General Information About Breast Cancer
Incidence and Mortality
Risk and Protective Factors
Hormone replacement therapy
This summary discusses primary epithelial breast cancers in women. The breast is rarely affected by other tumors such as lymphomas, sarcomas, or melanomas. Refer to the following PDQ summaries for more information on these cancer types:
Breast cancer also affects men and children and may occur during pregnancy, although it is rare in these populations. Refer to the following PDQ summaries for more information:
- Male Breast Cancer Treatment
- Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy
- Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment
Estimated new cases and deaths from breast cancer (women only) in the United States in 2014:
- New cases: 232,670.
- Deaths: 40,000.
Breast cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer in U.S. women, with an estimated 62,570 cases of in situ disease, 232,670 new cases of invasive disease, and 40,000 deaths expected in 2014. Thus, fewer than one of six women diagnosed with breast cancer die of the disease. By comparison, it is estimated that about 72,330 American women will die of lung cancer in 2014. Men account for 1% of breast cancer cases and breast cancer deaths (refer to the Special Populations section in the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Screening for more information).
Widespread adoption of screening increases breast cancer incidence in a given population and changes the characteristics of cancers detected, with increased incidence of lower-risk cancers, premalignant lesions, and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). (Refer to the Ductal Carcinoma In Situ section in the Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Pathology section in the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Screening for more information.) Population studies from the United States  and the United Kingdom  demonstrate an increase in DCIS and invasive breast cancer incidence since the 1970s, attributable to the widespread adoption of both postmenopausal hormone therapy and screening mammography. In the last decade, women have refrained from using postmenopausal hormones, and breast cancer incidence has declined, but not to the levels seen before the widespread use of screening mammography.Anatomy Risk and Protective Factors
Increasing age is the most important risk factor for breast cancer. Other risk factors for breast cancer include the following:
- Family health history.
- Major inheritance susceptibility.[6-8]
- Alcohol intake.
- Breast tissue density (mammographic).[15,16]
- Estrogen (endogenous):[17-20]
- Hormone therapy history:
- Combination estrogen plus progestin hormone replacement therapy (HRT).[25-28]
- Oral contraception.
- Lack of physical exercise.
- Personal history of breast cancer.
- Personal history of proliferative forms of benign breast disease.[34-40]
- Radiation exposure to the breast/chest.[43,44]
Of all women with breast cancer, 5% to 10% may have a germline mutation of the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Specific mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 are more common in women of Jewish ancestry. The estimated lifetime risk of developing breast cancer for women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is 40% to 85%. Carriers with a history of breast cancer have an increased risk of contralateral disease that may be as high as 5% per year. Male BRCA2 mutation carriers also have an increased risk of breast cancer.
Mutations in either the BRCA1 or the BRCA2 gene also confer an increased risk of ovarian cancer [50,51] or other primary cancers.[50,51] Once a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation has been identified, other family members can be referred for genetic counseling and testing.[52-55] (Refer to the PDQ summaries on Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer; Breast Cancer Prevention; and Breast Cancer Screening for more information.)
(Refer to the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Prevention for more information about factors that increase the risk of breast cancer.)
Protective factors and interventions to reduce the risk of female breast cancer include the following:
- Estrogen use (after hysterectomy).[56-58]
- Early pregnancy.[23,62,63]
- Breast feeding.
- Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs).
- Aromatase inhibitors or inactivators.[66,67]
- Risk-reducing mastectomy.
- Risk-reducing oophorectomy or ovarian ablation.[69-72]
(Refer to the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Prevention for more information about factors that decrease the risk of breast cancer.)Screening
Clinical trials have established that screening asymptomatic women using mammography, with or without clinical breast examination, decreases breast cancer mortality. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Screening for more information.)Diagnosis
When breast cancer is suspected, patient management generally includes the following:
- Confirmation of the diagnosis.
- Evaluation of the stage of disease.
- Selection of therapy.
The following tests and procedures are used to diagnose breast cancer:
- Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), if clinically indicated.
Pathologically, breast cancer can be a multicentric and bilateral disease. Bilateral disease is somewhat more common in patients with infiltrating lobular carcinoma. At 10 years after diagnosis, the risk of a primary breast cancer in the contralateral breast ranges from 3% to 10%, although endocrine therapy decreases that risk.[73-75] The development of a contralateral breast cancer is associated with an increased risk of distant recurrence. When BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers were diagnosed before age 40 years, the risk of a contralateral breast cancer reached nearly 50% in the ensuing 25 years.[77,78]
Patients who have breast cancer will undergo bilateral mammography at the time of diagnosis to rule out synchronous disease. To detect either recurrence in the ipsilateral breast in patients treated with breast-conserving surgery or a second primary cancer in the contralateral breast, patients will continue to have regular breast physical examinations and mammograms.
