Table 2. Use of Other Mistletoe Products in Cancer Treatment: Clinical Reports Describing Therapeutic Endpointsa
|Reference Citation(s)||Type of Study||Product Tested||Type(s) of Cancer||No. of Patients: Enrolled; Treated; Controlb||Strongest Benefit Reportedc||Concurrent Therapyd||Level of Evidence Scoree|
|||Randomized trial||Eurixor||Bladder, noninvasive||45; 23; 22||None||No||1iiDi|
|[1,32]||Randomized trial||Eurixor||Brain, glioma; 74% of patients, stages III–IV; 26% of patients, no stage information||47; 20; 18||Improved survival, stages III–IV patients only||Yes||1iiA|
|[43,44]||Randomized trial||Eurixor||Colorectal, metastatic||107; 38; 41||Improved quality of life||Yes||1iiA|
|||Randomized trial||Eurixor||Head and neck, squamous cell, stages I–IV||495; 235f; 242f||None||Yesf||1iiA|
|||Randomized trial||Helixor||Breast, stages I–III||692; 192; 274||Improved survival||Yes||1iiA|
|||Randomized trial||Helixor||Colorectal, metastatic||60; 20; 20||Improved mean survival||Yes||1iiA|
|||Randomized controlled trial||PS76A (Lektin)||Breast||352; 176; 176||Improved quality of life||Yes||1iC|
|||Randomized trial||Isorel||Colorectal||64; 50; 14||Improved survival and tolerance to either adjuvant or palliative treatment||Yes||1iiA|
|||Nonrandomized controlled trial||Isorel||Digestive tract||70; 40; 30||Enhanced cellular immunity and improved quality of life||No||2C|
|||Nonrandomized controlled trial||abnobaVISCUM Quercus||Metastatic colorectal||25; 25; none||None||Yes||2Diii|
|||Nonrandomized controlled trial||Viscum fraxini-2||Hepatocellular carcinoma||23; 23; none||Improved survival||No||2Dii|
|No. = number.|
|aRefer to text and the NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms for additional information and definition of terms.|
|bNumber of patients treated plus number of patients controlled may not equal number of patients enrolled; number of patients enrolled = number of patients initially recruited/considered by the researchers who conducted a study; number of patients treated = number of enrolled patients who were administered the treatment being studied and for whom results were reported; historical control subjects are not included in number of patients enrolled.|
|cStrongest evidence reported that the treatment under study has anticancer activity or otherwise improves the well-being of cancer patients.|
|dChemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, or cytokine therapy administered/allowed at the same time as mistletoe therapy.|
|eFor information about levels of evidence analysis and an explanation of the level of evidence scores, refer to Levels of Evidence for Human Studies of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine.|
|fThis trial was a four-arm trial; patients were randomly assigned to surgery only or to surgery plus radiation therapy, followed by a second randomization to no mistletoe treatment or to treatment with Eurixor; the resulting treatment groups contained the following numbers of evaluable patients: surgery only = 105, surgery plus Eurixor = 97, surgery plus radiation therapy = 137, and surgery plus radiation therapy plus Eurixor = 138; radiation therapy and Eurixor treatment overlapped; no treatment approach was superior in terms of disease-free survival, disease-specific survival, improvement in quality of life, or stimulation of the immune system; in the table, mistletoe-treated and nontreated (control) patients were grouped (i.e., number treated = 97 + 138 = 235, and number control = 105 + 137 = 242).|
- Lenartz D, Dott U, Menzel J, et al.: Survival of glioma patients after complementary treatment with galactoside-specific lectin from mistletoe. Anticancer Res 20 (3B): 2073-6, 2000 May-Jun. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Steuer-Vogt MK, Bonkowsky V, Ambrosch P, et al.: The effect of an adjuvant mistletoe treatment programme in resected head and neck cancer patients: a randomised controlled clinical trial. Eur J Cancer 37 (1): 23-31, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Goebell PJ, Otto T, Suhr J, et al.: Evaluation of an unconventional treatment modality with mistletoe lectin to prevent recurrence of superficial bladder cancer: a randomized phase II trial. J Urol 168 (1): 72-5, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Wetzel D, Schäfer M: Results of a randomised placebo-controlled multicentre study with PS76A2 (standardised mistletoe preparation) in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. [Abstract] Phytomedicine 7 (Suppl 2): A-SL-66, 2000.
- Mabed M, El-Helw L, Shamaa S: Phase II study of viscum fraxini-2 in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Br J Cancer 90 (1): 65-9, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Lenartz D, Stoffel B, Menzel J, et al.: Immunoprotective activity of the galactoside-specific lectin from mistletoe after tumor destructive therapy in glioma patients. Anticancer Res 16 (6B): 3799-802, 1996 Nov-Dec. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Cazacu M, Oniu T, Lungoci C, et al.: The influence of isorel on the advanced colorectal cancer. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 18 (1): 27-34, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Gutsch J, Berger H, Scholz G, et al.: [Prospective study in radically operated breast cancer with polychemotherapy, Helixor® and untreated controls]. Dtsch Z Onkol 21: 94-101, 1988.
- Douwes FR, Wolfrum DI, Migeod F: [Results of a prospective randomized study: chemotherapy versus chemotherapy plus "biological response modifier" in metastasizing colorectal carcinoma]. Dtsch Z Onkol 18 (6): 155-64, 1986.
- Bar-Sela G, Haim N: Abnoba-viscum (mistletoe extract) in metastatic colorectal carcinoma resistant to 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin-based chemotherapy. Med Oncol 21 (3): 251-4, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Heiny BM, Albrecht V, Beuth J: Stabilization of quality of life with mistletoe lectin-1-standardized extract in advanced colorectal carcinoma. Onkologe 4 (Suppl 1): S35-9, 1998.
- Sauer H: Quality of life stabilization with mistletoe-1-standardized extract in advanced colorectal carcinoma [Letter]. Onkologe 4: 1180, 1998.
- Enesel MB, Acalovschi I, Grosu V, et al.: Perioperative application of the Viscum album extract Isorel in digestive tract cancer patients. Anticancer Res 25 (6C): 4583-90, 2005 Nov-Dec. [PUBMED Abstract]