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Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)

  • Updated: 03/13/2014

Table 1. Primary Tumor (T)a,b

TXPrimary tumor cannot be assessed.
T0No evidence of primary tumor.
TisHigh-grade dysplasia.c
T1Tumor invades lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, or submucosa.
T1aTumor invades lamina propria or muscularis mucosae.
T1bTumor invades submucosa.
T2Tumor invades muscularis propria.
T3Tumor invades adventitia.
T4Tumor invades adjacent structures.
T4aResectable tumor invading pleura, pericardium, or diaphragm.
T4bUnresectable tumor invading other adjacent structures, such as aorta, vertebral body, trachea, etc.

aReprinted with permission from AJCC: Esophageal and esophagogastric junction. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 103-15.
b(1) At least maximal dimension of the tumor must be recorded, and (2) multiple tumors require the T(m) suffix.
cHigh-grade dysplasia includes all noninvasive neoplastic epithelia that was formerly called carcinoma in situ, a diagnosis that is no longer used for columnar mucosae anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract.