Milk thistle has been used for more than 2,000 years, primarily as a treatment for liver dysfunction. The oldest reported use of milk thistle was by Dioscorides, who recommended the herb as a treatment for serpent bites. Pliny the Elder (A.D. 23–79) reported that the juice of the plant mixed with honey is indicated for “carrying off bile.”[1,2] In the Middle Ages, milk thistle was revered as an antidote for liver toxins.[1,2] The British herbalist Culpepper reported it to be effective for relieving obstructions of the liver.[1,2] In 1898, eclectic physicians Felter and Lloyd stated the herb was good for congestion of the liver, spleen, and kidney.[1,2] Native Americans use milk thistle to treat boils and other skin diseases. Homeopathic practitioners used preparations from the seeds to treat jaundice, gallstones, peritonitis, hemorrhage, bronchitis, and varicose veins. The German Commission E recommends milk thistle use for dyspeptic complaints, toxin-induced liver damage, hepatic cirrhosis, and as a supportive therapy for chronic inflammatory liver conditions.
- Flora K, Hahn M, Rosen H, et al.: Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) for the therapy of liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol 93 (2): 139-43, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Foster S: Milk Thistle: Silybum marianum. Rev. ed. Austin, Tex: American Botanical Council, 1999.
- Blumenthal M, Busse WR, et al., eds.: The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin, Tex: American Botanical Council, 1998.