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Table 1. Assessment of Religion and Spirituality in Cancer Patients

Tool Developer Purpose/ Focus/ Subscale (No.) Specific to Cancer Patients? Level of Psychometric Development Length/ Other Characteristics/ Comments 
Systems of Belief Inventory (SBI-15R) [7]Holland et al.Two factors: Beliefs/experience (10); religious social support (5)YesHighFour items assume belief in God
DRI/DUREL [5]Sherman et al.Religious involvement (5)YesModerate
FACIT-Sp [10,15]Brady et al.; PetermanTwo factors: Meaning & peace (8), faith (4)YesHigh. Limited cross-validation data.Part of FACT-G quality-of-life battery [11]
Brief RCOPE [8]Pargament et al.Two factors: Positive coping; negative coping/distressNoVery High
Fetzer Multidimensional Scale [21]FetzerMultiple subscalesNoHigh. Under development.
FICA: Spiritual history [1]Puchalski et al.Brief spiritual historyNoLowMD interview assessment
SPIRIT [19]MaugansIn-depth interview with guided questionsNoLowMD interview assessment
Spiritual Transformation Scale (STS) [18]Cole et al.Two factors: Spiritual Growth and Spiritual DeclineYesModerateForty items. Unique to assessing change in spiritual experience post–cancer diagnosis.


  1. Puchalski C, Romer AL: Taking a spiritual history allows clinicians to understand patients more fully. J Palliat Med 3(1): 129-137, 2000. 

  2. Sherman AC, Plante TG, Simonton S, et al.: A multidimensional measure of religious involvement for cancer patients: the Duke Religious Index. Support Care Cancer 8 (2): 102-9, 2000.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  3. Holland JC, Kash KM, Passik S, et al.: A brief spiritual beliefs inventory for use in quality of life research in life-threatening illness. Psychooncology 7 (6): 460-9, 1998 Nov-Dec.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  4. Pargament KI, Smith BW, Koenig HG, et al.: Patterns of positive and negative religious coping with major life stressors. J Sci Study Relig 37 (4): 710-24, 1998. 

  5. Brady MJ, Peterman AH, Fitchett G, et al.: A case for including spirituality in quality of life measurement in oncology. Psychooncology 8 (5): 417-28, 1999 Sep-Oct.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  6. Cella DF, Tulsky DS, Gray G, et al.: The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale: development and validation of the general measure. J Clin Oncol 11 (3): 570-9, 1993.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  7. Peterman AH, Fitchett G, Brady MJ, et al.: Measuring spiritual well-being in people with cancer: the functional assessment of chronic illness therapy--Spiritual Well-being Scale (FACIT-Sp). Ann Behav Med 24 (1): 49-58, 2002 Winter.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  8. Cole BS, Hopkins CM, Tisak J, et al.: Assessing spiritual growth and spiritual decline following a diagnosis of cancer: reliability and validity of the spiritual transformation scale. Psychooncology 17 (2): 112-21, 2008.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  9. Maugans TA: The SPIRITual history. Arch Fam Med 5 (1): 11-6, 1996.  [PUBMED Abstract]

  10. Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality for Use in Health Research: A Report of the Fetzer Institute/National Institute on Aging Working Group. Kalamazoo, Mich: Fetzer Institute, 1999.