Vitamin C is an essential nutrient that has antioxidant functions, is a cofactor for several enzymes, and plays an important role in the synthesis of collagen. A severe deficiency in vitamin C results in scurvy, which is associated with malaise, lethargy, easy bruising, and spontaneous bleeding. One of the effects of scurvy is a change in collagen structure to a thinner consistency. Normal consistency is achieved with administration of vitamin C.
In the mid-20th century, a study hypothesized that cancer may be related to changes in connective tissue, which may be a consequence of vitamin C deficiency. A review of evidence published in 1974 suggested that high-dose ascorbic acid may increase host resistance and be a potential cancer therapy.
Vitamin C is synthesized from D-glucose or D-galactose by many plants and animals. However, humans lack the enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase required for ascorbic acid synthesis and must obtain vitamin C through food or supplements.
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