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Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)

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Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer Treatment

Treatment Options for Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer
        Palliative therapy
        Chemotherapy
Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation for Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer
Current Clinical Trials



Treatment Options for Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

Treatment options for stage IV pancreatic cancer include the following:

  1. Palliative therapy.

  2. Chemotherapy: gemcitabine; gemcitabine and erlotinib; or oxaliplatin, irinotecan, leucovorin, and fluorouracil (5-FU) (FOLFIRINOX).[1-10]

Palliative therapy

Palliative therapy for advanced pancreatic cancer includes the following:

  1. Pain-relieving procedures (e.g., celiac or intrapleural block) and supportive care.[11]

  2. Palliative surgical biliary bypass, percutaneous radiologic biliary stent placement, or endoscopically placed biliary stents.[12-14]

Chemotherapy

The low objective response rate and lack of survival benefit with current chemotherapy indicates that clinical trials are appropriate treatment of all newly diagnosed patients. Occasionally, patients have palliation of symptoms when treated with chemotherapy with well-tested older drugs, such as 5-FU. Gemcitabine has demonstrated activity in patients with pancreatic cancer and is a useful palliative agent.[1,15,16]

Evidence (chemotherapy):

  1. Gemcitabine versus 5-FU: A phase III trial of gemcitabine versus 5-FU as first-line therapy in patients with advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas reported a significant improvement in survival among patients treated with gemcitabine (1-year survival was 18% with gemcitabine compared with 2% with 5-FU; P = .003).[15][Level of evidence: 1iiA]

  2. Gemcitabine alone versus gemcitabine and erlotinib: The National Cancer Institute of Canada performed a phase III trial (CAN-NCIC-PA3 [NCT00026338]) that compared gemcitabine alone versus the combination of gemcitabine and erlotinib (100 mg/day) in patients with advanced or metastatic pancreatic carcinomas.[17][Level of evidence: 1iiA]
    • The addition of erlotinib modestly prolonged survival when combined with gemcitabine alone (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]; P = .038).

    • The corresponding median survival rate for patients receiving erlotinib was 6.2 months, versus 5.9 months for patients receiving placebo. The 1-year survival rate for patients receiving erlotinib was 23%, versus 17% for patients receiving placebo.

  3. Platinum analog or fluoropyrimidine versus single-agent gemcitabine: Many phase III studies have evaluated a combination regimen with either a platinum analog (cisplatin or oxaliplatin) or fluoropyrimidine versus single-agent gemcitabine.[18,19]
    • Not one of these phase III trials has demonstrated a statistically significant advantage favoring the use of combination chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer.

  4. Gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel versus gemcitabine: A multicenter, international phase III trial (NCT00844649) included 861 patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (Karnofsky Performance Status of ≥70) who had not previously received chemotherapy for metastatic disease.[20][Level of evidence: 1iiA] Patients who received adjuvant gemcitabine or any other chemotherapy were excluded. The patients were randomly assigned to receive gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2) and nab-paclitaxel (125 mg/m2 of body-surface area) weekly for 3 of 4 weeks or gemcitabine monotherapy (1,000 mg/m2 weekly for 7 of 8 weeks and then weekly for 3 of 4 weeks).
    • The median OS was 8.5 months in the nab-paclitaxel/gemcitabine group compared with 6.7 months in the gemcitabine group (HRdeath, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.62–0.83; P < .001).

    • Median progression-free survival was 5.5 months in the nab-paclitaxel/gemcitabine group and 3.7 months in the gemcitabine group (HRdisease progression, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.58–0.82, P < .001).

    • Nab-paclitaxel/gemcitabine was more toxic than gemcitabine. The most common grade 3 toxicities were neutropenia (38% in the nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine group vs. 27% in the gemcitabine group), fatigue (17% in the nab-paclitaxel/gemcitabine group vs. 1% in the gemcitabine group), and neuropathy (17% in the nab-paclitaxel/gemcitabine group vs. 1% in the gemcitabine group). Febrile neutropenia occurred in 3% of the nab-paclitaxel group versus 1% in the gemcitabine group. In the nab-paclitaxel/gemcitabine group, the median time from grade 3 neuropathy to grade 1 or resolution was 29 days. Of patients with grade 3 peripheral neuropathy, 44% were able to resume treatment at a reduced dose within a median of 23 days after onset of a grade 3 event.

    • On the basis of this trial, nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine is a standard treatment option for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

    • Quality of life data have not yet been published regarding this regimen, and this study does not address the efficacy of nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine versus FOLFIRINOX.

  5. FOLFIRINOX versus gemcitabine: A multicenter phase II/III trial included 342 patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0 or 1.[21][Level of evidence: 1iiA] The patients were randomly assigned to receive FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin [85 mg/m2], irinotecan [180 mg/m2], leucovorin [400 mg/m2], and 5-FU [400 mg/m2] given as a bolus followed by 2,400 mg/m2 given as a 46-hour continuous infusion, every 2 weeks) or gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2 weekly for 7 of 8 weeks and then weekly for 3 of 4 weeks).
    • The median overall survival (OS) was 11.1 months in the FOLFIRINOX group compared with 6.8 months in the gemcitabine group (HRdeath = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.45–0.73; P < .001).

