Stage Information for Malignant Mesothelioma
Patients with stage I disease have a significantly better prognosis than those with more advanced stages. Because of the relative rarity of this disease, exact survival information based upon stage is limited.
Definitions of TNM
The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and International Union Against Cancer (UICC) have designated staging by TNM classification to define malignant mesothelioma.
AJCC and UICC TNM Staging for Diffuse Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma
Table 1. Primary Tumor (T)a
|TX||Primary tumor cannot be assessed.|
|T0||No evidence of primary tumor.|
|T1||Tumor limited to the ipsilateral parietal pleura with or without mediastinal pleura and with or without diaphragmatic pleural involvement.|
|T1a||No involvement of the visceral pleura.|
|T1b||Tumor also involving the visceral pleura.|
|T2||Tumor involving each of the ipsilateral pleural surfaces (parietal, mediastinal, diaphragmatic, and visceral pleura) with at least one of the following: involvement of diaphragmatic muscle; extension of tumor from visceral pleura into the underlying pulmonary parenchyma.|
|T3||Locally advanced but potentially resectable tumor. Tumor involving all of the ipsilateral pleural surfaces (parietal, mediastinal, diaphragmatic, and visceral pleura) with at least one of the following: involvement of the endothoracic fascia; extension into the mediastinal fat; solitary, completely resectable focus of tumor extending into the soft tissues of the chest wall; nontransmural involvement of the pericardium.|
|T4||Locally advanced technically unresectable tumor. Tumor involving all of the ipsilateral pleural surfaces (parietal, mediastinal, diaphragmatic, and visceral pleura) with at least one of the following: diffuse extension or multifocal masses of tumor in the chest wall, with or without associated rib destruction; direct transdiaphragmatic extension of tumor to the peritoneum; direct extension of tumor to the contralateral pleura; direct extension of tumor to mediastinal organs; direct extension of tumor into the spine; tumor extending through to the internal surface of the pericardium with or without a pericardial effusion or tumor involving the myocardium.|
Table 2. Regional Lymph Nodes (N)a
|NX||Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed.|
|N0||No regional lymph node metastases.|
|N1||Metastases in the ipsilateral bronchopulmonary or hilar lymph nodes.|
|N2||Metastases in the subcarinal or the ipsilateral mediastinal lymph nodes including the ipsilateral internal mammary and peridiaphragmatic nodes.|
|N3||Metastases in the contralateral mediastinal, contralateral internal mammary, ipsilateral or contralateral supraclavicular lymph nodes.|
Table 3. Distant Metastasis (M)a
|M0||No distant metastasis.|
|M1||Distant metastasis present.|
Table 4. Anatomic Stage/Prognostic Groupsa
|T3||N0, N1, N2||M0|
|Any T||Any N||M1|
- Chahinian AP, Pass HI: Malignant mesothelioma. In: Holland JC, Frei E, eds.: Cancer Medicine e.5. 5th ed. Hamilton, Ontario: B.C. Decker Inc, 2000, pp 1293-1312.
- Pleural mesothelioma. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 271-7.