Changes to This Summary (11/27/2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.
Added Bernthal et al. as reference 9 and level of evidence 1iiA.
Added Kong et al. and Byun et al. as references 43 and 44, respectively.
Revised text to state that older patients appear to have a poorer outcome (cited Collins et al. as reference 55).
Added Xie et al. as reference 68 and level of evidence 3iiiA.
Added Bernthal et al. as reference 2 and level of evidence 1iiA.
Added Bernthal et al. as reference 3 and level of evidence 1iiA.
Added text to state that a retrospective review of 16 patients who relapsed with single pulmonary metastases on computed tomography scan more than 2 months after therapy showed that no further metastases were found on unilateral thoracotomy, implying that thoracoscopic removal may be adequate to remove all disease in this relatively unusual circumstance. Also added text about how there are conflicting recommendations regarding the need for formal thoracotomy for the treatment of pulmonary metastases in osteosarcoma (cited Fernandez-Pineda et al. and Karplus et al. as references 32 and 33, respectively).
This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.