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Cardiopulmonary Syndromes (PDQ®)

Health Professional Version
Last Modified: 09/05/2014

Changes to This Summary (09/05/2014)

The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.

Dyspnea in Patients With Advanced Cancer

This section was renamed from Dyspnea and Coughing in Patients With Advanced Cancer.

Revised text to state that peripheral and central mechanisms as well as mechanical and chemical pathways are involved with a variety of sensory afferent sources (cited Widdicombe as reference 9, Lee as reference 10, and Undem et al. as reference 11).

Added text about the qualities of dyspnea (cited Parshall et al. as reference 12).

Added text about assessing dyspnea (cited Bausewein et al. as reference 16 and Dorman et al. as reference 17).

Added text to state that functional assessments such as the 6-minute walk test and exercise ergometry may also provide valuable information about the severity and impact of dyspnea (cited American Thoracic Society as reference 19 and ATS Committee on Proficiency Standards for Clinical Pulmonary Function Laboratories as reference 20).

Revised text to include a study of the role of supplemental oxygen in patients without hypoxemia (cited Abernethy et al. as reference 34).

Added text about high-flow oxygen devices and bilevel positive airway pressure (cited Hui et al. as reference 35 and Nava et al. as reference 36).

Chronic Cough

Added this new section.

Malignant Pleural Effusion

Added a subsection about Chronic long-term indwelling tunneled pleural catheters.

Malignant Pericardial Effusion

Added percutaneous balloon pericardiotomy as a treatment option.

This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Supportive and Palliative Care Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.