The role of MRI in screening the contralateral breast and monitoring women treated with breast-conserving therapy continues to evolve. Because an increased detection rate of mammographically occult disease has been demonstrated, the selective use of MRI for additional screening is occurring more frequently despite the absence of randomized, controlled data. Because only 25% of MRI-positive findings represent malignancy, pathologic confirmation before treatment is recommended. Whether this increased detection rate will translate into improved treatment outcome is unknown.[79-81]Prognostic Factors
Breast cancer is commonly treated by various combinations of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy. Prognosis and selection of therapy may be influenced by the following clinical and pathology features (based on conventional histology and immunohistochemistry):
- The menopausal status of the patient.
- The stage of the disease.
- The grade of the primary tumor.
- The estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of the tumor.
- Human epidermal growth factor type 2 receptor (HER2/neu) overexpression and/or amplification.
- The histologic type. Breast cancer is classified into a variety of histologic types, some of which have prognostic importance. For example, favorable histologic types include mucinous, medullary, and tubular carcinomas.[83-85]
The use of molecular profiling in breast cancer includes the following:
- ER and PR status testing.
- HER2/neu receptor status testing.
- Gene profile testing by microarray assay or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (e.g., MammaPrint, Oncotype DX).
On the basis of these results, breast cancer is classified as:
- Hormone-receptor positive.
- HER2 positive.
- Triple negative (ER, PR, and Her2/neu negative).
Although certain rare inherited mutations, such as those of BRCA1 and BRCA2, predispose women to develop breast cancer, prognostic data on BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers who have developed breast cancer are conflicting; these women are at greater risk of developing contralateral breast cancer.Posttherapy Considerations
Hormone replacement therapy
After careful consideration, patients with severe symptoms may be treated with hormone replacement therapy. For more information, refer to the following PDQ summaries:Follow-up
The frequency of follow-up and the appropriateness of screening tests after the completion of primary treatment for stage I, stage II, or stage III breast cancer remain controversial.
Evidence from randomized trials indicates that periodic follow-up with bone scans, liver sonography, chest x-rays, and blood tests of liver function does not improve survival or quality of life when compared with routine physical examinations.[87-89] Even when these tests permit earlier detection of recurrent disease, patient survival is unaffected. On the basis of these data, acceptable follow-up can be limited to physical examination and annual mammography for asymptomatic patients who complete treatment for stages I to III breast cancer.Related Summaries
Other PDQ summaries containing information related to breast cancer include the following:
- Breast Cancer Prevention
- Breast Cancer Screening
- Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy
- Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer
- Male Breast Cancer Treatment
- Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (breast cancer in children)
- American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2014. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, 2014. Available online. Last accessed May 21, 2014.
- Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Krapcho M, et al.: SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2007. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, 2010. Also available online. Last accessed October 3, 2014.
- Johnson A, Shekhdar J: Breast cancer incidence: what do the figures mean? J Eval Clin Pract 11 (1): 27-31, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Haas JS, Kaplan CP, Gerstenberger EP, et al.: Changes in the use of postmenopausal hormone therapy after the publication of clinical trial results. Ann Intern Med 140 (3): 184-8, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE: Risk factors for breast cancer according to family history of breast cancer. For the Nurses' Health Study Research Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 88 (6): 365-71, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Colditz GA, Kaphingst KA, Hankinson SE, et al.: Family history and risk of breast cancer: nurses' health study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 133 (3): 1097-104, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Malone KE, Daling JR, Doody DR, et al.: Family history of breast cancer in relation to tumor characteristics and mortality in a population-based study of young women with invasive breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 20 (12): 2560-71, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Cybulski C, Wokołorczyk D, Jakubowska A, et al.: Risk of breast cancer in women with a CHEK2 mutation with and without a family history of breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 29 (28): 3747-52, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Goodwin PJ, Phillips KA, West DW, et al.: Breast cancer prognosis in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: an International Prospective Breast Cancer Family Registry population-based cohort study. J Clin Oncol 30 (1): 19-26, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Mavaddat N, Barrowdale D, Andrulis IL, et al.: Pathology of breast and ovarian cancers among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 21 (1): 134-47, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Miki Y, Swensen J, Shattuck-Eidens D, et