surveillance, resection, or irradiation? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 25 (2): 215-25, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
  38. Tao ML, Barnes PD, Billett AL, et al.: Childhood optic chiasm gliomas: radiographic response following radiotherapy and long-term clinical outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 39 (3): 579-87, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  39. Khafaga Y, Hassounah M, Kandil A, et al.: Optic gliomas: a retrospective analysis of 50 cases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 56 (3): 807-12, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  40. Grill J, Couanet D, Cappelli C, et al.: Radiation-induced cerebral vasculopathy in children with neurofibromatosis and optic pathway glioma. Ann Neurol 45 (3): 393-6, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  41. Laithier V, Grill J, Le Deley MC, et al.: Progression-free survival in children with optic pathway tumors: dependence on age and the quality of the response to chemotherapy--results of the first French prospective study for the French Society of Pediatric Oncology. J Clin Oncol 21 (24): 4572-8, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  42. Prados MD, Edwards MS, Rabbitt J, et al.: Treatment of pediatric low-grade gliomas with a nitrosourea-based multiagent chemotherapy regimen. J Neurooncol 32 (3): 235-41, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  43. Chong AL, Pole JD, Scheinemann K, et al.: Optic pathway gliomas in adolescence--time to challenge treatment choices? Neuro Oncol 15 (3): 391-400, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  44. Gropman AL, Packer RJ, Nicholson HS, et al.: Treatment of diencephalic syndrome with chemotherapy: growth, tumor response, and long term control. Cancer 83 (1): 166-72, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  45. Gururangan S, Cavazos CM, Ashley D, et al.: Phase II study of carboplatin in children with progressive low-grade gliomas. J Clin Oncol 20 (13): 2951-8, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  46. Ater JL, Zhou T, Holmes E, et al.: Randomized study of two chemotherapy regimens for treatment of low-grade glioma in young children: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 30 (21): 2641-7, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  47. Massimino M, Spreafico F, Cefalo G, et al.: High response rate to cisplatin/etoposide regimen in childhood low-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol 20 (20): 4209-16, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  48. Massimino M, Spreafico F, Riva D, et al.: A lower-dose, lower-toxicity cisplatin-etoposide regimen for childhood progressive low-grade glioma. J Neurooncol 100 (1): 65-71, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  49. Gururangan S, Fisher MJ, Allen JC, et al.: Temozolomide in children with progressive low-grade glioma. Neuro Oncol 9 (2): 161-8, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  50. Khaw SL, Coleman LT, Downie PA, et al.: Temozolomide in pediatric low-grade glioma. Pediatr Blood Cancer 49 (6): 808-11, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  51. von Hornstein S, Kortmann RD, Pietsch T, et al.: Impact of chemotherapy on disseminated low-grade glioma in children and adolescents: report from the HIT-LGG 1996 trial. Pediatr Blood Cancer 56 (7): 1046-54, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  52. Moreno L, Bautista F, Ashley S, et al.: Does chemotherapy affect the visual outcome in children with optic pathway glioma? A systematic review of the evidence. Eur J Cancer 46 (12): 2253-9, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  53. Shofty B, Ben-Sira L, Freedman S, et al.: Visual outcome following chemotherapy for progressive optic pathway gliomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57 (3): 481-5, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  54. Franz DN, Agricola KD, Tudor CA, et al.: Everolimus for tumor recurrence after surgical resection for subependymal giant cell astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. J Child Neurol 28 (5): 602-7, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  55. Krueger DA, Care MM, Holland K, et al.: Everolimus for subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis. N Engl J Med 363 (19): 1801-11, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  56. Franz DN, Leonard J, Tudor C, et al.: Rapamycin causes regression of astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis complex. Ann Neurol 59 (3): 490-8, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  57. Franz DN, Belousova E, Sparagana S, et al.: Efficacy and safety of everolimus for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (EXIST-1): a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet 381 (9861): 125-32, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  58. Perilongo G, Carollo C, Salviati L, et al.: Diencephalic syndrome and disseminated juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas of the hypothalamic-optic chiasm region. Cancer 80 (1): 142-6, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  59. Leibel SA, Sheline GE, Wara WM, et al.: The role of radiation therapy in the treatment of astrocytomas. Cancer 35 (6): 1551-7, 1975. [PUBMED Abstract]
  60. Giannini C, Scheithauer BW: Classification and grading of low-grade astrocytic tumors in children. Brain Pathol 7 (2): 785-98, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  61. Udaka YT, Yeh-Nayre LA, Amene CS, et al.: Recurrent pediatric central nervous system low-grade gliomas: the role of surveillance neuroimaging in asymptomatic children. J Neurosurg Pediatr 11 (2): 119-26, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  62. Austin EJ, Alvord EC Jr: Recurrences of cerebellar astrocytomas: a violation of Collins' law. J Neurosurg 68 (1): 41-7, 1988. [PUBMED Abstract]
  63. Scheinemann K, Bartels U, Tsangaris E, et al.: Feasibility and efficacy of repeated chemotherapy for progressive pediatric low-grade gliomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57 (1): 84-8, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  64. de Haas V, Grill J, Raquin MA, et al.: Relapses of optic pathway tumors after first-line chemotherapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 52 (5): 575-80, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  65. Garcia DM, Marks JE, Latifi HR, et al.: Childhood cerebellar astrocytomas: is there a role for postoperative irradiation? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 18 (4): 815-8, 1990. [PUBMED Abstract]
  66. Packer RJ, Lange B, Ater J, et al.: Carboplatin and vincristine for recurrent and newly diagnosed low-grade gliomas of childhood. J Clin Oncol 11 (5): 850-6, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
  67. Avery RA, Hwang EI, Jakacki RI, et al.: Marked recovery of vision in children with optic pathway gliomas treated with bevacizumab. JAMA Ophthalmol 132 (1): 111-4, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  68. Gururangan S, Fangusaro J, Poussaint TY, et al.: Efficacy of bevacizumab plus irinotecan in children with recurrent low-grade gliomas--a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study. Neuro Oncol 16 (2): 310-7, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  69. Hwang EI, Jakacki RI, Fisher MJ, et al.: Long-term efficacy and toxicity of bevacizumab-based therapy in children with recurrent low-grade gliomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer 60 (5): 776-82, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  70. Packer RJ, Jakacki R, Horn M, et al.: Objective response of multiply recurrent low-grade gliomas to bevacizumab and irinotecan. Pediatr Blood Cancer 52 (7): 791-5, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  71. Foster KA, Ares WJ, Pollack IF, et al.: Bevacizumab for symptomatic radiation-induced tumor enlargement in pediatric low grade gliomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer : , 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
  72. Warren KE, Goldman S, Pollack IF, et al.: Phase I trial of lenalidomide in pediatric patients with recurrent, refractory, or progressive primary CNS tumors: Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study PBTC-018. J Clin Oncol 29 (3): 324-9, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  • Updated: April 9, 2015