Malignant Pleural Effusion
Key Points for This Section
- Pleural effusion is extra fluid around the lungs.
- Pleural effusion may be caused by cancer, cancer treatment, or other conditions.
- A diagnosis of the cause of pleural effusion is important in planning treatment.
- Treatment may be to control signs and symptoms of pleural effusion and improve quality of life.
The pleural cavity is the space between the pleura (thin layer of tissue) that covers the outer surface of each lung and lines the inner wall of the chest cavity. Pleural tissue usually makes a small amount of fluid that helps the lungs move smoothly in the chest while a person is breathing. A pleural effusion is extra fluid in the pleural cavity. The fluid presses on the lungs and makes it hard to breathe.
A pleural effusion may be malignant (caused by cancer) or nonmalignant (caused by a condition that is not cancer). Malignant pleural effusion is a common problem for patients who have certain cancers. Lung cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma, and leukemia cause most malignant effusions. An effusion also may be caused by cancer treatment, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some cancer patients have conditions such as congestive heart failure, pneumonia, blood clot in the lung, or poor nutrition that may lead to a pleural effusion.
- Dyspnea (shortness of breath).
- An uncomfortable feeling or pain in the chest.
- Chest x-ray: An x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.
- CT scan: A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
- Thoracentesis: The removal of fluid from the space between the lining of the chest and the lung, using a needle. A pathologist views the fluid under a microscope to look for cancer cells. This procedure may be used to reduce pressure on the lungs.
- Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. If thoracentesis is not possible, a biopsy may be done during a thoracoscopy. A thoracoscopy is a procedure to look at the organs inside the chest to check for abnormal areas. An incision (cut) is made between two ribs and a thoracoscope (a thin, lighted tube with a lens for viewing) is inserted into the chest. A cutting tool at the end of the thoracoscope is used to remove a sample of tissue.
The type of cancer, previous treatment for cancer, and the patient's wishes also are important in planning treatment.
A malignant pleural effusion often occurs in cancer that is advanced , cannot be removed by surgery, or continues to grow or spread during treatment. It is also common during the last few weeks of life. The goal of treatment is usually palliative, to relieve signs and symptoms and improve quality of life.
Treatment of the signs and symptoms of malignant pleural effusion includes the following:
Thoracentesis is a procedure to remove extra fluid from the pleural cavity using a needle and/or a thin, plastic tube. Removal of the fluid may help to relieve severe symptoms for a short time. A few days after the extra fluid is removed, it is likely it will begin to come back. The risk of a thoracentesis includes bleeding, infection, collapsed lung, fluid in the lungs, and low blood pressure.
- Indwelling pleural catheter (IPC)
An indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) is a small tube that is inserted and left in place to keep fluid from building up around the lungs. One end of the tube stays inside the chest and the other passes outside the body to allow fluid to drain. This type of catheter may be used for long-term care so that a separate procedure won't need to be done each time draining is needed. Risks of IPCs include infection and blockage of the catheter.
This is a procedure to close the pleural space so that fluid cannot collect there. Fluid is first removed by thoracentesis, using a chest tube. A drug that causes the pleural space to close is then inserted into the space through a chest tube. Drugs such as bleomycin or talc may be used.
Surgery may be done to put in a shunt (tube) to carry the fluid from the pleural cavity to the abdominal cavity, where the fluid is easier to remove. Pleurectomy is another type of surgery that may be used. In this procedure, the part of the pleura that lines the chest cavity is removed.