al.: A strong candidate for the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1. Science 266 (5182): 66-71, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Futreal PA, Liu Q, Shattuck-Eidens D, et al.: BRCA1 mutations in primary breast and ovarian carcinomas. Science 266 (5182): 120-2, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Wooster R, Neuhausen SL, Mangion J, et al.: Localization of a breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, to chromosome 13q12-13. Science 265 (5181): 2088-90, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Hamajima N, Hirose K, Tajima K, et al.: Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer--collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58,515 women with breast cancer and 95,067 women without the disease. Br J Cancer 87 (11): 1234-45, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Boyd NF, Martin LJ, Rommens JM, et al.: Mammographic density: a heritable risk factor for breast cancer. Methods Mol Biol 472: 343-60, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- McCormack VA, dos Santos Silva I: Breast density and parenchymal patterns as markers of breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15 (6): 1159-69, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Key TJ, Appleby PN, Reeves GK, et al.: Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of 13 studies. Br J Cancer 105 (5): 709-22, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kaaks R, Rinaldi S, Key TJ, et al.: Postmenopausal serum androgens, oestrogens and breast cancer risk: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Endocr Relat Cancer 12 (4): 1071-82, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kaaks R, Berrino F, Key T, et al.: Serum sex steroids in premenopausal women and breast cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). J Natl Cancer Inst 97 (10): 755-65, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Endogenous Hormones and Breast Cancer Collaborative Group: Endogenous sex hormones and breast cancer in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of nine prospective studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 94 (8): 606-16, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer: Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies. Lancet Oncol 13 (11): 1141-51, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Ritte R, Lukanova A, Tjønneland A, et al.: Height, age at menarche and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: a cohort study. Int J Cancer 132 (11): 2619-29, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kampert JB, Whittemore AS, Paffenbarger RS Jr: Combined effect of childbearing, menstrual events, and body size on age-specific breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 128 (5): 962-79, 1988. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Breast cancer and hormone replacement therapy: collaborative reanalysis of data from 51 epidemiological studies of 52,705 women with breast cancer and 108,411 women without breast cancer. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Lancet 350 (9084): 1047-59, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators: Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 288 (3): 321-33, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Chlebowski RT, Anderson GL, Gass M, et al.: Estrogen plus progestin and breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women. JAMA 304 (15): 1684-92, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Chlebowski RT, Hendrix SL, Langer RD, et al.: Influence of estrogen plus progestin on breast cancer and mammography in healthy postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Trial. JAMA 289 (24): 3243-53, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Chlebowski RT, Manson JE, Anderson GL, et al.: Estrogen plus progestin and breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 105 (8): 526-35, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Nelson HD, Zakher B, Cantor A, et al.: Risk factors for breast cancer for women aged 40 to 49 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 156 (9): 635-48, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Wolin KY, Carson K, Colditz GA: Obesity and cancer. Oncologist 15 (6): 556-65, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Morimoto LM, White E, Chen Z, et al.: Obesity, body size, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: the Women's Health Initiative (United States). Cancer Causes Control 13 (8): 741-51, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Friedenreich CM, Neilson HK, Lynch BM: State of the epidemiological evidence on physical activity and cancer prevention. Eur J Cancer 46 (14): 2593-604, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kotsopoulos J, Chen WY, Gates MA, et al.: Risk factors for ductal and lobular breast cancer: results from the nurses' health study. Breast Cancer Res 12 (6): R106, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Goldacre MJ, Abisgold JD, Yeates DG, et al.: Benign breast disease and subsequent breast cancer: English record linkage studies. J Public Health (Oxf) 32 (4): 565-71, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kabat GC, Jones JG, Olson N, et al.: A multi-center prospective cohort study of benign breast disease and risk of subsequent breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 21 (6): 821-8, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Worsham MJ, Raju U, Lu M, et al.: Risk factors for breast cancer from benign breast disease in a diverse population. Breast Cancer Res Treat 118 (1): 1-7, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Pearlman MD, Griffin JL: Benign breast disease. Obstet Gynecol 116 (3): 747-58, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Vogel VG: Epidemiology, genetics, and risk evaluation of postmenopausal women at risk of breast cancer. Menopause 15 (4 Suppl): 782-9, 2008 Jul-Aug. