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Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)

Treatment for Amyloidosis Associated With Plasma Cell Neoplasms

Treatment Options for Amyloidosis Associated With Plasma Cell Neoplasms

Treatment options for amyloidosis associated with plasma cell neoplasms include the following:

  1. Chemotherapy, IMiDs (immunomodulatory agents), and proteasome inhibitors.
  2. Stem cell rescue.


As is true for all plasma cell dyscrasias, responses have been reported for all the same regimens active in multiple myeloma.[1-9]

Two randomized trials showed prolonged overall survival (OS) with the use of oral chemotherapy with melphalan with or without colchicine versus colchicine alone.[10,11][Level of evidence: 1iiA]

Stem cell rescue

A randomized, prospective study of 100 patients with immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis compared melphalan plus high-dose dexamethasone with high-dose melphalan plus autologous stem cell rescue.[12] After a median follow-up of 3 years, median OS favored the nontransplant arm (56.9 months vs. 22.2 months; P = .04).[12][Level of evidence: 1iiA] The 24% transplant-related mortality in this series and others reflects the difficulties involved with high-dose chemotherapy in older patients with organ dysfunction.[12-17] A randomized trial confirming the benefit of autologous transplantation is not anticipated.[18]

An anecdotal series describes full-intensity and reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation.[19]

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with primary systemic amyloidosis. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.


  1. Wechalekar AD, Goodman HJ, Lachmann HJ, et al.: Safety and efficacy of risk-adapted cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone in systemic AL amyloidosis. Blood 109 (2): 457-64, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  2. Dispenzieri A, Lacy MQ, Zeldenrust SR, et al.: The activity of lenalidomide with or without dexamethasone in patients with primary systemic amyloidosis. Blood 109 (2): 465-70, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  3. Sanchorawala V, Wright DG, Rosenzweig M, et al.: Lenalidomide and dexamethasone in the treatment of AL amyloidosis: results of a phase 2 trial. Blood 109 (2): 492-6, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  4. Kastritis E, Wechalekar AD, Dimopoulos MA, et al.: Bortezomib with or without dexamethasone in primary systemic (light chain) amyloidosis. J Clin Oncol 28 (6): 1031-7, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  5. Moreau P, Jaccard A, Benboubker L, et al.: Lenalidomide in combination with melphalan and dexamethasone in patients with newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis: a multicenter phase 1/2 dose-escalation study. Blood 116 (23): 4777-82, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  6. Reece DE, Hegenbart U, Sanchorawala V, et al.: Efficacy and safety of once-weekly and twice-weekly bortezomib in patients with relapsed systemic AL amyloidosis: results of a phase 1/2 study. Blood 118 (4): 865-73, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  7. Kumar SK, Hayman SR, Buadi FK, et al.: Lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (CRd) for light-chain amyloidosis: long-term results from a phase 2 trial. Blood 119 (21): 4860-7, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  8. Venner CP, Lane T, Foard D, et al.: Cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone therapy in AL amyloidosis is associated with high clonal response rates and prolonged progression-free survival. Blood 119 (19): 4387-90, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  9. Wechalekar AD, Schonland SO, Kastritis E, et al.: A European collaborative study of treatment outcomes in 346 patients with cardiac stage III AL amyloidosis. Blood 121 (17): 3420-7, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  10. Kyle RA, Gertz MA, Greipp PR, et al.: A trial of three regimens for primary amyloidosis: colchicine alone, melphalan and prednisone, and melphalan, prednisone, and colchicine. N Engl J Med 336 (17): 1202-7, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  11. Skinner M, Anderson J, Simms R, et al.: Treatment of 100 patients with primary amyloidosis: a randomized trial of melphalan, prednisone, and colchicine versus colchicine only. Am J Med 100 (3): 290-8, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
  12. Jaccard A, Moreau P, Leblond V, et al.: High-dose melphalan versus melphalan plus dexamethasone for AL amyloidosis. N Engl J Med 357 (11): 1083-93, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  13. Dispenzieri A, Kyle RA, Lacy MQ, et al.: Superior survival in primary systemic amyloidosis patients undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: a case-control study. Blood 103 (10): 3960-3, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  14. Skinner M, Sanchorawala V, Seldin DC, et al.: High-dose melphalan and autologous stem-cell transplantation in patients with AL amyloidosis: an 8-year study. Ann Intern Med 140 (2): 85-93, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  15. Leung N, Leung TR, Cha SS, et al.: Excessive fluid accumulation during stem cell mobilization: a novel prognostic factor of first-year survival after stem cell transplantation in AL amyloidosis patients. Blood 106 (10): 3353-7, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  16. Madan S, Kumar SK, Dispenzieri A, et al.: High-dose melphalan and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for light-chain amyloidosis with cardiac involvement. Blood 119 (5): 1117-22, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  17. Cibeira MT, Sanchorawala V, Seldin DC, et al.: Outcome of AL amyloidosis after high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation: long-term results in a series of 421 patients. Blood 118 (16): 4346-52, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  18. Mehta J, Gerta MA, Dispenzieri A: High-dose therapy for amyloidosis: the end of the beginning? Blood 103 (10): 3612-3, 2004.
  19. Schönland SO, Lokhorst H, Buzyn A, et al.: Allogeneic and syngeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with amyloid light-chain amyloidosis: a report from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Blood 107 (6): 2578-84, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  • Updated: June 24, 2014