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Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®)

  • Last Modified: 06/24/2014

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Changes to This Summary (06/24/2014)

The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.

Lycopene

Revised text to state that the combination treatment inhibited proliferation in four of five cell lines to a greater extent than did treatment with docetaxel alone.

Added text about the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, which found that higher lycopene intake was inversely associated with total prostate cancer risk and lethal prostate cancer risk (cited Zu et al. as reference 28).

Added text to state that in another study, 32 men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia received a lycopene-enriched diet before undergoing a repeat biopsy after 6 months; no overall clinical benefit was seen in decreasing the rate of progression to prostate cancer (cited Mariani et al. as reference 33).

Pomegranate

Added text to state that a phase II study reported that pomegranate extract was associated with an increase of at least 6 months in prostate-specific antigen doubling time in both treatment arms, without adverse effects.

Selenium

Added text to state that initial results of the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), published in 2009, showed no statistically significant difference in the rate of prostate cancer in men who were randomly assigned to receive the selenium supplements.

Added text to state that in 2011, updated results from SELECT showed no significant effects of selenium supplementation on risk, but men who took vitamin E alone had a 17% increase in prostate cancer risk compared with men who took placebo.

Added text to state that in 2014, an analysis of SELECT results showed that men who had high selenium status at baseline and who were randomly assigned to receive selenium supplementation had an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer.

Revised text to state that cells from the modified cell line were then treated with sodium selenite.

Added text to state that toenail selenium concentrations were examined in two-case cohort subset studies of SELECT participants; the authors concluded that men should avoid selenium supplementation at doses exceeding recommended dietary intakes (cited Kristal et al. as reference 46).

Vitamin E

Added text to state that in 2011, updated results from SELECT showed that men who took vitamin E alone had a 17% increase in prostate cancer risk compared with men who took placebo.

Added text to state that in 2014, an analysis of SELECT results showed that men who had high selenium status at baseline and who were randomly assigned to receive selenium supplementation had an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer, but vitamin E supplementation had no effect among men with high selenium status.

Added text to state that toenail selenium levels were assayed in a two-case cohort subset studies of SELECT participants; the authors concluded that men older than 55 years should avoid supplementation with either vitamin E or selenium at doses exceeding dietary recommendations (cited Kristal et al. as reference 21).

Zyflamend

Editorial changes were made to this section.

This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.