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Degnim AC, Visscher DW, Berman HK, et al.: Stratification of breast cancer risk in women with atypia: a Mayo cohort study. J Clin Oncol 25 (19): 2671-7, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Worsham MJ, Abrams J, Raju U, et al.: Breast cancer incidence in a cohort of women with benign breast disease from a multiethnic, primary health care population. Breast J 13 (2): 115-21, 2007 Mar-Apr. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Razzaghi H, Troester MA, Gierach GL, et al.: Mammographic density and breast cancer risk in White and African American Women. Breast Cancer Res Treat 135 (2): 571-80, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Pfeiffer RM, Mitani A, Matsuno RK, et al.: Racial differences in breast cancer trends in the United States (2000-2004). J Natl Cancer Inst 100 (10): 751-2, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Andrieu N, Easton DF, Chang-Claude J, et al.: Effect of chest X-rays on the risk of breast cancer among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers in the international BRCA1/2 carrier cohort study: a report from the EMBRACE, GENEPSO, GEO-HEBON, and IBCCS Collaborators' Group. J Clin Oncol 24 (21): 3361-6, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Bhatia S, Robison LL, Oberlin O, et al.: Breast cancer and other second neoplasms after childhood Hodgkin's disease. N Engl J Med 334 (12): 745-51, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Claus EB, Risch N, Thompson WD: Autosomal dominant inheritance of early-onset breast cancer. Implications for risk prediction. Cancer 73 (3): 643-51, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Gail MH, Brinton LA, Byar DP, et al.: Projecting individualized probabilities of developing breast cancer for white females who are being examined annually. J Natl Cancer Inst 81 (24): 1879-86, 1989. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Blackwood MA, Weber BL: BRCA1 and BRCA2: from molecular genetics to clinical medicine. J Clin Oncol 16 (5): 1969-77, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Offit K, Gilewski T, McGuire P, et al.: Germline BRCA1 185delAG mutations in Jewish women with breast cancer. Lancet 347 (9016): 1643-5, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Frank TS, Manley SA, Olopade OI, et al.: Sequence analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2: correlation of mutations with family history and ovarian cancer risk. J Clin Oncol 16 (7): 2417-25, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Cancer risks in BRCA2 mutation carriers. The Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. J Natl Cancer Inst 91 (15): 1310-6, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Ford D, Easton DF, Bishop DT, et al.: Risks of cancer in BRCA1-mutation carriers. Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Lancet 343 (8899): 692-5, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Biesecker BB, Boehnke M, Calzone K, et al.: Genetic counseling for families with inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer. JAMA 269 (15): 1970-4, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Berry DA, Parmigiani G, Sanchez J, et al.: Probability of carrying a mutation of breast-ovarian cancer gene BRCA1 based on family history. J Natl Cancer Inst 89 (3): 227-38, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Hoskins KF, Stopfer JE, Calzone KA, et al.: Assessment and counseling for women with a family history of breast cancer. A guide for clinicians. JAMA 273 (7): 577-85, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Statement of the American Society of Clinical Oncology: genetic testing for cancer susceptibility, Adopted on February 20, 1996. J Clin Oncol 14 (5): 1730-6; discussion 1737-40, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Anderson GL, Limacher M, Assaf AR, et al.: Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 291 (14): 1701-12, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- LaCroix AZ, Chlebowski RT, Manson JE, et al.: Health outcomes after stopping conjugated equine estrogens among postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 305 (13): 1305-14, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Anderson GL, Chlebowski RT, Aragaki AK, et al.: Conjugated equine oestrogen and breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: extended follow-up of the Women's Health Initiative randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 13 (5): 476-86, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Bernstein L, Henderson BE, Hanisch R, et al.: Physical exercise and reduced risk of breast cancer in young women. J Natl Cancer Inst 86 (18): 1403-8, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Thune I, Brenn T, Lund E, et al.: Physical activity and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 336 (18): 1269-75, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Adams-Campbell LL, Rosenberg L, Rao RS, et al.: Strenuous physical activity and breast cancer risk in African-American women. J Natl Med Assoc 93 (7-8): 267-75, 2001 Jul-Aug. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Pike MC, Krailo MD, Henderson BE, et al.: 'Hormonal' risk factors, 'breast tissue age' and the age-incidence of breast cancer. Nature 303 (5920): 767-70, 1983. