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Table 1. Primary Tumor (T)a,b,c

pTXPrimary tumor cannot be assessed.
pT0No evidence of primary tumor (e.g., histologic scar in testis).
pTisIntratubular germ cell neoplasia (carcinoma in situ).
pT1Tumor limited to the testis and epididymis without vascular/lymphatic invasion; tumor may invade into the tunica albuginea but not the tunica vaginalis.
pT2Tumor limited to the testis and epididymis with vascular/lymphatic invasion, or tumor extending through the tunica albuginea with involvement of the tunica vaginalis.
pT3Tumor invades the spermatic cord with or without vascular/lymphatic invasion.
pT4Tumor invades the scrotum with or without vascular/lymphatic invasion.

aReprinted with permission from AJCC: Testis. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 469-78.
bThe extent of primary tumor is usually classified after radical orchiectomy, and for this reason, a pathologic stage is assigned.
cExcept for pTis and pT4, extent of primary tumor is classified by radical orchiectomy. TX may be used for other categories in the absence of radical orchiectomy.