Changes to this Summary (04/09/2015)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.
Added text to state that progression to high-grade glioma is rare for pediatric low-grade glioma with the BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion (cited Mistry et al. as reference 30).
Added text to state that the frequency of the BRAF V600E mutation was significantly higher in pediatric low-grade glioma that transformed to high-grade glioma than was the frequency of the mutation in cases that did not transform.
Added text to state that thalamic high-grade gliomas in older adolescents and young adults also show a high rate of H3F3A K27 mutations (cited Aihara et al. as reference 46).
Added text about how childhood secondary high-grade glioma is uncommon.
Added text about the molecular profile of oligodendrogliomas.
Revised text to state that for children with low-grade gliomas for whom radiation therapy is indicated, approaches that contour the radiation to the tumor and avoid normal brain tissue (3-D conformal radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic radiation therapy, and proton radiation therapy [charged-particle radiation therapy]) all appear effective and may potentially reduce the acute and long-term toxicities associated with these modalities (cited Greenberger et al. as reference 25).
Added text to state that molecular targets for recurrent high-grade gliomas are limited. BRAF V600E mutations are present in a small subset of these patients, and a small number of cases have responded to BRAF inhibitors. A case report documented a complete response to the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib in a patient with recurrent BRAF V600–mutated glioblastoma (cited Robinson et al. as reference 20).
Added text about the NCT01677741 trial as a treatment option under clinical evaluation.
This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.