Changes to This Summary (10/18/2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.
Added Puumala et al. as reference 15.
Added text to state that a study of children with Down syndrome and acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL) with a t(1;22) translocation reported an improved prognosis compared with the prognosis in those without a t(1;22) translocation (cited O'Brien et al. as reference 102).
Added text to state that initially, the presence of t(1;22) was thought to be associated with a relatively poor prognosis (cited Duchayne et al. as reference 101). Also added text to state that further experience has suggested that within the context of intensive chemotherapy and adequate supportive care, infants with t(1;22) can have a relatively favorable outcome that is superior to that of children with AMKL whose leukemia lacks t(1;22) (cited Bernstein et al. as reference 105).
Added text about CBFA2T3-GLIS2 to the list of molecular abnormalities observed in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (cited Masetti et al., Thiollier et al., and Gruber et al. as references 114, 115, and 116, respectively).
Added text to state that a Nordic Society for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology study reported that time-intensive reinduction therapy followed by transplant with best available donor for patients whose AML did not respond to induction therapy resulted in 70% survival at a median follow-up of 2.6 years (cited Wareham et al. as reference 22 and level of evidence 2A).
Revised text to state that patients with Down syndrome who develop AML with an antecedent transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) may have superior event-free survival (EFS), compared with such children without TMD at 5 years, although this was not observed in another study.
Added text to state that survival as high as 80% has been reported for patients with early-stage MDS proceeding to transplant within a few months of diagnosis. Early transplant and not receiving pretransplant chemotherapy have been associated with improved survival in children with MDS (cited Smith et al. as reference 27 and level of evidence 3iiA).
Added text about a Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster group study that compared fludarabine, cytarabine, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (FLAG) with FLAG plus liposomal daunorubicin (cited Kaspers et al. as reference 13 and level of evidence 1iiA).
Added Nishikawa et al. as reference 20.
Added Relapse in Children with Down Syndrome as a new subsection.
This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.