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Lambe M, Hsieh C, Trichopoulos D, et al.: Transient increase in the risk of breast cancer after giving birth. N Engl J Med 331 (1): 5-9, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Col: Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50302 women with breast cancer and 96973 women without the disease. Lancet 360 (9328): 187-95, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Cuzick J, Sestak I, Bonanni B, et al.: Selective oestrogen receptor modulators in prevention of breast cancer: an updated meta-analysis of individual participant data. Lancet 381 (9880): 1827-34, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Goss PE, Ingle JN, Alés-Martínez JE, et al.: Exemestane for breast-cancer prevention in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 364 (25): 2381-91, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Cuzick J, Sestak I, Forbes JF, et al.: Anastrozole for prevention of breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women (IBIS-II): an international, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 383 (9922): 1041-8, 2014. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Hartmann LC, Schaid DJ, Woods JE, et al.: Efficacy of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy in women with a family history of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 340 (2): 77-84, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Rebbeck TR, Levin AM, Eisen A, et al.: Breast cancer risk after bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy in BRCA1 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 91 (17): 1475-9, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kauff ND, Satagopan JM, Robson ME, et al.: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. N Engl J Med 346 (21): 1609-15, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Rebbeck TR, Lynch HT, Neuhausen SL, et al.: Prophylactic oophorectomy in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. N Engl J Med 346 (21): 1616-22, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kauff ND, Domchek SM, Friebel TM, et al.: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy for the prevention of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast and gynecologic cancer: a multicenter, prospective study. J Clin Oncol 26 (8): 1331-7, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Rosen PP, Groshen S, Kinne DW, et al.: Factors influencing prognosis in node-negative breast carcinoma: analysis of 767 T1N0M0/T2N0M0 patients with long-term follow-up. J Clin Oncol 11 (11): 2090-100, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Abbott A, Rueth N, Pappas-Varco S, et al.: Perceptions of contralateral breast cancer: an overestimation of risk. Ann Surg Oncol 18 (11): 3129-36, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Nichols HB, Berrington de González A, Lacey JV Jr, et al.: Declining incidence of contralateral breast cancer in the United States from 1975 to 2006. J Clin Oncol 29 (12): 1564-9, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Heron DE, Komarnicky LT, Hyslop T, et al.: Bilateral breast carcinoma: risk factors and outcomes for patients with synchronous and metachronous disease. Cancer 88 (12): 2739-50, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Graeser MK, Engel C, Rhiem K, et al.: Contralateral breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. J Clin Oncol 27 (35): 5887-92, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Garber JE, Golshan M: Contralateral breast cancer in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers: the story of the other side. J Clin Oncol 27 (35): 5862-4, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Lehman CD, Gatsonis C, Kuhl CK, et al.: MRI evaluation of the contralateral breast in women with recently diagnosed breast cancer. N Engl J Med 356 (13): 1295-303, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Solin LJ, Orel SG, Hwang WT, et al.: Relationship of breast magnetic resonance imaging to outcome after breast-conservation treatment with radiation for women with early-stage invasive breast carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ. J Clin Oncol 26 (3): 386-91, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Morrow M: Magnetic resonance imaging in the breast cancer patient: curb your enthusiasm. J Clin Oncol 26 (3): 352-3, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Simpson JF, Gray R, Dressler LG, et al.: Prognostic value of histologic grade and proliferative activity in axillary node-positive breast cancer: results from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Companion Study, EST 4189. J Clin Oncol 18 (10): 2059-69, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Rosen PP, Groshen S, Kinne DW: Prognosis in T2N0M0 stage I breast carcinoma: a 20-year follow-up study. J Clin Oncol 9 (9): 1650-61, 1991. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Diab SG, Clark GM, Osborne CK, et al.: Tumor characteristics and clinical outcome of tubular and mucinous breast carcinomas. J Clin Oncol 17 (5): 1442-8, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Rakha EA, Lee AH, Evans AJ, et al.: Tubular carcinoma of the breast: further evidence to support its excellent prognosis. J Clin Oncol 28 (1): 99-104, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Sørlie T, Perou CM, Tibshirani R, et al.: Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 (19): 10869-74, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Impact of follow-up testing on survival and health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients. A multicenter randomized controlled trial. The GIVIO Investigators. JAMA 271 (20): 1587-92, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Rosselli Del Turco M, Palli D, Cariddi A, et al.: Intensive diagnostic follow-up after treatment of primary breast cancer. A randomized trial. National Research Council Project on Breast Cancer follow-up. JAMA 271 (20): 1593-7, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Khatcheressian JL, Wolff AC, Smith TJ, et al.: American Society of Clinical Oncology 2006 update of the breast cancer follow-up and management guidelines in the adjuvant setting. J Clin Oncol 24 (31): 5091-7, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]