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Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)

Treatment of Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Standard treatment options for metastatic childhood soft tissue sarcoma (STS) include the following:

  • Combination therapy using chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical resection of pulmonary metastases.

The prognosis for children with metastatic STSs is poor,[1-6] and these children should receive combined treatment with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical resection of pulmonary metastases. In a prospective randomized trial, chemotherapy with vincristine, dactinomycin, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide, with or without dacarbazine, led to tumor responses in one-third of patients with unresectable or metastatic disease. The estimated 4-year survival rate, however, was poor, with fewer than one-third of children surviving.[6-8]

Pulmonary Metastases

Children with isolated pulmonary metastases should undergo a surgical procedure in an attempt to resect all gross disease. For patients with multiple or recurrent pulmonary metastases, additional surgical procedures can be performed if the morbidity is deemed acceptable. In a retrospective review, patients with synovial sarcoma and pulmonary metastases for whom it was possible to completely resect all metastatic lung lesions had better survival than did patients for whom it was not possible to achieve complete resections.[9][Level of evidence: 3iiiA] An alternative approach is focused radiation therapy (fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy), which has been successfully used in adults to sterilize lesions. The estimated 5-year survival rate after thoracotomy for pulmonary metastasectomy has ranged from 10% to 58% in adult studies. Emerging data suggest a similar outcome after the administration of focused radiation therapy in adults.[10] Formal segmentectomy, lobectomy, and mediastinal lymph node dissection are unnecessary.[11]

Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation

The following agents are being studied for the treatment of certain metastatic STSs:

Table 9. Agents With Selective Activity Against Subtypes of Soft Tissue Tumors
AgentSoft Tissue Sarcoma Subtype
Sunitinib [12,13]Alveolar soft part sarcoma
Cediranib [14]Alveolar soft part sarcoma
Sunitinib [15]Solitary fibrous tumor
Sirolimus [16]Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa)
Crizotinib [17]Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor
ImatinibTenosynovial giant cell tumor
Imatinib [18]Chordoma
Imatinib [19]Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with metastatic childhood soft tissue sarcoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

References

  1. Demetri GD, Elias AD: Results of single-agent and combination chemotherapy for advanced soft tissue sarcomas. Implications for decision making in the clinic. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 9 (4): 765-85, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
  2. Elias A, Ryan L, Sulkes A, et al.: Response to mesna, doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and dacarbazine in 108 patients with metastatic or unresectable sarcoma and no prior chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 7 (9): 1208-16, 1989. [PUBMED Abstract]
  3. Edmonson JH, Ryan LM, Blum RH, et al.: Randomized comparison of doxorubicin alone versus ifosfamide plus doxorubicin or mitomycin, doxorubicin, and cisplatin against advanced soft tissue sarcomas. J Clin Oncol 11 (7): 1269-75, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
  4. Rao BN: Nonrhabdomyosarcoma in children: prognostic factors influencing survival. Semin Surg Oncol 9 (6): 524-31, 1993 Nov-Dec. [PUBMED Abstract]
  5. deCou JM, Rao BN, Parham DM, et al.: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors: the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital experience. Ann Surg Oncol 2 (6): 524-9, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
  6. Pappo AS, Rao BN, Jenkins JJ, et al.: Metastatic nonrhabdomyosarcomatous soft-tissue sarcomas in children and adolescents: the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital experience. Med Pediatr Oncol 33 (2): 76-82, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  7. Pratt CB, Pappo AS, Gieser P, et al.: Role of adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of surgically resected pediatric nonrhabdomyosarcomatous soft tissue sarcomas: A Pediatric Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 17 (4): 1219, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  8. Pratt CB, Maurer HM, Gieser P, et al.: Treatment of unresectable or metastatic pediatric soft tissue sarcomas with surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. Med Pediatr Oncol 30 (4): 201-9, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  9. Stanelle EJ, Christison-Lagay ER, Wolden SL, et al.: Pulmonary metastasectomy in pediatric/adolescent patients with synovial sarcoma: an institutional review. J Pediatr Surg 48 (4): 757-63, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  10. Dhakal S, Corbin KS, Milano MT, et al.: Stereotactic body radiotherapy for pulmonary metastases from soft-tissue sarcomas: excellent local lesion control and improved patient survival. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82 (2): 940-5, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  11. Putnam JB Jr, Roth JA: Surgical treatment for pulmonary metastases from sarcoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 9 (4): 869-87, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
  12. Stacchiotti S, Negri T, Zaffaroni N, et al.: Sunitinib in advanced alveolar soft part sarcoma: evidence of a direct antitumor effect. Ann Oncol 22 (7): 1682-90, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  13. Stacchiotti S, Tamborini E, Marrari A, et al.: Response to sunitinib malate in advanced alveolar soft part sarcoma. Clin Cancer Res 15 (3): 1096-104, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  14. Kummar S, Allen D, Monks A, et al.: Cediranib for metastatic alveolar soft part sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 31 (18): 2296-302, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  15. Stacchiotti S, Negri T, Libertini M, et al.: Sunitinib malate in solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Ann Oncol 23 (12): 3171-9, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  16. Wagner AJ, Malinowska-Kolodziej I, Morgan JA, et al.: Clinical activity of mTOR inhibition with sirolimus in malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumors: targeting the pathogenic activation of mTORC1 in tumors. J Clin Oncol 28 (5): 835-40, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  17. Butrynski JE, D'Adamo DR, Hornick JL, et al.: Crizotinib in ALK-rearranged inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. N Engl J Med 363 (18): 1727-33, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  18. Stacchiotti S, Longhi A, Ferraresi V, et al.: Phase II study of imatinib in advanced chordoma. J Clin Oncol 30 (9): 914-20, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  19. Rutkowski P, Van Glabbeke M, Rankin CJ, et al.: Imatinib mesylate in advanced dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: pooled analysis of two phase II clinical trials. J Clin Oncol 28 (10): 1772-9, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  • Updated: September 8, 2014