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Table 3. Risk Groups for Multiple Myeloma

Risk Group Cytogenetic Findings Disease Characteristics Median Survival 
FISH = fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Good riskHas any of the following cytogenetic findings: (1) no adverse FISH or cytogenetics, (2) hyperdiploidy, (3) t(11;14) by FISH, or (4) t(6;14) by FISH.These patients most often have (1) disease that expresses IgG kappa monoclonal gammopathies and (2) lytic bone lesions.8–10 years
Intermediate riskt(4;14) by FISHThese patients often have IgA lambda monoclonal gammopathies and less bone disease.5 years
High riskHas any of the following cytogenetic findings: (1) del 17p by FISH, (2) t(14;16) by FISH, (3) cytogenetic del 13, (4) hypodiploidy, (5) 1q gain, or (6) plasma cell leukemia.These patients have (1) disease that expresses IgA lambda monoclonal gammopathies (often) and (2) skeletal-related complications (less often).<2 years