The side effects associated with exposure to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have generally been described as mild to moderate in severity. As noted previously (refer to the General Information section of this summary for more information), NDV has been reported to cause mild flu-like symptoms, conjunctivitis, and laryngitis in humans. Reviewed in [1-10]
The most commonly reported side effect after treatment of cancer patients with the virus alone is fever, which usually subsides within 24 hours.[2,11,12] In one study of infectious virus, localized adverse effects, such as inflammation and edema, were observed in the vicinity of some tumors. These adverse effects may have contributed to the death of one patient. Other adverse effects reported in this study included fatigue, low blood pressure, shortness of breath, and hypoxia. Some of these adverse effects were serious enough to require hospitalization.
Mild headache, mild fever on the day of vaccination, and itching, swelling, and erythema at injection sites are the most commonly reported side effects following injection of NDV-infected whole cell vaccines.[13-17]
Most of the flu-like symptoms, fever, and edema observed in studies in which cytokines were combined with NDV oncolysates or whole cell vaccines have been attributed to treatment with interleukin-2.[18-22]References
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