Changes to This Summary (04/03/2015)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.
Added Corrigan et al. as reference 2.
Revised text to state that between 1975 and 2010, childhood cancer mortality decreased by more than 50%. Also added text to state that during the period from 2002 to 2010, cancer mortality continued to decrease by 2.4% per year for children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, central nervous system tumors, and gonadal tumors, as compared with the period from 1975 to 1998 (plateauing from 1998 to 2001) (cited Smith et al. as reference 3).
Added Table 4 about the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging for carcinoma of the ovary (cited FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology as reference 7).
Added Rice et al. as reference 21.
Added text to state that a German study (MAHO 98) of 128 boys younger than 10 years with testis germ cell tumors, mostly stage I, also evaluated surgery followed by observation. Investigators reported results similar to the Children’s Cancer Group/Pediatric Oncology Group study with the same watch-and-wait strategy; very few patients relapsed and 100% of patients survived (cited Göbel et al. as reference 9 and level of evidence 3iiA).
Added text to state that a goal of surgical therapy for pediatric GCTs is to preserve reproductive function.
This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.