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Table 1. Primary Tumor (T)a

a Reprinted with permission from AJCC: Perihilar bile ducts. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 219-25.
TXPrimary tumor cannot be assessed.
T0No evidence of primary tumor.
TisCarcinoma in situ.
T1Tumor confined to the bile duct, with extension up to the muscle layer or fibrous tissue.
T2aTumor invades beyond the wall of the bile duct to surrounding adipose tissue.
T2bTumor invades adjacent hepatic parenchyma.
T3Tumor invades unilateral branches of the portal vein or hepatic artery.
T4Tumor invades main portal vein or its branches bilaterally; or the common hepatic artery; or the second-order biliary radicals bilaterally; or unilateral second-order biliary radicals with contralateral portal vein or hepatic artery involvement.