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Table 6. Routes of Administration To Be Avoided for Treatment of Cancer Pain

Routes of Administration Rationale for Not Recommending 
Absorption unreliable.
Should not be used in children or patients prone to develop dependent edema or patients with thrombocytopenia.
TransnasalThe only drug approved by the FDA for transnasal administration is butorphanol, an agonist-antagonist drug that generally is not recommended. (See opioid agonist-antagonists in Table 5 for more information.)