Cellular Classification of Esophageal Cancer
Fewer than 50% of esophageal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. Adenocarcinomas, typically arising in Barrett esophagus, account for at least 50% of malignant lesions, and the incidence of this histology appears to be rising. Barrett esophagus contains glandular epithelium cephalad to the esophagogastric junction.
Three different types of glandular epithelium can be seen:
- Metaplastic columnar epithelium.
- Metaplastic parietal cell glandular epithelium within the esophageal wall.
- Metaplastic intestinal epithelium with typical goblet cells.
Dysplasia is particularly likely to develop in the intestinal type mucosa.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors can occur in the esophagus and are usually benign. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Treatment for more information.)