    • Median progression-free survival was 6.4 months in the FOLFIRINOX group and 3.3 months in the gemcitabine group (HR for disease progression = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.37–0.59; P < .001).

    • FOLFIRINOX was more toxic than gemcitabine; 5.4% of patients in this group had febrile neutropenia. At 6 months, 31% of the patients in the FOLFIRINOX group had a definitive degradation of quality of life, versus 66% in the gemcitabine group (HR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30–0.70; P < .001).

    • On the basis of this trial, FOLFIRINOX is considered a standard treatment option for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

  6. 5-FU, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (OFF regimen) versus best supportive care (BSC): Second-line chemotherapy after progression on a gemcitabine-based regimen may be beneficial. The CONKO-003 investigators randomly assigned patients in the second line of chemotherapy to either an OFF regimen or BSC.[22]; [23][Level of evidence: 3iA] The OFF regimen consisted of leucovorin (200 mg/m2) followed by 5-FU (2,000 mg/m2 [24 hours continuous infusion] on days 1, 8, 15, and 22) and oxaliplatin (85 mg/m2 on days 8 and 22). After a rest of 3 weeks, the next cycle was started on day 43. The trial was terminated early because of poor accrual, and only 46 patients were randomly assigned to either the OFF regimen or BSC.
    • Median survival on second-line chemotherapy was 4.82 months (95% CI, 4.29–5.35) for the OFF-regimen treatment and 2.30 months (95% CI, 1.76–2.83) with BSC alone (HR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.24–0.83).

    • Median OS was 9.09 months for the sequence of gemcitabine (GEM)-OFF and 7.90 months for GEM-BSC.

    • The early closure of the study and the very small number of patients made the P values misleading. Therefore, second-line chemotherapy with the OFF regimen may be erroneously associated with improved survival.

Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation for Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

Treatment options under clinical evaluation include the following:

  1. Clinical trials evaluating new anticancer agents alone or in combination with chemotherapy.[2-7,9,24-29]
Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage IV pancreatic cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

References
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  2. MacDonald JS, Widerlite L, Schein PS: Biology, diagnosis, and chemotherapeutic management of pancreatic malignancy. Adv Pharmacol Chemother 14: 107-42, 1977.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  3. Bukowski RM, Balcerzak SP, O'Bryan RM, et al.: Randomized trial of 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C with or without streptozotocin for advanced pancreatic cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group study. Cancer 52 (9): 1577-82, 1983.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  4. DeCaprio JA, Mayer RJ, Gonin R, et al.: Fluorouracil and high-dose leucovorin in previously untreated patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: results of a phase II trial. J Clin Oncol 9 (12): 2128-33, 1991.  [PUBMED Abstract]

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  9. Haller DG: Chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 56 (4 Suppl): 16-23, 2003.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  10. Kulke MH, Blaszkowsky LS, Ryan DP, et al.: Capecitabine plus erlotinib in gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer. J Clin Oncol 25 (30): 4787-92, 2007.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  11. Polati E, Finco G, Gottin L, et al.: Prospective randomized double-blind trial of neurolytic coeliac plexus block in patients with pancreatic cancer. Br J Surg 85 (2): 199-201, 1998.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  12. van den Bosch RP, van der Schelling GP, Klinkenbijl JH, et al.: Guidelines for the application of surgery and endoprostheses in the palliation of obstructive jaundice in advanced cancer of the pancreas. Ann Surg 219 (1): 18-24, 1994.  [PUBMED Abstract]

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  16. Storniolo AM, Enas NH, Brown CA, et al.: An investigational new drug treatment program for patients with gemcitabine: results for over 3000 patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Cancer 85 (6): 1261-8, 1999.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  17. Moore MJ, Goldstein D, Hamm J, et al.: Erlotinib plus gemcitabine compared with gemcitabine alone in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: a phase III trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. J Clin Oncol 25 (15): 1960-6, 2007.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  18. Poplin E, Feng Y, Berlin J, et al.: Phase III, randomized study of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin versus gemcitabine (fixed-dose rate infusion) compared with gemcitabine (30-minute infusion) in patients with pancreatic carcinoma E6201: a trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 27 (23): 3778-85, 2009.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  19. Colucci G, Labianca R, Di Costanzo F, et al.: Randomized phase III trial of gemcitabine plus cisplatin compared with single-agent gemcitabine as first-line treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: the GIP-1 study. J Clin Oncol 28 (10): 1645-51, 2010.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  20. Von Hoff DD, Ervin T, Arena FP, et al.: Increased survival in pancreatic cancer with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine. N Engl J Med 369 (18): 1691-703, 2013.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  21. Conroy T, Desseigne F, Ychou M, et al.: FOLFIRINOX versus gemcitabine for metastatic pancreatic cancer. N Engl J Med 364 (19): 1817-25, 2011.  [PUBMED Abstract]

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  23. Pelzer U, Schwaner I, Stieler J, et al.: Best supportive care (BSC) versus oxaliplatin, folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil (OFF) plus BSC in patients for second-line advanced pancreatic cancer: a phase III-study from the German CONKO-study group. Eur J Cancer 47 (11): 1676-81, 2011.  [PUBMED Abstract]

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