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Table 5. Site-Specific Prognostic Factorsa

Serum Tumor Markers (S) Required for Staging 
SXMarker studies not available or not performed.
S0Marker study levels within normal limits.
S1LDH <1.5 × Nband hCG (mIu/ml) <5,000 and AFP (ng/ml) <1,000.
S2LDH 1.5–10 × N or hCG (mIu/ml) 5,000–50,000 or AFP (ng/ml) 1,000–10,000.
S3LDH >10 × N or hCG (mIu/ml) >50,000 or AFP (ng/ml) >10,000.

AFP = alpha-fetoprotein; hCG = human chorionic gonadotropin; LDH = lactase dehydrogenase; N indicates the upper limit of normal for the LDH assay.
aReprinted with permission from AJCC: Testis. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 469-78.