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Table 4. Studies of Cancer Treatment by Infection of Patients With NDVa

Reference Citation(s) Type of Study  NDV Strain Type of Cancer  No. of Patients: Enrolled; Treated; Controlb Strongest Benefit Reportedc Concurrent Therapyd Level of Evidence Scoree 
[39]Phase II trialMTH-68Various advanced59; 33; 26, placeboImproved overall survivalNo2A
[44]Phase I trialPV701Various advanced79; 79; NonePartial tumor regression, 8 patientsUnknown3iiiDiii
[46]Phase I/IIHUJGlioblastoma multiforme, recurrent14 (phase I–6; phase II–8); 11 (phase I–6, phase II–5); 01 transient (3 mo) complete response, all other patients had progressive diseaseNone3iiiDiii
[38]Case seriesMTH-68Various advanced4; 4; NoneComplete tumor regression, 2 patientsYes4
[47]Selected case seriesMTH-68/HGliomas, high-grade4; 4; 0Radiographically documented responses and long survival with improved symptomatologyVarious4Diii
[45]Phase IPV701Various16; 16; 0Improved patient tolerability with two-step desensitizationNoneN/A
[48]Case reportMTH-68/HAnaplastic astrocytoma1; 1; 0Partial responseValproic acidN/A
[40]Case report73-TAdvanced cervical1; 1; NonePartial tumor regressionNoNone
[41]Anecdotal reportMTH-68Various metastatic3; 3; NoneTumor regressionUnknownNone
[42]Case reportMTH-68Glioblastoma multiforme1; 1; NonePartial tumor regressionYesNone
[43]Case reportHickmanAcute myeloid leukemia1; 1; NonePartial responseYesfNone

mo = month; No. = number.
aRefer to text and the NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms for additional information and definition of terms.
bNumber of patients treated plus number of patients control may not equal number of patients enrolled; number of patients enrolled = number of patients initially recruited/considered by the researchers who conducted a study; number of patients treated = number of patients who were given the treatment being studied AND for whom results were reported; historical control subjects are not included in number of patients enrolled.
cThe strongest evidence reported that the treatment under study has anticancer activity or otherwise improves the well being of cancer patients.
dChemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, or cytokine therapy given/allowed at the same time as virus treatment.
eFor information about levels of evidence analysis and an explanation of the level of evidence scores, refer to Levels of Evidence for Human Studies of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
fThis patient was treated with chemotherapy and five other types of virus in addition to NDV.


  1. Csatary LK, Moss RW, Beuth J, et al.: Beneficial treatment of patients with advanced cancer using a Newcastle disease virus vaccine (MTH-68/H). Anticancer Res 19 (1B): 635-8, 1999 Jan-Feb.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  2. Csatary LK, Eckhardt S, Bukosza I, et al.: Attenuated veterinary virus vaccine for the treatment of cancer. Cancer Detect Prev 17 (6): 619-27, 1993.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  3. Cassel WA, Garrett RE: Newcastle disease virus as an antineoplastic agent. Cancer 18 (7): 863-8, 1965. 

  4. Csatary LK: Viruses in the treatment of cancer. Lancet 2 (7728): 825, 1971.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  5. Csatary LK, Bakács T: Use of Newcastle disease virus vaccine (MTH-68/H) in a patient with high-grade glioblastoma. JAMA 281 (17): 1588-9, 1999.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  6. Wheelock EF, Dingle JH: Observations on the repeated administration of viruses to a patient with acute leukemia. A preliminary report. N Engl J Med 271(13): 645-51, 1964. 

  7. Pecora AL, Rizvi N, Cohen GI, et al.: Phase I trial of intravenous administration of PV701, an oncolytic virus, in patients with advanced solid cancers. J Clin Oncol 20 (9): 2251-66, 2002.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  8. Laurie SA, Bell JC, Atkins HL, et al.: A phase 1 clinical study of intravenous administration of PV701, an oncolytic virus, using two-step desensitization. Clin Cancer Res 12 (8): 2555-62, 2006.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  9. Freeman AI, Zakay-Rones Z, Gomori JM, et al.: Phase I/II trial of intravenous NDV-HUJ oncolytic virus in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Mol Ther 13 (1): 221-8, 2006.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  10. Csatary LK, Gosztonyi G, Szeberenyi J, et al.: MTH-68/H oncolytic viral treatment in human high-grade gliomas. J Neurooncol 67 (1-2): 83-93, 2004 Mar-Apr.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  11. Wagner S, Csatary CM, Gosztonyi G, et al.: Combined treatment of pediatric high-grade glioma with the oncolytic viral strain MTH-68/H and oral valproic acid. APMIS 114 (10): 731-43, 2006.  [PUBMED Abstract]